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Sleep Cycle Part of the cycle of sleep and waking. Circadian Rhythm: naturally occurring 24-hr cycle. Rest-activity of actually 25.1 hours. Stay up longer, sleep in less. Electrical activity in the brain Higher-frequency when awake Lower-frequency when relaxed
Sleep Stages Stage 1: Drifting into sleep. “Trying” to sleep. Stage 2: Light Sleep. Lose awareness. Stage 3: Starting to fall into Deep Sleep. Stage 4: Deep Sleep. REM Stage: Rapid Eye Movement. Dreaming.
EEG Patterns Electroencephalograph (Measures electrical impulses produced by the brain’s activity)
Sleep Needs Varies depending on the age group. Sleep helps with learning. Sleep Deprivation.
Test Question T/F: It is healthy for the average adult to only get 5 hours of sleep a night.
Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
15% of adults complain of severe insomnia 15% report mild or occasional insomnia Causes for insomnia include: anxiety, stress, emotional difficulties Some things to help with insomnia are better sleep habits, using relaxation techniques One solution to help insomnia is give up the pursuit of sleep and find something to do Sedatives such as sleeping pills can be helpful but they can be addicting and people become dependent on them Sleeping pills can also interfere with your normal sleep cycle and have side effects such as grogginess and irritability
Sleep Apnea Disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep
Person with apnea usually snores, as apnea involves an involuntary obstruction of the breathing passage When apnea occurs over 10 seconds at a time a person may awaken and have sleep loss or insomnia Sleep apnea most often occurs in middle-aged men who are overweight Sleep apnea can go undiagnosed because it is not easy for a sleeper to notice To detect sleep apnea usually the sleeper’s bed partner will get tired of the snoring and awaken the sleeper Some cures for sleep apnea are weight loss, drugs, or surgery
Somnambulism When a person arises and walks around while sleeping, also known as sleepwalking
Sleepwalking is more common in children around the ages of 11 or 12, with as many as 25% experiencing at least one episode Sleepwalking tends to happen early in the night, usually in slow-wave sleep. Sleepwalkers may awaken during their walk or return to bed without waking, in which case they won’t remember anything in the morning Sleepwalkers can hurt themselves by tripping over furniture or falling down the stairs Contrary to popular belief it is safe to
Narcolepsy Disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities
Narcolepsy involves the intrusion of a dreaming state of sleep (REM) into waking and it often accompanied by excessive sleepiness and incontrollable sleep attacks lasting from 30 seconds to 30 minutes Narcolepsy is a less common sleep disorder The disorder appears to have a genetic basis, as it runs in families Narcolepsy can be treated with medication
Sleep Paralysis The experience of waking up unable to move or speak for a few minutes
This eerie feeling only lasts for a few moments and may occur with an experience of pressure on the chest Is sometimes associated with narcolepsy
Night Terrors Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
Mostly occurs with boys ages 3 to 7 Night terrors usually doesn’t have dream content the sleeper can report Night terrors usually occur within the first few hours of sleep, whereas nightmares occur towards the end of the night or early morning hours Night terrors occur during non-REM sleep and nightmares occur during the REM of sleep
Test Question What is the sleep disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of wakening activities?
The Mind dreams are a result of activities taking place in the brain. Scientist have found that the brain gives off electromagnetic waves while you dream. During the period while the electromagnetic waves are fast your eyes are moving rapidly Sometimes while dreaming you cannot move your body, this period is called REM
Mind Scientist believe that dreaming sleep has a role in restoring the brains ability to handle such tasks as focused attention, memory, and learning. Also a persons hidden feelings often surface in dreams
Tips to avoid nightmaresand to get a good nightssleep: Sleep schedule Avoid caffeine Exercise Don’t lie awake in bed Control temperature
what you can do? Before you go to bed: write down the date and what events happened that day (journal) If you wake up in the middle of the night: try to recall if you had any dreams and write them down When you wake up in the morning: write down how many hours you slept, and if you are still tired or if you feel well rested, and try and recall any dreams that you had
Dream Questions: Do your dreams relate to what you did the day before? As you start writing down your dreams do they become able to recall?
“dreaming permits each and every one ofus to be quietly and safely insane everynight of our lives.” –William C. Dement Sometimes known as the “father of sleep medicine” Is a US sleep researcher Founded the worlds first sleep laboratory which is found at Stanford university Studies sleep deprivation and treatment of sleep disorders.
The five characteristics ofdream consciousness 1. Feel emotion (fear, happiness, love) 2. be in one place and then in another with out any travel 3. still have sensation (vision) 4. uncritical acceptance (normal) 5.difficulty remembering
Nightmares An average college student has about 24 nightmares a year. Some people have nightmares as often as once a night Children have more nightmares than adults People who have experienced traumatic events are more likely to have nightmares than people that don’t
Dreams “Day residue”- where a current problem pops into the dream Dreams pull images from your everyday life to make them seem more surreal, and also images from your past.
Dream Theories In the first psychological theory of dreams Sigmund Freud he proposed that dreams were confusing and obscure because the dynamic unconscious creates them to be. In his theorys dreams represent wishes and some only express them in disguised form.
example For Freuds theory in the book it gives an example on page 250: A dream about a tree burning down in the park across the street from where a friend once lived might represent a camouflaged wish for the death of the friend. Though wishing for the death of a friend is unacceptable, so it is disguised as a tree on fire.
Not all dreams represent hidden wishes, but some are suppressed thoughts and some are feeling that you may have been hiding or sometimes feelings that you did not necessarily have.
Activations SynthesisModelThis is the theory that dreams areproduced when the mind attempts tomake sense of random neural activitythat occurs in the brain during sleep.
Different types ofdreaming Day dreaming: you are awake, may be when bored or tired Lucid dreaming: when you realize you are dreaming and can change the dream to what you like Recurring dreams: when you get the same dream many different times Prophetic dreams: dreams that happen in real life, that tell the future Signal dreams: Epic dreams: when you wake up you feel like you have realized something, also known as life changing dreams Progressive dreams: help you face a fear or problem Mutual dreams: when you and someone else have the same dream
Dreams Meaning: Running away from something or someone: you need to face something.. Try turning around and asking them why they are chasing you. Falling: you are afraid of something and are afraid of failing, or paranoid. Teeth falling out: you are self conscious, afraid of what someone might think of you