Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Biological Science Chapter 4

1.023 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Evolutionary History and Evidence

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Biological Science Chapter 4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 EVOLUTION : HISTORY AND EVIDENCE
  2. 2. Organic evolution - “ descent with modification “ Population - consist of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at the same time. - share a unique set of genes
  3. 3. PRE- DARWINIAN THEORIES OF CHANGE EMPEDOCLES ( 495 – 435 B.C. ) - described concepts of change in living organisms over time.
  4. 4. ARISTOTLE ( 384 – 322 B.C. ) - Discovered the principle of nature by analyzing accidental changes or motion.
  5. 5. GEORGES LOUIS LECLERC COMTE BUFFON ( 1707 – 1788) - Spent many years studying comparative anatomy. - Believe in a special creation of species and
  6. 6. ERASMUS DARWIN ( 1731 – 1802 ) - Grandfather of Charles Darwin - Interested in question of origin and change - Believed in the common ancestry of all organism
  7. 7. JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK ( 1744 – 1829 ) - His theory was based on a widely accepted theory of inheritance - Believed that need was dictated by environmental change and that change involved movement toward perfection
  8. 8. DARWIN’S EARLY YEARS AND HIS JOURNEY CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809 – 1882 ) - Born on February 12, 1809 - His interest centered around dogs, collecting, and hunting birds - He entered medical school in Edinburgh, Scotland - He trained for clergy in the Church of England
  9. 9. VOYAGE OF THE HMS BEAGLE
  10. 10. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF DARWIN’S IDEAS OF EVOLUTION Geology  Charles Lyell  James Hutton - theory of uniformitarianism - based on the idea that the forces of wind, rain, rivers, volcanoes and geological uplift shape the earth today. This book planted two important ideas in Darwin’s mind: 1. The earth could be much older than 6,000 years 2. If the face of the earth changed gradually over long periods, could not living forms also change during that time?
  11. 11. FOSSIL EVIDENCE TOXODON THOANTHERIUM
  12. 12. GIANT ARMADILLOS GIANT SLOTH
  13. 13. GALAPAGOS ISLAND
  14. 14. ADAPTIVE RADIATION - THE FORMATION OF NEW FORMS FROM AN ANCESTRAL SPECIES
  15. 15. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION Thomas Malthus - Essay on the Principle of Population - believed that the human population has the potential to increase geometrically. Natural Selection 1. All organism have a far greater reproductive potential than is ever realized. 2. Inherited variations exist. 3. Because resources are limited, existence is a constant struggle. 4. Adaptive traits are perpetuated in subsequent generations.
  16. 16. ADAPTATION - occurs when a change in a phenotype increases a animal’s chance of successful reproduction. Alfred Russel Wallace - led zoological expediton to the Malay Achipelago - synthesized a theory of evolution similar to Darwin’s theory of natural selection
  17. 17. MICROEVOLUTION -a change in the frequency of alleles in population over time.
  18. 18. MACROEVOLUTION -large scale changes that result in extinction and the formation of new species.
  19. 19. EVIDENCE OF MACROEVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. Patterns of plant and animal distribution
  20. 20. 2. Fossils
  21. 21. 3. Biochemical molecules
  22. 22. 3. Anatomical structures
  23. 23. 5. Developmental patterns
  24. 24. BIOGEOGRAPHY -study of the geographic distribution of plants and animals.
  25. 25. BIOGEOGRAPHERS TRY TO EXPLAIN: 1. How similar group of organisms have dispersed to places separated by seemingly impenetrable barriers. 2. Why plants and animals, separated by geographical barriers are often very different inspite of similar environments. 3. Why oceanic islands often have relatively few, but unique, resident species.
  26. 26. PALEONTOLOGY -study of the fossil record, which provides some of the most direct evidence for evolution. FOSSILS- evidence of plants and animals that existed in the past and have become incorporated into the earth’s crust.
  27. 27. Homology - the two different organisms are similar in structure and function because they share a common ancestry
  28. 28. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY - the comparative study of the body structures of different species of animals - the study of the structure of living and fossilize animals and the homologies that indicate evolutionary close relationship
  29. 29. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity - chiefly concerns with understanding the interactions between : *the various systems of the cell *DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis
  30. 30. DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS • Developmental stages of related animals often retain common features. • Early embryonic stages of vertebrates are remarkably similar. - many organ system of the vertebrates also show similar developmental patterns • Differences in adult stages arise as a result of evolutionary genes that control the onset of developmental stages and the rate at which development occurs.
  31. 31. INTERPRETING THE EVIDENCE: PHYLOGENY AND COMMON DESCENT Phylogeny - refers to the evolutionary relationships among species - the depiction of ancestral species and the relationships of modern descendants of a common ancestor

×