4. • The term disaster is derived from a Middle
French desastre and that from old Italian
disastro and which in tern has its root from
Greek pejorative prefix- (dus-) “bad” and
(aster) “star”. The root of the disaster
comes from an astrological sense of a
calamity blamed on the sights of planets.
The word disaster…
5. Ways to look disaster…
• Household level
International Federation of
Red Cross and Red
8. HAZARD RECOGNITION:
CATAGORIES / TYPES OF HAZARD
DEFINITION OF HAZARD:-
‘A source of potential harm or a situation with a potential to
A hazard is a threat , a future source to danger and has a
potential to cause harm to
People - death, injury, disease and stress.
Human activity – economic, educational etc.
Property - property damage, economic loss of
Environment - loss fauna and flora, pollution, loss of amenities.
9. Some of the examples of hazards are earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, cyclones, floods , landslides , fires, and
other such events.
10. TYPES OF HAZARD:-
Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides,
dam burst, mine fire etc.
WATER AND CLIMATIC HAZARDS:-
Tropical cyclones, tornado and hurricanes, floods,
drought, hailstorm , cloudburst, landslides, heat and cold
wave, snow avalanche ,sea erosion etc.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS:-
Environmental pollutions, deforestation , human/animal
epidemics, pest attacks, desertification ,pest infection ,
food poisoning, weapons of mass destruction.
11. CHEMICAL , INDUSTRIAL AND NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS:-
chemical disasters, Industrial disasters, oil spills/fires,
nuclear bomb attacks.
ACCIDENT RELATED DISASTERS:-
Boat/ Road /Train accidents, airplane crashes,
rural/urban fires bomb, serial bomb blasts, forest fires,
building collapse , electric accidents, festival related
disasters, mine flooding etc.
12. HAZARD ASSESSMENT:- It is sometimes called hazard
evaluation or hazard analysis.
Hazard assessment is the process of estimating , for
defined areas, the probabilities of the occurrence of
potentially-damaging phenomenon of given magnitude
within a specified period of time (UNDRO, 1991) .
HAZARD ASSESSMENT APPROACHES:-
Depending on the situation, various methods are used
with obvious variations in the degree of accuracy which
are as follows:-
13. QUANTITATIVE APPROACH:-
Here mathematical functions are used to denote
relationships between variable considered to quantify
the hazard. Numerical data can be fed in to assess
the impact of the hazard event.
This method uses ranking such as ‘high’, ‘moderate’ and
‘low’ to access a hazard event . When certain variables
cannot be expressed numerically , this qualitative ranking
may be appropriate to take hazard mitigation decisions.
14. Deterministic Approach:-
In this approach, a past event is selected and
associated characteristics and the consequences are
This approach provides an estimate of the probability
of each hazard affecting an area or region. Probability of
each hazard may be categorized as ‘high’, ‘moderate’ or
‘low’. Probability of occurrence can be calculated
through research on past events.
Hazard assessment is the first step for hazard mitigation
planning. It prioritizes hazards so that a community or a
government may use discretion to plan and implement
hazard mitigation action.
Natural disaster is a
consequence were natural calamity effects
or poses a level of threat to human life,
health, property, or environment is known as
Types of Disaster:-
i.) Natural Disaster.
ii.) Man made Disaster.
17. Natural Disaster
Types of Natural Disaster:-
Some examples of natural disaster are:-
Landslides, and other such events.
23. Natural Disaster
Measures to be taken during earthquake:-
• Take shelter under a desk, table, bed or doorway during
• Shut off kitchen gas.
• Heavy objects and glasses should be kept on lower shelf.
• Keep stock of drinking water, food and first-aid
• Do not panic and run near buildings during an earthquake.
• Do not switch on any mains supply immediately after an
24. Natural Disaster
2.) Volcanic eruptions:-
A volcano is a rupture on the crust of planetary –
mass object, such as Earth, that allows the lava, volcananic
ash, and poisonous gases to escape from a magma chamber
below the surface.
26. Natural Disaster
It occurs due to the techonic plates are diverging or
converging. (ie :- displacement of tectonic plates.)
27. Natural Disaster
Types of volcano on the basis of composition:-
( silica )
i.) Felsic ( >63% of silica )
ii.) Andesitic (52% - 63% of silica)
iii.) Mafic * (45% – 52% of silica)
*It contains high percentage of Magnesium & Iron.
28. Natural Disaster
materials, such as
land and sea or land
and ice, have different
retaining heat, leading
to lateral changes in
29. Natural Disaster
During the day, atmospheric molecules are heated, lowering their density
and causing them to rise. At night time, these particles cool, increase in
density, and descend.
30. Natural Disaster
When a warm ocean gives rise to hot air which in turns creates
convention air currents. Cyclones occurs when these
convention air currents are displaced.
33. Natural Disaster
( ie:- when large amount of water flow from a source such as a
river, or a broken pipe onto a previously dry area or when
water overflow banks of barriers.)
34. Natural Disaster
It also cause economic &
emotional input on people
particularly if their property
is directly affected.
It also helps in some way
perhaps to minimize or
prevent flood damages for
35. Natural Disaster
Before a Flood
To prepare for a flood, you should:-
Avoid building in a flood prone area ,unless you elevate and reinforce your
Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to
Contact community officials to find out if they are planning to construct
barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the
homes in your area.
Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compounds to avoid
36. Natural Disaster
During a Flood
If a flood is likely in your area, you should: -
Listen to the radio or television for information.
Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility
of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait
for instructions to move.
Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other
areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these
areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy
37. Natural Disaster
After a Flood
The following are guidelines for the period following a flood:
Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s
water supply is safe to drink.
Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil,
gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also be electrically
charged from underground or downed power lines.
Avoid moving water.
Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads
may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a
Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to
the power company.
38. Natural Disaster
It refers to the downward movement of masses of rock & soil.
They cause by the combination of the following factors like:-
Change in slope, gradient .
Increasing the load the land must bear, shocks and
Change in water content.
Ground water movement frost action.
Weathering of rocks…etc
A man-made disasters is a disaster resulting from human intent, negligence,
Manmade disasters can be both intentional and unintentional. It results in
huge loss of life and property. It further affects a person's mental, physical
and social well-being.
43. Reasons For Man-Made Disasters
There are multiple factor that may relate to
Carelessly handling danger
46. NUCLEAR DISASTERS
can occur due to:
*Failure of nuclear reactors due to
*Dropping of nuclear bombs
*While researching in laboratory on
atomic energy and nuclear
47. What Happened?
On 26th April 1986, at 1:23 P.M. blast occurred in the 4th
reactor. The reactor 4 suffered power increase leading
to explosion from core. The two engineers present in
the 4th reactor were Alexander Akimov and Leonid
Toptunov. Whereas Leonid was present at the time of
blast as he was a young engineer with a 3 months
48. Chernobyl today
27 years have passed but still the radiation level is that area is so high that
nobody will be able to live there for 200 years. The whole area is sealed
by the Russian force and no individuals id allowed to visit anywhere near
the reactor. It is said that the controller keys of reactor 4 still remain
untouched even after 27 years.
51. *It occur when toxic
chemicals are exposed
to environment or
leakage of toxic gases.
**Can harm humans as
well as plants and
52. A major industrial
occurred in india was
BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
in april 1984.
**It occurred due to
leakage of methyl
isocynate from UCIL.
53. Fire disasters
Bush fires, forest
fires, and mine fires
started by lightning,
but also by human
negligence or arson.
They can burn
thousands of square
Forest is an important source
for satisfying people's demands
and needs. Thus, undoubtedly
people would try to exploit
forest resources. This process
of exploiting forest is called
55. RAIL ACCIDENTS:
A large number of rail accidents
happen around the world
It may occur due to:
c)lack of communication
66. 1. One should not look at
the fire as it causes
2. Should close all doors
and windows as
radioactivity does not
penetrate into solid
3. Cover all food and water
67. Chemical Agents
1. Use protective equipment.
2. Give quick and correct self-
aid when contaminated.
3. Avoid areas where
chemical agents exist.
4. Decontaminate your
equipment and body as
soon as possible.
68. Fire Accidents
1. Wires should be
2. Inflammable things
should be kept safely.
3. Power points should
not be overloaded.
The Chernobyl disaster was a tragic nuclear
accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at
the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine,
An explosion and fire released Abundant amounts of
radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which
spread over much of the western USSR and Europe.
1:26:03 – fire alarm activated
1:28 – arrival of local fire fighters, Pravik's guard
1:35 – arrival of firefighters from Pripyat, Kibenok's
1:40 – arrival of Telyatnikov
2:10 – turbine hall roof fire extinguished
2:30 – main reactor hall roof fires suppressed
3:30 – arrival of Kiev firefighters
4:50 – fires mostly localized
6:35 – all fires extinguished
72. Causes of the disaster
The first official explanation of the accident stated that
it was the plant’s operators fault.
Most of the earlier accusations against staff for breach
of regulations were acknowledged to be either
In this analysis , deficiencies in the reactor design and
in the operating regulations that made the accident
possible. Several procedural irregularities also helped
to make the accident possible.
Four hundred times more radioactive material was
released from Chernobyl than by the atomic
bombing of Hiroshima.
In the aftermath , 237 people suffered from acute
radiation sickness (ARS), of whom 31 died within the
first three months.
Most of the victims were fire and rescue workers trying
to bring the accident under control.
Many (28) of the people who were exposed , died
within the first few months.
74. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located next to
the Pripyat River, supplied water to the residents of the
city, and was still in spring flood when the accident
The radioactive contamination of aquatic systems
therefore became a major problem in the immediate
aftermath of the accident.
In the most affected areas of Ukraine, levels of
radioactivity in drinking water caused concern during
the weeks and months after the accident.
75. After the disaster, four square kilometers of pine forest
directly downwind of the reactor turned reddish-
brown and died, earning the name of the "Red Forest".
Some animals in the worst-hit areas also died or
Most domestic animals were removed from the
exclusion zone, but horses left on an island in the
Pripyat River 6 km (4 mi) from the power plant died
when their thyroid glands were destroyed by radiation
doses of 150–200 Sv.
The next generation appeared to be normal.
76. THE BHUJ EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED ON 26
JANUARY 2001 ON THE INDIA’S 51 REPUBLIC
DAY.IT WAS VERY VERY HUGE AND
DISASTEROUS AND CAUSE MANY
DEATHS.PEOPLE TODAY ALSO REAMEMBER
ABOUT THAT AS IT HAS LEAVED VERY BIG
IMPACT ON THEM. ABOUT 20,000 PEOPLE
WERE KILLED AND ABOUT 167,000 WERE
INJURED AND 40,000 HOMES WERE
THE EARTHQUAKE WAS 6.9 ON RICHTER
January 26, 2001 (2001-
16 kilometres (10 mi)
Yellow star marks
Countries or regions
19,727 believed dead,
166,001 injured 
The 2001 Gujarat earthquake
occurred on January 26, 2001,
India's 51st Republic Day, at 08:46
AM local time (3:16 UTC) and
lasted for over two minutes. The
epicentre was about 9 km south-
southwest of the village of
Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of
Kutch District of Gujarat, India.
The earthquake reached a
magnitude of between 7.6 and 7.7
on the moment magnitude scale
and had a maximum felt intensity of
X (Intense) on the Mercalli intensity
scale. The quake killed around
20,000 people (including 18 in
South eastern Pakistan), injured
another 167,000 and destroyed
nearly 400,000 homes.
78. The epicenter was near the remote Little Rann
of Kutch, but within 150 to 200 kilometers of
several villages and towns. The proximity to
populated areas, coupled with a shallow 17-
kilometer focus, resulted in massive
destruction and fatalities. The area is mainly
barren, with the exception of a belt of arable
land stretching along the shore of the Gulf of
Kachchh. The affected area also experienced
magnitude 5.0 to 5.8 aftershocks for several
days subsequent to the main earthquake (
80. DAMAGE CAUSED BY EARTHQUAKE
The 26 January 2001 earthquake in Gujarat was the most
devastating seismic event to affect the state since the last
magnitude 7.7 event in 1819. More than 20,000 people died and
over 167,000 injuries were reported. Both rail and highway
traffic into and out of the entire Kachchh region was completely
cut off for two days. Numerous bridges, dams, and ports were
destroyed or severely damaged as a result of liquifaction of the
blue marine clay soil on which they are constucted.
Approximately 1,000,000 homes were destroyed or seriously
damaged, as were many commercial, industrial, and public
utility facilities.Total blackout resulted in several towns and
villages; communications in Bhuj were disrupted for two days
when fiber optic cables were damaged, and water supplies were
affected as liquifaction caused some wells to become turbid and
others tested positive for metal contaminants and anaerobic
82. PEOPLE AFFECTED BY EARTHQUAKE
Many people were affected by the bhuj earthquake 2001
which was about 6.9 on richter scale.more than 20,000 people
died and over 18,000 people were injuried.most of
the people lost their houses and family and were badly
affected.the earthquake caused death of about 100 persons
and injured hundrends more.
The Kashmir earthquake (also known as
the South Asia earthquake or Pakistan
earthquake) of 2005, was a major
earthquake whose epicenter was the
Pakistan-administered disputed region
• As of 8 November, the Pakistani
government's official death toll was
73,276, while officials say nearly 1,400
people died in Indian-administered
Kashmir and four people in Afghanistan
87. Why were the casualties so high?
• Most of the casualties resulting from the
earthquake were in Pakistan where the
official confirmed death toll is 73,276,
putting it higher than the massive scale of
destruction of the Quetta earthquake of May
31, 1935. Nearly 1,400 people died in Indian-
administered Kashmir, according to officials.
 International donors have estimated that
about 86,000 died but this has not been
confirmed or endorsed by Pakistani
89. Tsunami struck in
the Indian ocean on
These huge waves
were a result of the
earthquake that had
its epicenter close to
boundary of Sumatra
The magnitude of
this earthquake was
measured 9.0 on the
90. As the Indian plate went
under the burma plate,
their was certain
movement of the was a
sudden movement of
the sea floor, causing the
The ocean floor was
displaced by about 10
metres to 20 metres and
tilted in a downward
91. Huge mass of ocean water flowed to the fill gap that
was being created by the displacement.
This marked the withdrawal of the water mass from the
coast lines of the land masses in the South and
After thrusting of the Indian plate below the Burma
plate, the water mass rushed back towards the coast line
at a speed of about 800km/h and washed away many
islands in Indian ocean.
93. Tsunami caused wide spread damage to the coastal
areas of India. Mainly the Indira point in the Andaman
and Nicobar islands got submerged after the tsunami.
98. Kosi – The Sorrow River
THE KOSI- A part of Ganges, Brahmaputra
& Meghna riverine system travels through
Nepal before entering the plains of Bihar.
Why so dangerous?
Ability to quickly change course
Leaves behind heavy silt and debris which
It has been causing huge damages to
Northern Districts of Bihar almost every
99. 2008 Floods – an unprecedented tragedy
Unlike earlier floods in 2008 the River
itself changed the path that too up-to
Its Magnitude- Too large compared to
earlier floods.(more than 2.5 lakh
Submerged Area- Much higher
comparatively.(crops in 1.06 lakh
hectare wiped off)
Intensity of water forces- huge (flow of
water through the breach went up to
1.9 lakh cubic feet per second)
No. of persons directly affected- Much
No. of deaths- cannot be assessed
100. 2008 floods- Fact file
The worst affected districts: Supaul,
Saharsa, Madhepura, Araria, Purnia &
866 villages destroyed - India Today
Minimum Rs. 10,000 crore loss - India
More than 2000 camps are needed for the
displaced - India Today
As per Sahara TV, who have special
correspondent in the affected area, it is
feared that even one lakh people might have
lost their lives.
101. 2008 floods- The scale of challenge
The magnitude of destruction caused by this flood is higher than Hurricane
Katrina, Super Cyclone and Tsunami
The rehabilitation is going to take longer than what it took to recover from the
aftermaths of Tsunami
Lakhs of people still trapped and have to be evacuated.
This Flood has resulted in one of the biggest ever evacuations of people in
About 1.2 crore persons have to be rehabilitated-(http://www.igovernment.in)
Lakhs of people are lacking food, medicine,shelter and drinking water.
102. 2008 floods- The scale of challenge
As per estimates more than 3.5 mn
people have to live under temporary
arrangements. Assuming Rs 60 as
per person per day cost for food,
shelter, clothing, medicine and
water, it will require 21.00 cr per day.
For 75 days a sum of Rs 1575 Cr is
required just for survival.
Add: Cost of rehabilitation!
103. 2008 floods- Some reactions
“The Kosi Flood is nothing but a
national Calamity”- Prime Minister, Dr.
“The floods have pushed Bihar back to
50 years” -Rameshwar Prasad, a local
“Places where crops were standing 15
days ago is 12-14 feet deep under water
and the current of water is comparable to
Richter 5 of earthquake intensity”-
Chandan Singh- An environmentalist &
105. The worst is yet to come …
Historically Kosi River has been discharging water in much higher
volumes in September and October so it is feared that it will get worse
Once the flood water starts pacifying there will be out break of
Diseases like Diarrhoea, Cholera, other Gastro intestinal disorders &
infections can cause huge damage to human lives.
Restoring public Infrastructure would be a Herculean task
Loss of material belongings difficult to replenish
The worst affected would be Women and Children