Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Modern and Postmodern Architecture

4.195 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Basic overview of the political, cultural and social influences on 20th century Architecture based on Kenneth Frampton's "Modern Architecture: A Critical History', for teaching fifth semester B.Arch students of University of Calicut.

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
  • Writing a good research paper isn't easy and it's the fruit of hard work. For help you can check writing expert. Check out, please ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ I think they are the best
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Don't forget another good way of simplifying your writing is using external resources (such as ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ ). This will definitely make your life more easier
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • There is a useful site for you that will help you to write a perfect and valuable essay and so on. Check out, please ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Loving the plans. Got lots of different ideas and inspiration. I'm sending you a photo of a bed frame I did for my daughter! 》》》 https://t.cn/A62YeZUX
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

Modern and Postmodern Architecture

  1. 1. WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE? PROCESS governed by a THEORY both the process and product of planning, designing and construction of buildings and other physical structures. architectural works, in the form of buildings are perceived as cultural symbols and works of art. historic civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
  2. 2. ARCHITECTURAL THEORY??? MAKING A STATEMENT Thinking, discussing and writing about architecture
  3. 3. Vidhan Bhavan, Bhopal
  4. 4. Architectural theory stayed close to Schools and Styles..As publishing became more common, theory became rich. With internet, it gained momentum. As a result, Styles and Movements formed and dissolved much more quickly than the relatively enduring modes in earlier history.
  5. 5. “Architecture begins when two bricks are put together” -Mies Vander Rohe “You employ stone, wood and concrete, you build houses and palaces- that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, this is beautiful. That is architecture” -Le Corbusier Contemporary architectural discourse is concerned with its position within culture generally and thought in particular (World view)- so philosophy and cultural studies are as important as buildings..
  6. 6. IN THE BEGINNING OF ARCHITECTURAL TIME... Architecture and engineering of construction were same...
  7. 7. WITH EMERGING KNOWLEDGE, SCIENCE, MATERIALS, TECHNOLOGY... Architecture and engineering separated..architects concentrated on aesthetics and humanist aspects..
  8. 8. NAME THE BUILDING,ARCHITECT AND THE STYLE
  9. 9. EUROPE- 1 AD
  10. 10. Classical Architecture 1500BC- 2 BC
  11. 11. HIGH MIDDLE AGES
  12. 12. BYZANTINE 330 AD
  13. 13. EARLY CHRISTIAN- BASILICAS 600 AD ROMANESQUE- SEMI CIRCULAR ARCHES- 600 AD-1000 AD
  14. 14. GOTHIC- POINTED ARCHES, RIBBED VAULTS, FLYING BUTTRESSES 1200 AD- 1600
  15. 15. RENAISSANCE- POWER OF MAN 1400 AD-1700 AD
  16. 16. BAROQUE, ROCOCO, NEO CLASSICISM (1700-1850 AD) elaborate and extravagant ornamentation/ renewed interest in Classic Palladianism
  17. 17.  The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. • INITIAL RELUCTANCE TO ACCEPT NEW TECHNOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE • CRYSTAL PALACE, EIFFEL TOWER, CHICAGO FIRE AND SKYSCRAPERS • BIRTH OF MODERNISM IN ARCHITECTURE- NEW MATERIALS, NEW TECHNOLOGY
  18. 18. CRYSTAL PALACE
  19. 19. MODERN MOVEMENT  Renunciation of Old World  Commitment to address mass housing needs  Enthusiasm to explore architectural potential of materials and technologies often disdained by previous generation  Belief in the power of Form to transform the world  Simplicity and clarity- elimination of unnecessary detail  Truth to material-Visual expression of structure  Use of industrially produced materials  Machine aesthetics. (House is a machine to live in, just like car is a machine to travel- efficiency)
  20. 20. MODERNISM IS NOT JUST MINIMALISM…NOT PLAIN, WHITE WALLS OR BRUTAL CONCRETE SURFACES….
  21. 21. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION..  Machine production  Mass manufacture  Cheap and copied ornamentation  Lost context  Iron buildings- dark satanic mills  Slums, mass housing needs General dissatisfaction about elaborate decoration
  22. 22.  ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF MACHINE PRODUCTION BY INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL CRAFTS  DEUTSCHER WERKBUND  ARTS&CRAFTS MOVEMENT  SULLIVAN ‘FORM EVER FOLLOWS FUNCTION’  PRAIRIE SCHOOL  DE STILJI  ART NOUVEAU  EXPRESSIONISM  BAUHAUS  ART DECO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT...
  23. 23. AFTER WORLD WAR I ... ARCHITECTURE OF POLITICS, POWER AND NEEDS...  Nazism  Fascism  Communism  Capitalism  Rationalism  Empiricism  Futurism  Cubism  Structuralism  Constructivism  Expressionism  Chicago fire  Great Depression  Migration and Slums  Housing needs  Skyscrapers and Utopia  Attempt at social reform through architecture and urban design
  24. 24. MODERN MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS..  Modernity interpreted as Monumental Classicism in many places  Obscured local, regional and ethnic differences INDIFFERENT TO HISTORY AND TRADITION  An exploration into the role of architect and the source of architectural form i. Function Form (automatic form generation) ii. Intuition + Genius (self expression) Still Modern Movement acquired a mythical significance greater than its actual achievements by WW II During and following World War II, this broad branching of Modern Architecture declined, with the rise of International Style and other mid century styles
  25. 25. ALVAR AALTO (1898-1976, Finland)  Works during 1920-1935 – Nordic Classicism style (National Romanticism) (Jugendstil) Inspired from Traditional Karelia farm house.  1935-1948 – Modern Functionalism and International Style  1948 onwards- a matured self expression (Critical Regionalism according to Frampton)  He worked with wood and plywood, following Finnish wooden architecture.  His use of ‘white’- inspired from his father’s table...also to get maximum reflected light in the long Finnish winters.  Mentor: Asplund
  26. 26. Savoy vase Inspired from the Finnish lake basins...
  27. 27. PAIMIO SANATORIOUM  The spread of tuberculosis in Finland between the wars led to the construction of a number of sanatoria throughout the country. One of these was the Varsinais-Suomi tuberculosis sanatorium in Paimio. Competition for design was won by Aalto in 1929.
  28. 28. PAIMIO SANATORIOUM In Aalto's entry for this competition, the buildings were grouped in a Neo-Classical manner with sun balconies representing a more modern architectural approach. Lying in the sun on a balcony was part of the treatment for tuberculosis so that balconies like these were an essential part of sanatorium architecture.
  29. 29. The closed building mass first opens symmetrically and then develops its final articulated form with no fundamental change in the basic idea.
  30. 30. The basic functions of the building have been resolved so that each wing of the building and the functions within it form a unit of its own. A-wing is the patients' wing with the sun balconies, the most important architectonic element, facing south. B-wing contains the common spaces: treatment rooms, dining hall, library and common rooms. C-wing contains the laundry, kitchens and staff accommodation. The single-storey D-wing contains the boiler room and heating plant. Circulation centres on the main entrance hall between A-wing and B-wing and the stairwell linked to it, which together give access to the other wings of the building.
  31. 31.  The Functionalist aspect of the building - the typical emphasis on technology of the period - is represented by various things such as the glass-walled lift shaft and the abundance of details in metal, both in the elevations and in the interior. To Aalto, even in this, the principal work of his Modernist period, technology does not have any absolute intrinsic value, but forms one side of a very human dialogue.  All furniture designed by architect himself  In the public spaces, the colour scheme of the Sanatorium is convergent with the neo-plastic art of the twenties and thirties: blue, yellow, grey and white. It creates a fresh and cheerful yet peaceful atmosphere. The staircase opens directly from the foyer forming a space that extends right through the building, into which daylight filters from both east and west.  Mostly standardized components (eg. balustrade)
  32. 32. paimio
  33. 33. paimio
  34. 34. VILLA MAIREA VILLA MAIREA (1939) has an L-shape plan- Farmhouse typology. Partii-two parts enclosing court yard. Forest concept. Modern open plan with traditional Tupa. Between rigid angles, curves and free forms of pool, balcony, fireplace etc. Experimentation in wood.
  35. 35. Viipuri library section
  36. 36. Finnish Pavilion (1939)
  37. 37. Sanyatsalo Townhall
  38. 38. Sanyatsalo-Partii
  39. 39. Sanyatsalo
  40. 40. INTERNATIONAL STYLE  A PART OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE WHERE DECORATIONS ARE AVOIDED AND FUNCTIONAL AESTHETICS IS MOST PROMINENT  Inspired from deStilji. Also Wright, Corbusier, Constructivism  1932- MoMA- Henry Russel Hitchcock and Philip Johnson- identified, categorized and expanded upon principles common to Modernism across the world  Expression of volume rather than mass  Emphasis on balance rather than symmetry  Expulsion of applied ornament Lightweight technique, modern synthetic materials, standard modular parts, hypothetical flexibility of the free plan, skeleton frame construction.
  41. 41. Dr. Lovell Health House, Richard Neutra Antonin Raymond- architect’s house Casa Bloc communal dwelling
  42. 42. Glass House, Philip Johnson Brazilian Pavilion, Niemeyer Highpoint 1- Tecton
  43. 43. EERO SAARINEN (1910-1961, Finland, moved to US in 1923)  Father Eliel Saarinen, mother a sculptor  He was taught that each object should be designed in its "next largest context - a chair in a room, a room in a house, a house in an environment, environment in a city plan.“  His first independent project was Jefferson Memorial  His furniture designs were very functional, designed ‘womb chair’ “ The purpose of architecture is to shelter and enhance man’s life on earth and to fulfil his belief in the nobility of his existence.”
  44. 44. SIX PILLARS OF ARCHITECTURE
  45. 45. SIX PILLARS OF ARCHITECTURE 6th pillar: UNITY OF DESIGN
  46. 46.  His initial style- especially furniture designs- were based on Art Nouveau  Eero developed a remarkable artistic range that drew from colour, form, and materials. He showed a marked inclination toward innovative structures and sculptural forms, but not at the cost of practical realities. He moved easily between the International style and Expressionism, utilizing a wide variety of curves, cornices, and cantilevers. He is called father of ‘Neo Expressionism’
  47. 47. TWA terminal
  48. 48. St. Louis Arch
  49. 49. MIT chapel
  50. 50. 1950s and beyond- The Death and Life of Great Utopian Dreams PART II
  51. 51. THE NEW HUMANISM- WELFARE STATE ARCHITECTURE
  52. 52. PREFAB- WELFARE STATE ARCHITECTURE Shallow pitched roofs, brick walls, vertically boarded spandrels with wooden picture windows painted white or left bare…People’s detailing- The New Humanism (William Morris Revival)
  53. 53. COUNCIL HOUSES
  54. 54. COUNCIL HOUSES
  55. 55. COUNCIL HOUSES
  56. 56. WELFARE STATE ARCHITECTURE
  57. 57. SKOLAN AND DOME OF DISCOVERY
  58. 58. HOUSE AT UPPSALA
  59. 59. BRUTALISM (beton-brut..raw concrete)
  60. 60. BRUTALISM Concrete left rough and unfinished. Communicated strength, aggressiveness, functionality, frank expression of materiality Fernard Leger and Picasso’s works inspiration • FORMAL LEGIBILITY OF PLAN • CLEAR EXHIBITION OF STRUCTURE • VALUATION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR RAW QUALITY
  61. 61. BRUTAL
  62. 62. Independent Group A&P Smithson, Nigel Henderson, Eduardo Paolozzi Supported by Reiner Banham
  63. 63. A&P- SCHOOL DESIGN Brutal
  64. 64. GOLDEN LANE PROPOSAL
  65. 65. GOLDEN LANE PROPOSAL
  66. 66. GOLDEN LANE PROPOSAL
  67. 67. ROBINHOOD GARDENS
  68. 68. Violence and anti aesthetic views of human figure with coarse grainy texture. Landscape laid waste by war, decay and disease. Beneath it pulsates a new life..
  69. 69. HAMILTON- WHAT IS IT ABOUT TODAY’S HOUSES THAT IS SO DIFFERENT, SO APPEALING? (Richard Hamilton’s collage) From ‘This is Tomorrow’ The industrial vernacular
  70. 70. POP!
  71. 71. POP ART BEGINNINGS
  72. 72. Roy Lichtenstein- Drowning girl
  73. 73. Andy Warhol Consumerist society’s popular symbols used in art work
  74. 74. A Hard day’s Night
  75. 75. IONEL SCHEIN PLASTIC HOUSE
  76. 76. HOUSE OF THE FUTURE
  77. 77. BRUTAL
  78. 78. NATIONAL FOOTBALL STADIUM- VENTURI Virtual Space concept beginnings
  79. 79. PAUL RUDOLH- CAT AND ARCHITECTURE
  80. 80. PAUL RUDOLH- HALL
  81. 81. PAUL RUDOLH- YALE
  82. 82. PAUL RUDOLH- YALE
  83. 83. YALE AFTER ARSON
  84. 84. STIRLING- LEICESTER
  85. 85. STIRLING- LEICESTER
  86. 86. STIRLING- LEICESTER
  87. 87. FRANKFURT-ROMENSBERG- WOODS
  88. 88. EARLY UTOPIAN IDEAS Étienne-Louis Boullée- CENOTAPH FOR NEWTON (1750) Boullée's fondness for grandiose designs has caused him to be characterized as both a megalomaniac and a visionary. His focus on polarity (offsetting opposite design elements) and the use of light and shadow was highly innovative, and continues to influence architects to this day. He was "rediscovered" in the 20th century and has influenced recent architects such as Aldo Rossi.
  89. 89. EARLY UTOPIAN IDEAS Claude Nicolas Ledoux The Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans (1775–1778) Neoclassical French architect. His architecture is associated with the term Architecture parlante (“speaking architecture”). Around the time of the royal saltworks, Ledoux formalized his innovative design ideas for an urbanism and an architecture intended to improve society, of a Cité idéale charged with symbols and meanings.
  90. 90. EARLY UTOPIAN IDEAS LE CORBUSIER- PLAN VOISIN (1925) Le Corbusier, intended to design a city structure on principles of rationality, orderliness, and social improvement. He exhibited his "Plan Voisin”. In it, he proposed to bulldoze most of central Paris north of the Seine and replace it with his sixty-story cruciform towers from the Contemporary City, placed within an orthogonal street grid and park-like green space.
  91. 91. EARLY UTOPIAN IDEAS Buckminister Fuller-GEODESIC DOME The geodesic domes addressed a universal need for housing. They draw together functional shelter, elusively simple laws of Nature's structuring, symmetry, medium- high math, countercultural community, Eskimo simplicity, up-to-dateness. The geodesic dome offered total mobility to people and freed them from getting into debt and spending their lives to pay off a home. Fuller imagined that these houses would be mass-produced and available to everyone .
  92. 92.  ARCHIGRAM Archigram was formed in 1960 at the Architecture Association in London by six architects and designers, Peter Cook, Warren Chalk, Ron Herron, Dennis Crompton, Michael Webb and David Greene. In 1961, Archigram (an eponymous publication whose name was derived from the combination of the words “architecture” + “telegram”) was born as a single sheet magazine filled with poems and sketches.  JAPANESE METABOLISTS In the late 1950’s a young group of Japanese architects and city planners came together to form the Metabolist group. Post-war Japan was in need of residential and urban housing. With this in mind the group began designing structures that would formally be capable of maximizing efficiency. The Metabolists concerned themselves with housing large populations while preserving the autonomy of the individual in a modern world. Along with this, the Metabolists believed that architectural works should change over time with society; and they should essentially be organic units able to be modified for the good of the group. It can be noted that this movement does have many similarities to the International Style in both building materials and their combined lack of ornamentation. Apart from this apparent commonality, the Metabolists rejected traditional architectural beliefs and developed a new conception of form and function.  ITAIAN SUPERSTUDIO  Superstudio was an architecture firm, founded in 1966 in Florence, Italy by Adolfo Natalini and Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. Superstudio was a major part of the Radical architecture movement of the late 1960s. In 1967, Natalini established three categories of future research: “architecture of the monument”; the “architecture of the image”; and “technomorphic architecture”. Soon, Superstudio would be known for its conceptual architecture works, most notably the 1969 Continuous Monument: An Architectural Model for Total Urbanization.
  93. 93. Peter Cook- PLUG-IN-CITY (1964) This provocative project suggests a hypothetical fantasy city, containing modular residential units that “plug in” to a central infrastructural mega machine. The Plug-in City is in fact not a city, but a constantly evolving megastructure that incorporates residences, transportation and other essential services–all movable by giant cranes.
  94. 94. Herron- WALKING CITY Self contained living pods
  95. 95. POMPIDOU CENTRE
  96. 96. Kiyonori Kikutake's Marine City (1968)
  97. 97. FUNNEL CITY
  98. 98. Nakagin Capsule : KISHO KUROKAWA 14 story steel and concrete structural towers 140 pre-fabricated capsules attached by 4 high-tension bolts 3,000 square meters of floor area. Kurokawa initially had it in mind that the owners of these capsules, as time went by, would be able to interchange capsules, move them, and even connect them to create larger living spaces for families of businesses. In addition, to fully make use of the buildings capability for sustainability, the capsules were designed to be replaced every 25 years. Unfortunately, this has not been the case
  99. 99. Post Modernism- Complexities and Contradictions in Society PART III
  100. 100. FAILURE OF MODERNISM  MODERNISM OBSCURED LOCAL,REGIONAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES  LANGUAGE OF BUILDINGS ALMOST ALWAYS SAME  STARK AND RATIONAL.FAILED TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS OF COMFORT TO EYES.  DEGENERATED FLATS – SLUMS  MODERNISM WAS BORN DURING WARS- A NEED THEN. AFTERWARDS PEOPLE HAD MONEY, TIME AND PEACE TO THINK AFRESH  DEHUMANIZATION OF UTOPIAN CONCEPTS  CITIES OF MODERNISM WERE HIGHLY IDEOLOGICAL, NOT REAL/LIVELY/DIVERSE MODERNISM- • UNIVALENT (it is designed around one of a few simplified values ) • STRAIGHT • LIMITED NUMBER OF MATERIALS • RIGHT ANGLED • CLEAN AND SIMPLE • REPETITIVE • SYMMETRICAL
  101. 101. INTELLECTUAL ASSAULTS  “THE LITTLE PIECE OF INTELLIGENCE IN A MAN NOW IS NOT ENOUGH TO MAKE A PIN OR A NEEDLE, BUT THE HEAD OF NAIL OR POINT OF A PIN ONLY”- JOHN RUSKIN BOOKS- 1961-69  JANE JACOB’S ‘THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES’  ‘COMPLEXITIES AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ARCHITECTURE’- VENTURI  ‘THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CITY’-ALDO ROSSI  ‘THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE POOR’- HASSAN FATHY
  102. 102. “The main justification of honky-tonk elements in architectural order is their very existence. They are what they are. Architects can bemoan or try to ignore them (referring to the ornamental and decorative elements in buildings) or even try to abolish them, but they will not go away. Or they will not go away for a long time, because architects do not have the power to replace them (nor do they know what to replace them with).” ‘Complexity and Contradictions’ had an enormous impact on architectural thinking in the 1960s, when the legacy of modernism in architecture was being radically reconsidered. It demanded an end to functionalist dogmatism and a re evaluation of architectural history. Today, it is regarded as seminal document behind the emergence of postmodernism. Venturi - a Populist architect.
  103. 103. VENTURI HOUSE
  104. 104.  Venturi’s description and analysis of vanna venturi house elevated the structure to iconic status as a model of new architecture which he sought to define.  “This building recognizes complexities and contradictions”, he wrote.  “The front, in its conventional combinations of door, windows, chimney, and gable, creates an almost symbolic image of a house.”  The building embodies the intellectual agenda and architectural invention which Venturi presented as a powerful challenge to modernism.  The flat, cut out appearance of the front elevation, with its curious split pediment motif above a gaping front door, and prominent chimney stack rising behind, is a striking break with modernist tenets.  Behind the facade, the simple rectangular plan is extruded to form a complex volume revealing the influence of the American Shingle Style, or British Arts and Crafts movement.
  105. 105.  The main living accommodation is arranged simply at ground level, with an upper level tucked underneath the central area of the large pitched roof.
  106. 106. The organization of plan and section hinges on the awkward reliationship between the oversized, off- center chimney-piece rising through the house, and the oddly shaped stair,wider at the base and narrowing toward top, which wraps around the back of the chimney, and is sandwiched between it and the double– height entrance vestibule.
  107. 107.  While the modernists would choose either black or white, it is important to go for “black and white…or sometimes grey” - ambiguity, complexity and contradiction in architecture.  Furthermore, Venturi also commented some of the modernists’ famous work to be quite complex and contradiction in its manner, one such example would be Le Corbusier’s masterpiece, the Villa Savoye, where he said, despite the plain and simplistic exterior, the plan of the interior present complexity and this is a contradiction to modern architecture overall.
  108. 108. LEARNING FROM LASVEGAS
  109. 109. Compare these with Vegas..
  110. 110.  Robert Venturi was the architect who redefined the renowned phrase “less is more” into “less is a bore”.  He formulated a theory of the duck and decorated shed  The duck form does its function well, in a very straightforward manner tells you that the construction involves ducks or more frankly sells ducks/eggs.  Whereas, in the case of the decorated shed, we cannot visualize its function from looking at the building alone.
  111. 111.  Decorated shed represents an architecture of ambiguity. Without a sign (hence, decoration), the identity of the building remains ambiguous, Thus, the purpose, function of the shed is determined by the decoration such as the sign.  This concept became a significant point in understanding Postmodern architecture, as opposed to the purity and clarity of the previous era of modernism.  What is wrong with giving people what they want? Isn’t the main street almost all right?
  112. 112. Pruitt Igoe In 1977, Charles Jencks published the first comprehensive guide to postmodernism as an architectural movement, The Language of Postmodern Architecture. He pinpoints the instant of Modernism’s death, writing “Happily, we can date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time… Modern Architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 15, 1972 at 3:32 p.m. (or thereabouts) when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite”
  113. 113. POSTMODERNISM-  DOUBLE CODING  PLURALISM  STYLISTIC VARIETY  CELEBRATING DIFFERENCES
  114. 114. •Philip Johnson and John Burgee’s AT&T Building in New York. •The AT&T Building is double coded because it is part skyscraper and part grandfather clock. •It blends in with the other modernist buildings in its vicinity by mirroring and parodying many of their features. For example, its façade is left right reversible, it includes a great many 90° angles, its ground level incorporates pillars, and there is a simple capital in the top horizontal row of windows. Comparing this with the Seagram Building for example demonstrates the AT&T’s modernist coding. • However, the AT&T Building’s pink granite sheathing provides a welcome ironic break from the drabber colours of its repetitive neighbours. •The building also includes a second capital on top of the modernist one, the broken Chippendale pediment, which breaks the modernist flat-roof code and also evokes a grandfather clock- a building taking the form of a clock. SONY BUILDING (AT&T)
  115. 115. 1. DISSONANT BEAUTYOR DISHARMONIOUSHARMONY 2. PLURALISM-CELEBRATION OF DIFFERENCE. DIFFERENT "LANGUAGES" OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE ARE MIXED TOGETHER FOR SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS AND SYMBOLIC INTENTIONS. AMBIGUITY IS OFTEN VALUED – IT IS UP TO THE READER TO SUPPLY THE "UNIFYING TEXT". 3. NEW BUILDINGS SHOULD BOTH FIT INTO AND EXTEND THE URBANCONTEXT. REUSE SUCHCONSTANTSAS THESTREET, ARCADEANDPIAZZA, YET ACKNOWLEDGETOO THENEWTECHNOLOGIES AND MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION. 4. ANTHROPOMORPHISM-ORNAMENTS AND MOULDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF THE HUMAN BODY. THERE MIGHT BE A HIDDEN OR SUGGESTED FACE, FOR INSTANCE, OR A FULL FIGURE. 5. CONTINUUMBETWEENTHE PASTANDTHEPRESENT. FOR MODERNISM THERE IS A POSITIVE BREAK WITH THE PAST. IN POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE THERE IS PARODY, NOSTALGIA, AND PASTICHE. IT IS ALMOST LIKE A HALF-REMEMBERED DREAM – BITS OF CLASSICAL REFERENCE. POST MODERNISM
  116. 116. 6. RETURNTO PAINTING-RETURN TO CONTENT. IMAGES OF THE PAST, WITHOUT THE NARRATIVE OF THE PAST. 7. DOUBLE-CODING, IRONY, AMBIGUITY, ANDCONTRADICTION. THE UNEXPECTED IS INCORPORATED. OPPOSITES ARE JUXTAPOSED. 8. MULTIVALENCE. A UNIVALENT WORK OR BUILDING ATTEMPTS TO REFER ONLY TO ITSELF. A MULTIVALENT BUILDING REACHES OUT TO THE REST OF ITS ENVIRONMENT AND MAKES DIFFERENT ASSOCIATIONS. THIS ENSURES THAT A WORK WILL HAVE MULTIPLE RESONANCES, AND DIFFERENT READINGS. 9. REINTERPRETATIONOF TRADITION.A CLASSICAL FORM MAY BE PRESSED INTO NEW SERVICE, AND LOOK STRANGE TO BEGIN WITH BUT ACTUALLY MAKE SENSE ONCE YOU UNDERSTAND THE REFERENCES. 10. POSTMODERNISTS ALSO TRY TO ELABORATE NEWRHETORICALFIGURES
  117. 117. Charles Moore  One of the chief innovators of postmodern architecture.  Was a teacher during most of his career.  During his fellowship, Moore served as a teaching assistant for Louis Kahn.  Became Dean of the Yale School of Architecture from 1965 through 1970  In 1985, he became Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin.  Author of The Place of Houses, Body, Memory and Architecture, Water and Architecture, Dimensions,etc.
  118. 118. Charles Moore  As an architect much of his work was authored under the firm identification MLTW -Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull,Whitaker.  Moore preferred conspicuous design features, including loud color combinations, stylistic collisions, the re-use of historical- design solutions, and the use of non-traditional materials such as plastic, platinum tiles, and neon signs,historic detail,ornamentation.
  119. 119. Moore's design philosophy  PRINCIPLE 1 : Habitation supports interplay between occupant and structure that leads to a particular kind of relationship.  PRINCIPLE 2 : The right of freedom of speech for architecture and architect . Buildings must 'speak' about how they were built and about the people who use them and who built them.  PRINCIPLE 3 : Buildings must be inhabitable by the bodies , minds and memories of that occupiers must be able to imprint their lives on a building.  PRINCIPLE 4 : Design buildings in which occupants perceive each space differently and appropriately for the purpose of the room . The 'sense of place' should not merely be visible with the eyes but perceived by all the senses.  PRINCIPLE 5 : Quality in a building that allow us to 'find our roots' through making connections with meaningful history and remembered past.
  120. 120. Philosophy  He developed a humanistic approach to architecture in which each design attempts to engage users within a clearly defined spatial environment.  He believed that architecture must elicit responses from all the senses ,not only visual.  He felt that architecture should be based on client preference and on a symbolic reference to the site.  Instead of using architecture to moralize an ideal,he uses it to generate an environment that stimulates the user.
  121. 121. Famous Projects  Sea Ranch Condominium(1963)  The Faculty Club at university of California(1968)  Kresge College at university of California(1961)  Piazza d’Italia(1978)  The Haas School of Business ,California(1995)  The Washington State History Museum in Tacoma
  122. 122. Sea Ranch Housing(1965-72)
  123. 123. Sea Ranch Housing  Moore‘s Sea Ranch housing (1965-72) on the California coast was an extreme example of ecological architecture. The houses modeled on local barns, are nestled into the site, sheltered from the prevailing wings. Slanted woods both deflect wind and collect sun
  124. 124. Sea Ranch Housing
  125. 125. Sea Ranch Housing  It was a concept of cluster designed to preserve the openness of a beautiful site, the California wood tradition projected into a mid-sixties leaner sensibility and aesthetic, with a builder's type awareness of economy. • Vernacular elements • Site oriented design • Right of freedom of speech
  126. 126. Sea Ranch Housing section
  127. 127. Sea Ranch Housing Ground floor plan First floor plan
  128. 128. Sea Ranch Housing  The design principles established by Condominium 1 included the use of what Moore termed aedicules, small intimate spaces defined by four columns and a canopy, small projections of the interior space to the exterior that provide a view or a space.  The units are arranged with horizontal and vertical view lines through the space.  Tightly grouped the units around a courtyard.  With traditional shed roofs.  An intersecting and towerlike wall planes, creating an overall commanding form but one of identifiably individual parts, at once casual and modest, open to views and sun yet sheltered and protected from the wind
  129. 129. Sea Ranch housing  The timber frame is clad in vertical redwood siding, with vertical forms resembling mine structures anchoring a series of sloping roofs that descend toward the ocean, perforated by skylights.  Windows are plain openings without mullions.  There are no eaves.  On the uphill side the building wraps around a courtyard that houses the units' garages.  Sight oriented design.  Suits the context, and the social life.
  130. 130. interior
  131. 131. Piazza d Italia
  132. 132. Piazza d Italia
  133. 133. Piazza d Italia  The Piazza d'Italia is an urban public plaza located at New Orleans,Louisiana.  It is a monument to the Italian-American community and their contribution to the City of New Orleans.  The piazza was destined to become a major attraction in a city where tourism is the second largest industry.  Piazza d’Italia represented a new approach to urban design, one that modeled itself on the historic plazas of old Europe.  Moore designed it in close collaboration with three young architects then practicing with the Perez firm in New Orleans - Malcolm Heard, Ronald Filson and Allen Eskew.
  134. 134. Piazza d Italia • Reference to historic elements • Modified historic elements • Used modern materials & techniques • Perception by all senses , not just visual.
  135. 135. Piazza d Italia  Moore conceived of a public fountain in the shape of the Italian peninsula, surrounded by 5 concentric colonnades, playfully appropriated with Classical forms and orders, executing them in modern materials (e.g., stainless steel, neon) or kinetically (e.g., suggesting the acanthus leaves of traditional Corinthian capitals through the use of water jets).  a clock tower, and Roman temple - expressed in abstract, minimalist, fashion.  Designed to provide the small Italian-American population in New Orleans with an architectural focus of ethnic identity  Playful design ,evokes joy unlike any other monumental building
  136. 136. Piazza d Italia
  137. 137. Piazza d Italia
  138. 138.  Charles Moore brought to post-modernism a gentle but studied playfullness that made his buildings immediately accessible to the public.  He felt that architecture should be based on client preference and on a symbolic reference to the site.  Instead of using architecture to moralize an ideal,he uses it to generate an environment that stimulates the user.  He took pleasure in historic allusions.  His works were refreshing.
  139. 139. EARLY LIFE Graves was identified as a member of the New York Five, a group of young architects whose largely residential designs were reminiscent of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in their geometric abstraction. After graduation, Michael Graves went to work for the designer and architect, George Nelson, where his long- standing interest in furniture design was encouraged Modifying the Modern Tradition By the mid-1970s Michael Graves was moving vigorously away from the Modern tradition and toward an architecture he characterized as "figurative"—that is, related in visual and symbolic ways to human beings
  140. 140.  Graves' architecture increasingly used anthropomorphic metaphors, such as the classical three-part division of a wall to suggest the feet, body, and head of a human figure  His architecture utilizes forms and concepts that derive from the classical architectural tradition. To his love of the classical, however, Graves added his training in Modernist structure and his awareness of American traditions, developing a personal form of Post-Modern classicism.
  141. 141. Post-Modernism Becomes Controversial  Michael Graves' works after 1980 brought him international recognition as a leading figure in Post- Modernism, but not without engendering controversy. With other Post-Modernists, he was accused of extremism for radically departing from Modernism's pragmatic expression of function and materials.  Graves, however, found Modernism alienating and created architecture intended to communicate with its surroundings and with the public by referring to architectural tradition. Especially important to him was ornament, rejected by Modernism but seen by Post- Modernists as essential to giving a building meaning
  142. 142. Resistance to Specialization  Beginning in the late 1970s, but particularly by the mid- 1980s, Graves expanded his range of influence to the design of furniture - rugs, kitchen products, dinnerware, jewelry, clocks, and watches Tea kettle and peppermill by Michael Graves for Alessi
  143. 143. Portland Building, Portland, Oregon, 1982 It is a 15 storey municipal office building It costed US$29 million Added to the National register of historic places in 2011 Block mass with decorated facades, criticized for unpleasant interior. Icon of Post-Modernism Urban context and mild climate
  144. 144. Elevation Section
  145. 145. View
  146. 146.  use of a variety of surface materials and colors, small windows, and inclusion of prominent decorative flourishes, was in stark contrast to the architectural style most commonly used for large office buildings at the time  In 1990, only eight years after it was built, the lobby and food court were in need of remodeling  The roof of the Portland Building is covered with a green roof, installed in 2006. The new roof will help the building's heating, cooling, and storm-water runoff systems.  Roof height-70.41 m (231.0 ft)  In May 1983, the building won an American Institute of Architects honor award. In 1985, the hammered-copper statue Portlandia was added above the front entrance.
  147. 147.  The pastel colour sprayed into geometric designs evoked memories of childhood rather than government at work  Looks like a giant unsolved rubik cube  Lack of sufficient detail  The flying garlands of portland building look flat and two-dimensional. The details on the building is paint and and paint is not form
  148. 148. Walt Disney World Dolphin Hotel a resort hotel
  149. 149.  The Dolphin and Swan share similar elements, but each has a distinctive appearance.  The Dolphin is composed of a 257-foot (78 m) tall triangular tower bisecting a 12-story rectangular mass with four 9-story wings on the Swan-side of the structure.  The roof of each half of the main mass is adorned with a 56- foot (17 m) tall Dolphin statue.  On the main colored facade there is a turquoise banana-leaf pattern echoed by a similar wave pattern on the Swan.
  150. 150.  The statues on top of the Dolphin hotel are not mammalian dolphins, but a stylized version of a nautical dolphin, a common symbol used on old world nautical maps.  The design of the creatures is based on Triton Fountain in Rome
  151. 151.  Humanism is probably the thing that connects all of his projects. Whether planning a city, designing a building, designing a piece of furniture or designing a toaster, first and foremost he think about how people will interact with the design. He embraced this philosophy while studying in Rome, and it is the most important filter that he include in all of our projects, and it is the greatest thing he have instilled in our office. The terms have become almost cliché, but function drives form in good design at every scale.  Michael Graves's own work has evolved dramatically, relative both to his use of color and to his interest in a figurative architecture that incorporates traditional elements along with the lessons of modernism
  152. 152.  His Hanselmann House (Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1967) a complexity of form and yet a transitory quality were created by his layering of exterior spaces.  These qualities became more pronounced in his Benacerraf House addition (Princeton, New Jersey, 1969) and in his Snyderman House (Fort Wayne, 1972), as did his organization of interiors into distinct rooms, an approach at odds with the Modern movement's traditional emphasis on openness of plan.  Graves also showed an interest in metaphor which would eventually separate him further from established Modernism. This metaphor was expressed variously in the classical sense of processional entry at the Hanselmann House or the color coding of the Benacerraf addition, suggesting analogies with the natural environment.
  153. 153.  Michael Graves uses what he terms representational colors, colors that are derived primarily from nature and materials.  For example, terra cotta, representing the earth, is usually seen near the base of his structures. Blue used as a metaphor for the sky, is often chosen for the ceiling.  According to Douglas Davis of Newsweek, "Michael Graves is a man obsessed with communicating the meaning of every element of his work. His soft, muted colors reinforce this concern for symbolism".
  154. 154. Even though I was one of the originators of Postmodernism, I don’t think in terms of style at all. I never have. I was simply trying to humanize Modernism. I was simply trying to find a way to make an architecture that didn’t leave me cold.” ~ Michael Graves
  155. 155.  EVEN POSTMODERNISM WAS JUST ANTI- MODERNIST, NOT A THEORY IN ITSELF.  THE SEARCH FOR A THEORY OF DESIGN PROMPTED ARCHITECTS TO BORROW THEORY FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES..STRUCTURALISM,POST STRUCTURALISM, FEMINISM, RATIONALISM, DECONSTRUCTION....
  156. 156.  Post-structuralism is a response to structuralism(intellectual movement developed in Europe from the early to mid-20th century) which argued that human culture may be understood by means of a structure — modelled on language (i.e., structural linguistics)—that differs from concrete reality and from abstract.  Post structuralism is instability in the human sciences, due to the complexity of humans themselves and the impossibility of fully escaping structures in order to study them.  Post-Structuralists include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler etc POST-STRUCTURALISM REJECTS THE NOTION OF THE ESSENTIAL QUALITY OF THE DOMINANT RELATION IN THE HIERARCHY, CHOOSING RATHER TO EXPOSE THESE RELATIONS AND THE DEPENDENCY OF THE DOMINANT TERM ON ITS APPARENTLY SUBSERVIENT COUNTERPART. THE ONLY WAY TO PROPERLY UNDERSTAND THESE MEANINGS IS TO DECONSTRUCT THE ASSUMPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS THAT PRODUCE THE ILLUSION OF SINGULAR MEANING.
  157. 157. Deconstruction- Derrida  An approach that rigorously pursues the meaning of a text to the point of exposing the supposed contradictions and internal oppositions on which it is founded- to show the unstable foundation.  Related to Post structuralism. Structuralism says that different objects come together to create meaning- ‘cat ate the rat’ . There is absolute meaning.  Post Structuralism says one meaning is dependent on another. Culture, lifestyle, world view etc. gives meaning, priorities and hierarchies. So Deconstruction strips off all meanings created by elements and dependencies, and still what experience remains, is the absolute spirit.
  158. 158. Deconstruction What could possibly be the reason behind a style which appears distorted, twisted, bent and destroys the conventional shape of buildings and dissolves any obvious relationship between the function of the building and its form?
  159. 159. Deconstruction -  Deconstructivism, or Deconstruction - - -  is an approach to building design which attempts to view architecture in bits and pieces. The basic elements of architecture are dismantled.  Deconstructivist buildings may seem to have no visual logic: They may appear to be made up of unrelated, disharmonious abstract forms.
  160. 160. Deconstruction -  Deconstruction’s values challenge harmony, unity and stability, proposing different views of the structure.  Form distorts itself, but not destroyed.  Base and superstructure- which comes first?  Is function the base, or is form the base?  Form came first, or distortion came first?  You can start distorting before there is a form- understanding this stabilizes the form even further.  Displaces context-disturbs it- then acquiesces it, to make it aware. Structure is shaken, but not collapsed.  Function follows deformation  Sense of disquiet by locating impurity within pure form.
  161. 161. Deconstruction -  Deconstructivism in Architecture:  Modern architecture pretended to be the most rational, technologically advanced and perfectly functional system.  It also pretended to be based entirely on the carefully quantified needs and requirements of its users.  Deconstructivism may be considered to be one of the fragments of modern with its goal of dissolving the fixed and determined forms of the modern and of revealing the dynamic possibilities that lay within the program offered by the institution and its context.
  162. 162. Deconstruction -  Deconstructivism in architecture:  The main task of architecture according to some deconstructivists was a creation of a PURE ARCHITECTURAL EXPERIENCE, unhindered by function- architecture of pleasure and joy.  One of the keywords in the deconstructivist lexicon is ‘difference’.  What this produced was the design of buildings where the actual function of the building cannot be easily understood.
  163. 163. Bernard Tschumi- Parc de la villette  As part of an international competition, 1982-83, to revitalize the abandoned and undeveloped land from the French national wholesale meat market and slaughterhouse inParis, France, Bernard Tschumi was chosen from over 470 entries including that of OMA/Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid, and Jean Nouvel. Unlike other entries in the competition, Tschumi did not design the park in a traditional mindset where landscape and nature are the predominant forces behind the design [i.e. Central Park]. Rather he envisioned Parc de la Villette as a place of culture where natural and artificial [man-made] are forced together into a state of constant reconfiguration and discovery.Tschumi's competition winning scheme of 1983 places 35 red follies in the Park. Each folly is based on a cube and deconstructed according to the rules of transformation (repitition, distortion, superimposition, interruption and fragmentation), without any functional considerations.
  164. 164. Follies Existing in vacuum...non place
  165. 165. Today- Designing for the Digital World PART IV
  166. 166. PETER EISENMANN “Jacques (Derrida) was important in the later stage of my work because he said that it was possible in language to separate the sign and the signified − that is, the thing and its sign. What has made architecture interesting for Post-Structuralist philosophy is that architecture is about the relationship of the sign to the signified, that the column, for instance, is the sign of the column and the column itself; or the wall is the sign of the wall and the wall itself.
  167. 167. UNIFIED BERLIN- MAX REINHARDT HAUS PROPOSAL BY PETER EISENMANN
  168. 168. MOBIUS HOUSE
  169. 169. The ambition was to redefine / reinvent the Library as an institution no longer exclusively dedicated to the book, but as an information store, where all media - new and old - are presented under a regime of new equalities The New Seattle Public Library- REM KOOLHASS, OMA
  170. 170. The fact that the contents of a whole library can be stored on a single chip, or the fact that a single library can now store the digital content of all libraries, together represent potential re- thinking: new forms of storage enable the space dedicated to real books to be contained; new forms of reading enhance the aura of the real book. Compression
  171. 171. During the past decade, Seattle has played a pioneering role in the definition of a new society. In addition to the typical library, there will be 'attractions' that exploit the location of the library system in Seattle, in the heart of its emerging culture. The areas of 'flight,' the digital revolution and the evolutions of corporate culture, will be highlighted by offering access to unique materials and archives, organized in specific cores. Aura
  172. 172. Books have to share attention with other media of potent performance and attraction. A parallel exists between the vast proliferation and incredible intricacy of program in the New Library, and the equally explosive multiplication of information media and social obligations that has to be accommodated within it. New Equalities
  173. 173. The Library has been transformed from a space to read into a social center with multiple responsibilities. Each library today houses a proliferation of adjunct conditions that creates a conceptual imbalance: since its format has never been fundamentally adjusted to accommodate its new social role, the Library is like a host organism overwhelmed by its parasites Social Role
  174. 174. The entire 2025 collection can be held comfortably within one demarcated zone, 19,129 sf less than originally allocated to it. Contained SF
  175. 175. By genetically modifying the superposition of floors in the typical American high- rise, a building emerges that is at the same time sensitive (the slopes will admit unusual quantities of daylight where desirable), contextual (each side can react differently to specific urban conditions), iconic. Its angular facets form, with the folds of Gehry's Experience Music Project, a plausible bracketing of Seattle's new modernity Platforms
  176. 176. Platforms Our first operation has been the ‘combing’ and consolidation of the apparently ungovernable proliferation of programs and media. By combining like with like, we have identified five platforms, each a programmatic cluster that is architecturally defined and equipped for maximum, dedicated performance. Because each platform is designed for a unique purpose, they are different in size, density, opacity. The in-between spaces are like trading floors where librarians inform and stimulate, where the interface between the different platforms is organized - spaces for work, interaction, and play. (And reading).
  177. 177. VirtualPlatform For the Seattle Public Library (SPL), the intersection of identity and legibility occurs in the realm of the virtual first. For many, the first point of contact with the identity of the SPL will be the internet site. It offers a unique opportunity to declare the pleasures and benefits of the new Library, as well as its structure and strengths. The virtual functions also as a training ground - introducing the platform model, the hierarchy, features and
  178. 178.  Inspired by Chanel’s signature creation, the quilted bag ZAHA HADID’S DESIGN FOR CHANEL’S MOBILE EXHIBITION SPACE
  179. 179.  Form-celebration of iconic work of Chanel  Travelling art space  Hosts exhibition of art spaces inspired by Chanel bags called Mobile art  Building elements-small and easily transportable through sea  Resulting structure-series of continuous arch shaped elements and central courtyard  Complexity and technological advances in digital imaging software and construction techniques have made the architecture of the Mobile Art Pavilion possible.
  180. 180.  Architectural language of fluidity and nature, driven by new digital design and manufacturing processes  Resulted in the pavilion’s organic form  Evolved from spiraling forms of nature  Offers appropriate expansion towards circumference, providing generous public areas.  Also, due to Hadid’s explorations of natural organizational systems.
  181. 181.  Follows the parametric distortion of a torus  Circular Torus-fundamental diagram of exhibition space.  Doughnut-like shape, created by rotating a circle around another one in a coplanar axis  Polar grid cuts distorted torus into 10 degree slices  Defines joint lines of its facade
  182. 182.  Distortion-creates a variety of exhibition spaces at the circumference.  Centre-courtyard-opportunity to meet other visitors to the exhibition  Organic shell-created with a succession of reducing arched segments.  Segmentation-appropriate system of partitioning.  Volatility of design form of pavilion-generated through digital imaging software.
  183. 183.  Allowed for construction techniques to be easily manufactured and processed.  Through computation, expansion and contraction of the pavilion made easy  First unique concept-daylighting illuminate downwards, artificial light pushes upwards  Second-large cavity floods entrance with light blurring difference between artificial and natural light
  184. 184. Pavilion to travel over three continents, Segmentation gives appropriate system of partitioning Allowing pavilion to be easily transported in manageable elements Partitioning seams-strong formal feature of the exterior façade cladding Glazed ceiling –control temperature in different places Natural light from the 7 elements on the roof is augmented by artificial light pushed up from the gap between the wall and raised floor
  185. 185. Entrance  Oppositions between interior and exterior, light and dark and natural and artificial landscapes are synthesised  Lines of energy converge within the pavilion
  186. 186. Cladding-FRP, strong, lightweight, moulded into contours
  187. 187. Pavilion’s exterior develops into rich interior spaces-maximize potential to reuse and rethink space-flixibility in plan
  188. 188. Floor plan
  189. 189. Section
  190. 190. Section
  191. 191. "The general characteristics of Deconstructivist design are as follows:  Explodes architectural form into loose collections of related fragments.  Destroys the dominance of the right angle and the cube by using the diagonal line and the `slice' of space.  Uses ideas and images from Russian Revolutionary architecture and design -Russian Constructivism  Searches for more DYNAMIC spatial possibilities and experiences not explored (or forbidden) by the Modern Movement.  Provokes shock, uncertainty, unease, disquiet, disruption, distortion by challenging familiar ideas about space, order and regularity in the environment.  Rejects the idea of the `perfect form' for a particular activity and rejects the familiar relationship between certain forms and certain activities.

×