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Chilled water piping basics

The basics about chilled water piping,
pipe sizing,pump selection

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Chilled water piping basics

  1. 1. NASEEM AP WWW.GILLSENERGY.COM CHILLED WATER SYSTEM
  2. 2. CHW SYSTEM COMPONENTS 1. CHILLER –AIR COOLED , WATER COOLED 2. CHW PIPING 3. PUMPS 4. COOLING TOWER (FOR WATER COOLED) 5. AHUS
  3. 3. CHILLER BASICS 1. Chilled water flows thru the evaporator .The evaporator is a heat exchanger 2. Chiller compressor may be centrifugal, scroll, screw or reciprocating 3. The condenser may air cooled or water cooled 4. There can be multiple chillers in a chw plant
  4. 4. FLOW CALCULATION 1. Common design condition is supply water 44 F ,return water 54 F temperature difference 10 F 2. Q = W*C*DELTA TEMP WHERE Q = qty of heat exchanged (btu/hr) C = Specific heat of fluid (btu/lb F) W = Flow rate of fluid (usgpm) For water TR = FLOW* GPM* DEL T/24
  5. 5. FLOW VELOCITY 1. Too low flow rate affects chiller efficiency 2. Too high flow rate cause vibration noise & tube erosion 3. The recommended flow rate is between 3- 12 fps
  6. 6. CHILLER EER 1. Chiller is the largest single point electriccity user in a building 2. EER = TR * 12/kw input 3. The recommended flow rate is between 3- 12 fps 4. Chillers rarely work in full load condition (2 %) hence NPLV is very important
  7. 7. EXPANSION TANK 1. Essential to manage the thermal expansion 2. Can be open type or closed type 3. Open tanks must be located above the highest point 4. Air water interface or diaphragm tank can be located anywhere in the system 5. The lower the pressure in the tank the smaller it is
  8. 8. PIPING BASICS 1. Once through & re circulating 2. Open & closed type 3. Friction loss in pipe will depend up on  Velocity  Interior surface roughness  Diameter  length 4. For long run pipes expansion joints are provided 5. the pressure in the tank the smaller it is 6. The chw Pipes should be insulated
  9. 9. PIPING BASICS 1. Piping is usually steel, copper or plastic 2. Usually closed loop 3. Cooling tower piping is open loop 4. Generally the static pressure is less than 150 psi 5. If the system is above 150 psi static intermediate HE or chw systems are used
  10. 10. PIPING VALVES 1. 2 way or 3 way valve to direct/by pass the flow 2. Balancing valve to control the flow 3. Gate valves for isolation 4. Globe valves for throttling 5. Butterfly valves – Isolation, throttling 6. Strainers- For filtration 7. Flexible bellows –Vibration arresting 8. NRV-at pump discharge 9. Pressure & temperature gauges
  11. 11. BALANCING VALVE
  12. 12. TRIPLE DUTY VALVE
  13. 13. GATE VALVE
  14. 14. BUTTERFLY VALVE
  15. 15. STRAINER VALVE
  16. 16. FLEXIBLE BELLOW
  17. 17. 2 WAY & 3 WAY VALVE
  18. 18. BALL VALVE
  19. 19. TAB BASICS 1. HVAC Piping testing procedure  Pressure testing  Evacuation  Gas charging 2. Water pipe ling is balance with balancing valves 3. Air side balancing done by vcd s & dampers
  20. 20. TAB INSTRUMENTS 1. Vacuum pump
  21. 21. TAB INSTRUMENTS 1. Manifold gauges
  22. 22. TAB INSTRUMENTS 1. Manometer
  23. 23. TAB INSTRUMENTS 1. Balometer

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The basics about chilled water piping, pipe sizing,pump selection

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