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Using Ontologies to Strengthen Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs

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Using Ontologies to Strengthen Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs

  1. 1. Using Ontologies to Strengthen Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs Alexandre Passant EDF, Recherche & Développement, Clamart, France Université Paris 4, Laboratoire LaLICC, Paris, France 1 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  2. 2. 1 Corporate Blogging 2 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  3. 3. Classical (old-school) information systems •  Features: •  Workflows •  Access Control •  Templates •  Archives •  Designed to store: •  Project reports •  Internal notes •  Hierarchical information •  But, what about informal and unstructured content: •  Short news •  E-mails •  Coffee-break discussions 3 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  4. 4. A new vision: Enterprise 2.0 •  Web 2.0 concepts in a corporate environment •  Write and share any knowledge: •  Blogs •  Comments, trackbacks •  Re-use and capitalize knowledge: •  Wikis •  Open structure and cooperation •  Be informed: •  RSS feeds •  Shared subscriptions 4 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  5. 5. EDF R&D Experiment •  EDF R&D: •  2000 researchers •  3 research centers •  Our platform: •  RSS subscription system •  Blogs •  Group wikis •  Experiment (1 1/2 year): •  1500 feeds, 8000 blog posts •  80 bloggers, 600 readers / subscribers 5 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  6. 6. 2 Weblogs Indexing and Folksonomies 6 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  7. 7. Indexing blog posts •  Meta-data about the container: •  Automatically-created metadata: •  Author, creation date, title •  DublinCore standards •  Meta-data about blog post content: •  Previously-defined: •  Ontologies, taxonomies •  User-defined: •  Free keywords and folksonomies •  Folksonomies: •  Easy to adopt •  Build from scratch 7 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  8. 8. Folksonomies limits •  Tags variation: •  Different tags for the same meaning: •  Synonymy, Abbreviation, Acronyms … •  Typos •  Tag ambiguity: •  Different meanings for the same tag: •  Acronyms, Homonymy … •  Flat organisation: •  No way to suggest related tags •  Paris / France •  blog / socialsoftware 8 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  9. 9. Ambiguity example from del.icio.us 9 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  10. 10. Some tools to reduce variation and explosion •  Tag completion: •  Forward and “backward” completion •  AJAX •  Tag suggestion: •  Based on blog post content •  Suggesting existing tags •  But also new ones using named entites extraction •  AJAX 10 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  11. 11. 3 The Semantic Web 11 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  12. 12. A Few Words About the Semantic Web •  Semantic Web •  Extending the current Web •  Unified description of resources •  Ontologies •  Representation of a domain •  Common vocabulary •  Languages •  Modeling: RDF(S), OWL … •  Querying: SPARQL … 12 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  13. 13. Weblogging and the Semantic Web •  Tools: •  Snippet Manager [Cayzer & al. 2005] •  semiBlog [Möller & al. 2006] •  Folksonomies: •  Tag ontology to represent connections between tags [Newman 2005] •  Tagging model [Gruber 2005] •  Vocabularies: •  RSS 1.0 based on RDF, can be extended with other vocabularies •  SIOC: Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities [Breslin & al. 2005] •  State of The Art: •  « What next for Semantic Blogging » [Cayzer 2006] 13 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  14. 14. 4 Strengthening Folksonomies 14 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  15. 15. A mix of Folksonomies and Ontologies •  Mixing both approaches •  Keep the open spirit of folksonomies •  Use an ontology layer as a formal way to represent data •  Remove ambiguity and add meaning to tags to enhance search experience •  How ? •  Link tags to domain ontology concepts (classes / instances) •  Create links between posts and ontology concepts using SIOC •  First steps •  Analyse the folksonomy and most popular tags •  Create a core ontology (based on PROTON) and its instances •  300 classes, 600 instances, mainly named entities 15 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  16. 16. A simple way to link tags to ontology instances 16 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  17. 17. From Tags to Ontology (1/5) 1)  Create and tag post 17 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  18. 18. From Tags to Ontology (2/5) 1)  Create and tag post 2)  Link tag to ontology 18 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  19. 19. From Tags to Ontology (3/5) 1)  Create and tag post 2)  Link tag to ontology 3)  Link post to ontology 19 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  20. 20. From Tags to Ontology (4/5) 1)  Create and tag post 2)  Link tag to ontology 3)  Link post to ontology 4)  Create new post 20 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  21. 21. From Tags to Ontology (5/5) 1)  Create and tag post 2)  Link tag to ontology 3)  Link post to ontology 4)  Create new post 5)  Infer related post 21 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  22. 22. Dealing with ambiguity and maintaining instances •  User interface to remove ambiguity when adding a new post •  Ability to browse the ontology to link to other class / instance for new / different meaning tags •  Restricted back office to create new instances 22 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  23. 23. 5 Enhanced Information Retrieval 23 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  24. 24. A Semantic Search Engine •  Decentralized data: •  Using tags / ontology links to: •  Ontologies •  Deal with tags variations •  Blog posts w/ RDF description •  Remove ambiguity •  A central 3store w/ SPARQL 24 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  25. 25. Suggesting related tags and posts •  Goal: •  Offer suggestions to users based on their current tag search •  Let users discover potential interesting posts •  Different approaches, use both tagging and ontologies: •  Using instances co-occurrence •  Using instances type •  Defining specific rules •  Run on the fly and suggest results, using SPARQL 25 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  26. 26. Using instances co-occurrence •  Basic approach: –  Posts sharing concepts –  Ontology to remove ambiguity 26 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  27. 27. Using instances types •  Suggesting instances of the same class: –  Programming languages –  Energy companies 27 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  28. 28. Defining specific rules •  Rule(s) for each class •  Location / {sub|top}locations •  Company / companies working in the same area 28 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  29. 29. Rule example •  RDF rule •  Reformulated w/ SPARQL {! SELECT ?post ?topic ?domain! :x rdf:type sioc:post .! WHERE {! :y rdf:type sioc:post .! <$uri> [! :x sioc:topic :a .! rdf:type ptop:Agent ;! :y sioc:topic :b .! company:expertiseIn ? domain! :a rdf:type ptop:Agent .! ] .! :b rdf:type ptop:Agent .! ?post sioc:topic ?topic .! :a company:expertiseIn :d .! ?topic [! :b company:expertiseIn :d ! rdf:type ptop:Agent ;! } => {! company:expertiseIn ? :x sioc:related_to :y ! domain! } . ] ! } 29 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  30. 30. Running and Displaying results •  SPARQL queries on the triplestore •  Offering different tagclouds to split results in clusters: •  Instances •  Specific rules •  Co-occurrence •  Let users know why they should have a look to related posts 30 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  31. 31. 6 Conclusion 31 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  32. 32. Conclusion •  Mixing folksonomies and ontologies •  Keep simplicity of free tagging •  Ontologies to reduce limits of free tagging •  Infer related posts / topics •  A mix of top-down and bottom-up approach •  A real use-case •  Adapt model and interfaces to users needs •  Future works •  Knowledge extraction from weblogs •  Use wikis to add properties to ontology instances •  New ways to browse and query blog posts 32 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007
  33. 33. Thank you ! 33 October 24, 2009 Using Ontologies To Strenghten Folksonomies and Enrich Information Retrieval in Weblogs - ICWSM 2007

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