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Artificial lighting

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING for ART GALLERY ANTONY KUMAR BOITY ROLL NO – 01,
  2. 2. •O U R L I V E S A R E E N R I C H E D B Y ART THROUGH ART WE E X PAN D O U R H O R I Z O N S AN D ENTER NEW WORLDS. •I N A N A R T G A L L E R Y S P A C E , D AY L I G H T AND ARTIFICI AL L I G H T AR E O F F U N D AM E N TAL I M P O R TA N C E . •T H E A R C H I T E C T U R E A N D T Y P E OF LIGHTING USED IN THESE S PA C E S H AV E A F A R - R E A C H I N G I N F L U E N C E O N T H E I R I D E N T I T Y. •T H E LIGHTING M AKES IT P O S S I B L E T O I L L U M I N AT E A L L TH E FAC E TS O F TH E AR TW O R K . •L I G H T F U N D A M E N TA L LY A F F E C T S M AT E R I A L S T H R O U G H PHOTO-CHEMIC AL ACTION AND RADI ANT H E AT I N G EFFECTS F R O M U V & I R R AY S . • PROLONGED EXPOSURE OF SENSITIVE M AT E R I A L S TO L I G H T, E S P E C I A L L Y D AY L I G H T, IS D E T R I M E N TA L TO THE L O N G E V I T Y A N D P R E S E R V AT I O N OF THOSE ARTWORKS OR AR T E FA C TS .
  3. 3. •THOUGH THE DAYLIGHT IS THE MOST DESIREABLE SOURCE OF LIGHT, DUE TO UNCONTROLABLE NATURE AND HEATING EFFECT OF IT THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING BECOMES LARGER IN ART GALLERIES. •CONTROLLABLE QUALITIES OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ARE 1.AVAILABLILITY 2.ANGLE 3.INTENSITY 4.DISTRIBUTION 5.COLOR 6.MOVEMENT
  4. 4. THE ANNUAL LIGHT EXPOSURE IS THE CUMULATIVE AMOUNT OF VISIBLE LIGHT INCIDENT AT A POINT, WITHIN THE BUILDING, OVER A 1-YEAR PERIOD (ANNUALLY). IN AN ART GALLERY THE MAXIMUM ANNUAL LIGHT EXPOSURE FOR VERY LIGHT SENSITIVE OBJECTS SUCH AS WATER COLOURS IS 150,000 LUX HOURS, WHEREAS MORE LIGHT FAST PIGMENTS SUCH AS OIL HAVE A HIGHER VALUE OF 600,000 LUX HOURS. INTELLIGENT LIGHTING SOLUTIONS STRIKE A PERFECT BALANCE BETWEEN LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. MAXXI – NATIONAL MUSEUM OF XXI CENTURY ARTS, ROME, ARCHITECTURE: ZAHA HADID AND PATRIK SCHUMACHER, LONDON / GB
  5. 5. CITÉ DE L’ARCHITECTURE ET DU PATRIMOINE (Paris) USE OF DAYLIGHT FROM NORTH GIVES A CONSTANT SOURCE OF LIGHT WHICH HAS BEST CRI AND THE LIGHT LUX LEVEL REMAINS AFTER ITS COMPREHENSIVE RENOVATION, CONSTANT MOST OF THE DAYS. THE WILHELM HACK MUSEUM IN LUDWIGSHAFEN HAS TURNED INTO A PARAGON OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY. THE MUSEUM’S ENERGY COSTS HAVE BEEN SLASHED BY AS MUCH AS 70 %. DEPENDING ON LIGHTING CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS, THE LIGHTING CAN NOW BE CONTROLLED USING SCENARIOS; EACH LUMINAIRE CAN ALSO BE DIMMED INDIVIDUALLY. THIS ENSURES OPTIMAL ILLUMINATION OF EXHIBITS AND ALSO ENSURES THAT EXTREMELY OLD,
  6. 6. THE IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LIGHTINGS ARE: •COLOR RENDERING INDEX(CRI) OF LIGHTING FIXTURE. •LUX LEVEL REQUIRED. •DIMMING TO GREATLY EXTEND LAMP LIFE. WEISHAUPT ART GALLERY BUILDING MARKED THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF MIXTURE OF DAYLIGHT AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING. DAYLIGHT IS PREDOMINANTLY SCREENED OUT SO THAT THE AMOUNT OF INCIDENT NATURAL LIGHT CAN BE
  7. 7. CRI OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIGHTS •INCANDESCENTS BRING OUT THE WARM COLORS WITHIN THE COLOR SPECTRUM SUCH AS THE RED, BROWN, ORANGE, AND YELLOW TONES. •BUT ITS BAD THE COOLER COLORS SUCH AS VIOLET, BLUE AND GREENS. •THE BLUES, GREENS, AND VIOLETS WITHIN THE ART WORKS OF ART WILL BE FLATTENED OUT BY ROSE GALLERY AT THE SMITHSONIAN INCANDESCENT LIGHTS. AMERICAN ART MUSEUM ILLUMINATED WITH INCANDESCENT FIXTURES. •THESE LIGHTS ARE BETTER THAN FLUORESCENCE BUT ARE NOT THE ENTIRE SOLUTION TO THE LIGHTING PROBLEM. •FLUORESCENT LIGHTS AREN'T USED AS A COMMON PRACTICE BECAUSE THEY GIVE OFF A HIGH AMOUNT OF UV RAYS WHICH ARE HARMFUL. •IN ADDITION, FLUORESCENT LIGHTS DO NOT EMIT COLOR TEMPERATURE AT 3000K & LIGHT ACROSS THE ENTIRE SPECTRUM OF COLORS 2800K AND THIS IS PROBLEMATIC. •HALOGEN : •A STRONG WHITE LIGHT. •A VERY GOOD CRI VALUE. •BUT EMITS A LOT OF HEAT. •HENCE SOLUTION FOR THE HALOGEN MAY BE
  8. 8. •A FEW DATA REGARDING THE LUMENS OUTPUT FOR THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIGHTS AND LIFE SPAN FOR THE SAME.
  9. 9. LUX LEVEL REQUIRED: LIMITING ILLUMINANCES AND ANNUAL EXPOSURES FOR MATERIAL SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATIONS (CIE DIV. 3 TC3-22, MUSEUM LIGHTING AND PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION DAMAGE)
  10. 10. TYPES OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS : THE MOST IMPORTANT LIGHTING SYSTEMS USED IN EXHIBITION ROOMS ARE: • LUMINOUS CEILINGS WITH OPAL GLASS ENCLOSURE (DIFFUSE LIGHT) OR SATINISED AND TEXTURED GLASS (DIFFUSE/ DIRECTIONAL), • INDIRECT LUMINAIRES (DIFFUSE), • COVE LUMINAIRES (DIFFUSE), • WALLWASHERS (DIRECTIONAL OR DIFFUSE/DIRECTIONAL), • SPOT LAMPS.
  11. 11. LUMINOUS CEILINGS: •THE IDEA IS TO EMULATE THE SKY FOR THIS KIND OF LIGHTING SYSTEM. •LUMINOUS CEILINGS DELIVER LIGHT WHICH IS PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR PAINTING GALLERIES PREDOMINANTLY DIFFUSE WITH AN OPAL ENCLOSURE, •THE LIGHT SOURCES OF CHOICE ARE TUBULAR FLUORESCENT LAMPS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE STRUCTURAL GRID OF THE LUMINOUS CEILING. •FOR GOOD UNIFORMITY THEY SHOULD BE SPACED NO FURTHER APART THAN THE DISTANCE TO THE CEILING ENCLOSURE.
  12. 12. INDIRECT LIGHTING: •INDIRECT LIGHTING ADDS BRIGHTNESS TO THE ARTS WITHOUT CREATING ANY DIRECT OR INDIRECT GLARE. •AN IMPACT SIMILAR TO THAT OF A LUMINOUS CEILING IS ACHIEVED WITH INDIRECT LIGHT BOUNCED OFF THE CEILING AND UPPER WALL SURFACES INTO THE ROOM. •THIS DIFFUSE, UNIFORM LIGHT IS PREDOMINANTLY USED IN ROOMS WHERE NO DAYLIGHT ENTERS. •IT IS PRODUCED BY SUSPENDED LUMINAIRES RADIATING LIGHT UPWARDS. •IN EXHIBITION ROOMS, LUMINAIRES FOR SUSPENDED POWER TRACK SYSTEMS ARE AN OPTION: THEY ARE INSERTED IN THE TRACK FROM ABOVE WHILE SPOTS FOR DIRECTIONAL LIGHTING ARE ACCOMMODATED IN THE LOWER CHANNEL.
  13. 13. COVE LIGHTING: THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OF LUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THE CURVING TRANSITION BETWEEN WALL AND CEILING – THE COVE OR COVING – IS ANOTHER INDIRECT LIGHTING SOLUTION. •THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OF LUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THE CURVING TRANSITION BETWEEN WALL AND CEILING – THE COVE OR COVING IS ANOTHER INDIRECT LIGHTING SOLUTION. •THE MAIN DIRECTION OF LIGHT WITH COVE LIGHTING IS CLOSER TO THE HORIZONTAL THAN WITH A LUMINOUS CEILING. •THE LIGHT IS LARGELY SHADOW-FREE. •LINEAR LAMPS – GENERALLY TUBULAR FLUORESCENT LAMPS ARE THE MOST WIDELY USED LIGHT SOURCE. •EXCESSIVE LUMINANCE AT THE CEILING AND ON THE UPPER PART OF WALLS CAUSES GLARE AND INTERFERES WITH SPATIAL
  14. 14. WALL WASHERS: •WALL WASHERS BRING ATTENTION TO THE WALL THAT CONTAIN THE ARTS AND ARTEFACT, WHICH IS CALLED ACCENT LIGHTING. TEHY BRING DRAMA & FOCUS TO THE OBJECT. •LED WALL WASHERS ARE DESIGNED FOR LARGER INDOOR/OUTDOOR ACCENT LIGHTING APPLICATIONS. •WITH A NUMBER OF COLOR, ANGLE AND CONTROL OPTIONS, THE LED WALL WASHERS ALLOWS USERS TO INTERFACE THE APPROPRIATE COLOR, SCENE AND INTENSITY SCHEMES NECESSARY TO COMPLETE LARGE INTERIOR LIGHTING TASK. •WALL WASHING PROVIDES AN EVEN SPREAD OF ILLUMINATION. •FOR VERTICAL SURFACES SUCH AS WALLS, LARGE PAINTINGS, WALL HANGINGS, BOOKCASES AND SHELVING, CABINET FRONTS, OR STAIRWELLS. THE DIFFUSE NATURE OF WALL-WASH
  15. 15. SPOT LIGHTS: THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OF LUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THE CURVING TRANSITION BETWEEN WALL AND CEILING – THE COVE OR COVING – IS ANOTHER INDIRECT LIGHTING SOLUTION. AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR ACCENTUATING THE THREE- •"KEY AND FILL" IS DIMENSIONAL CHARACTER OF AN OBJECT. •THIS TECHNIQUE ENTAILS THE USE OF KEY AND FILL LIGHTING FROM TWO SIDES OF THE OBJECT. • KEY LIGHTING IS A HARD-ACCENT LIGHT USED TO CREATE SHADOWS AND TO HIGHLIGHT AN OBJECT'S FORM AND TEXTURE. •FILL LIGHT IS A SOFTER LIGHT THROWN FROM THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE •MAKING OBJECT TOTHE OBJECT SHADOWS. SOFTEN THE APPEAR MORE NATURAL. OTHER TECHNIQUES CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO FURTHER ACCENTUATE THE UNIQUE CHARACTER OF AN OBJECT, SUCH AS SILHOUETTING.
  16. 16. SPOTLIGHT WITH A PROTECTIVE UV FILTER HAS BEEN USED. THE SPOTLIGHTS CAN ALSO BE DIMMED INDIVIDUALLY BECAUSE THE PAINTINGS MUST NOT BE EXPOSED TO BRIGHTNESS IN EXCESS OF 50 LUX. THE GLASS SLOPES AT JUST THE RIGHT ANGLE TO PREVENT DISTRACTING REFLECTIONS ON DISPLAY CABINETS; THIS SLOPE ANGLE WAS DETERMINED ESPECIALLY FOR THIS PARTICULAR EXHIBITION. MUSEUM BOIJMANS VAN BEUNINGEN BOIJMANS VAN AN ARTIFICIALLY RECLAIMED ISLAND SOME 60 M FROM THE SEASIDE PROMENADE IN DOHA WITH A PALM-FRINGED APPROACH ROAD EMPHASISES THE EXTRAORDINARY STATUS OF THE UNIQUE DISPALY OF ISLAMIC ART. THE RATHER RESERVED AND SELF-CONTAINED EXTERIOR SURPRISES THE VISITOR WITH AN AMAZING OPENNESS INSIDE. PERFECT ILLUMINATION OF THE TREASURES OF ISLAMIC ART IN THE SPACIOUS HALLS AND GALLERIES IS ACHIEVED USING A CUSTOMISED SOLUTION DEVELOPED BY THE LIGHTING DESIGNERS IN CONJUNCTION WITH ZUMTOBEL. THE TALL, SLENDER GLASS DISPLAY CABINETS AND THEIR PRECIOUS EXHIBITS ARE PRECISELY ACCENT LIT BY OPTICAL FIBRES AND SPECIAL LIGHT OUTLETS. UV-FREE LIGHT PROVIDED BY
  17. 17. FOR DELICATE EXHIBITS. THE SMALL SPOTLIGHTS WHICH SUPPLEMENT THE DISPLAY CABINET LIGHTING AS REQUIRED AND ALSO SHOW THE WAY AROUND ARE NOT TIED TO THE DISPLAY CABINETS AND ARE THEREFORE AS FLEXIBLE AS POSSIBLE. THE DECISION WAS MADE TO DISPENSE WITH ADDITIONAL AMBIENT LIGHTING IN ORDER TO RETAIN AN ATMOSPHERE WHICH IS AS EXCITING AS POSSIBLE. THE LOW- VOLTAGE SPOTLIGHTS HERE ARE SPECIAL MOTORDRIVEN VERSIONS, WHICH CAN BE ALIGNED VIA A TOUCH PANEL AND DIMMED USING DMX CONTROL. BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE GENTLE LIGHTING.
  18. 18. A SOPHISTICATEDLY DRAMATIC CHIAROSCURO CONCEPT WITH PRECISELY SET CONTRASTS USING HIGH- POWER FRAMING SPOTLIGHTS PRODUCES AN EXTRAORDINARY EXHIBITION EXPERIENCE. ROOMS WITH ACCENT LIGHTING RANGING FROM GREEN AND SLATE BLUE TO RED – GLARE-FREE AND SURROUNDED BY A SUBTLE AURA – ALSO HELP CONVEY A SENSE OF SPACE PERFECTLY AND LIT BY ARCOS FRAMING SPOTLIGHTS TO MINIMISE THE ILLUMINATED WALL SURFACE AREA AND TURN EACH INDIVIDUAL WORK OF ART INTO A GLEAMING ISLAND IN ITS OWN RIGHT. SHARP OUTLINES – EVEN IN HIGH-CEILINGED THE ACCENT SPOTLIGHTS ROOMS ARE DALI DIMMABLE; THIS LANDESGALERIE AT THE UPPER AUSTRIAN ALLOWS FAST SETTING OF MUSEUM IN LINZ AND STRICT COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED ILLUMINANCE LEVELS TO

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