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Broadcasting is the practice of creating
audio and video program content and
distributing it to the mass audiences of
Radio, Television and Internet media.
AROUND THE WORLD
By Ancient Greeks
Tops Of Hills • Fire By Night
Columns Of Smoke
Large Mirrors By Day.
• The story of broadcasting begins in the the telegraph.
• It transmits and receives electric impulses, whose stations
are directly connected by wires.
• Long distance telegraphy started in 1792
• Began with the Théâtrophone systems
• Telephone-based distribution systems
which allows subscribers to listen to
live opera theatre performances over
• By French inventor Clément Ader in 1881
• The audio signals sent through the air as radio waves
from a transmitter, picked up by an antenna and sent to
• The first documented radio transmission occurred in 1895
and was sent by a 21 year old Italian, Guglielmo Marconi
• Older televisions rely on a cathode-ray tube
to produce images, and operated with an
analog signal. As technology has advanced
and broadcast signals transitioned from analog
to digital, plasma and LCD televisions were
• The first successful television transmissions
occured between 1928 and 1935.
• The first high definition system was introduced
by the BBC in 1936.
Other means of
CABLE RADIO (CABLE FM, 1928) AND CABLE TELEVISION (1932): Both via
coaxial cable, expanded into a broad universe of cable originated channels.
DIRECT-BROADCAST SATELLITE (DBS, 1974) AND SATELLITE RADIO
(1990): Meant for direct-to-home broadcast programming with dedicated
satellite radio programming.
WEBCASTING OF VIDEO/TELEVISION (1993) AND AUDIO/RADIO (1994)
STREAMS: It offers a mix of traditional radio and television station broadcast
programming with dedicated internet radio.
MOBILE WEB OR MOBILE INTERNET: Employs a Web browser on a mobile
device such as a smartphone, laptop or tablet computer to access the Internet
via a wireless network.
All India Radio (AIR) /
All India Radio
• Broadcasting in India is a national service,
developed and operated by
the Government Of India.
• All India Radio is one of the
largest radio networks in the
• Its headquarters is at the
Akashvani Bhavan in New
AIMS OBJECTIVES of air
• To keep the people all over the country informed quickly
about Government policies, plans, programmes and
achievements, through the medium of sound broadcasting
with a variety of programmes.
• To keep the people informed of the important news
and current events of topical interest and to provide an
appreciable amount of entertaining programmes.
• To promote education, national integration and also develop
various aspects of Indian culture through its broadcasting.
• To give timely assistance to public and Government
Departments by quick dissemination of information during
• To run a Commercial service which helps in promoting sale of
goods and services through advertisement.
HISTORY IN OUTLINE
• The Madras Radio Club: 31, 1924.
Assembled by C. V. Krishttamurty Chetty who brought the
components from England on completion of studies there.
Two and a half hours of transmission consisting of
music and talks was broadcast every evening.
The service closed down in 1927 resumed the service
on April 1, 1930 and continued it till AIR took over in 1938.
• The Radio Club of Bombay: June 1923
• Calcutta Radio Club: November 1923.
• First station of the Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was
inaugurated at Bombay by the British Viceroy of India
Lord Irwin on July 23, 1927.
• Five weeks later, on August 26, 1927, the Calcutta station
was inaugurated by the Governor of Bengal, Sir Stanley
• The stations were operating on medium wave and
broadcasting by the end of the year to 3,594 licence holders.
• Chairman of the IBC was Sir Ibrahim Rahimtoola
Managing Director was Sultan Chenoy.
• Both the stations at Bombay and Calcutta did much for
encouragement of music and drama.
GOVERNMENT TAKES OVER
• Controller of Broadcasting: Lionel Fielden
• On December, 1937, the Lahore,
on April 2, 1938, the Lucknow
on June 16, 1938, the Madras
stations started broadcasting.
• From April 1, 1930, The government took over the stations
at Bombay and Calcutta due to financial crisis in IBC.
• It was placed in the Department of Industries and Labour
under the designation ‘Indian Broadcasting Service’.
• The Delhi station of the Indian State Broadcasting service
went on the air on January 1, 1936.
• The Indian Agricultural
Research Institute at
Allahabad started transmitting
rural programmes for the
• In September 1935, broadcasting
began in the princely state
of Mysore with the name
AKASHVANI (the voice from the
sky) by Dr. Gopalaswamy.
• It continued with support from
the public and the Mysore
Municipality till it was taken over
by the Mysore State in 1941.
UNDERGROUND ‘CONGRESS RADIO’
• The leaders of the ‘Quit India’ movement had no access to
either radio or the press.
• A group of young Congress freedom fighters (Usha Mehta,
Vithaldas Khakar, Chandrakant Jhaveri) launched their
shortlived Congress Radio on September 3, 1942 ‘from
somewhere in India’
• The broadcasts continued till November 11.
• The British police soon got wind of the underground broadcast
centre the young radio enthusiasts were soon arrested
• Khakar was awarded a five year prison term while the others
were imprisoned for a year each.
All India Radio
• On October 24, 1941, All India Radio
was set up.
• Ahmed Shah Bokhari was the Director-
General till the partition of the country.
TRANSFER OF POWER
• On June 3, 1947 Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten, Jawaharlal
Nehru, Mohammed Ali Jinnah made their historic broadcasts on
the partition of India.
• The AIR network by then had nine stations of which six--Deihi,
Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Luck-now and Tiruchi remained
with India; Lahore, Peshawar and Dacca having gone to Pakistan.
The transfer of power on the midnight of 14-15
August, 1947 was broadcast live with Jawaharlal
Nehru’s famous speech ’Tryst with destiny’
which is preserved in the archives of AIR
• When the princely states were integrated with India, low-power
radio stations at Mysore, Trivandrum, Hyderabad, Aurangabad
and Baroda became a part of the network by 1950.
• Expansion was brought
within the ambit of
planned development in
1951 with an allocation of
40 million rupees, when
India’s First Five Year
Plan (1951-1956) was
• During the first five-year
plan period, six new
radio stations were set
up and a number of low-
power transmitters were
• On July 20, 1952 the first
National Programme of
Music went on the air.
• In the same year in October
the first Radio Sangeet
Sammelan was broadcast.
• Sardar Patel Memorial
lectures and Radio news-reel
also started in 1955.
• In 1955, J. C. Mathur a member of the Indian Civil
Service took over as Director-General of Air
• The first National Symposium of Poets, Sahitya
Samaroh, the year long celebration of Buddha
Parinirvana, plays and features were also started in
the same year mainly under his direction.
• While under his leadership, culture got a much
needed boost, the then Minister for Information and
Broadcasting (1953-61), Dr. B. V. Keskar did much for
encouragement of Indian classical music.
• Dr. Keskar’s other contribution was induction into AIR
as ‘Producers’, of eminent writers, poets, musicians,
and dramatists, on staff-artists’ contract hitherto
confined to ‘performers’.
• At the end of the First Five Year Plan All India Radio had:
• 26 stations with mw.• Covered 46% of the population
• Covered 31% of the area of the country.
• While observing the centenary of India’s freedom struggle,
AIR recorded for its sound archives reminiscences of a large
number of freedom fighters.
• On 3rd Oct 1957, Vividh Bharati, which was being radiated
from two 100 kw sw transmitters located at Bombay and
Madras to meet the growing demand for popular music and
• On 1960, the External Service began its Nepali service.
• Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech at the UN General
Assembly was directly relayed from New York on Oct 3, 1960.
MEDIUM WAVE EXPANSION PLAN
• The Third Five Year Plan
(1961-66) saw what was
known as the medium wave
expansion plan through a
number of auxiliarys with
limited studio facilities
provided in the transmitter
At the end of the Third Five Year Plan (on 31-3-66), AIR network had
• 54 centres with 82 medium-wave and
• 28 short-wave transmitters
• Covered on the medium wave 70% of the population and
52% of the area of the country.
first independent review
• The first ever independent review of broadcasting was set up
by the Government of India on December 4, 1964 under the
chairmanship of Ashok K. Chanda ordered at the initiative of
Indira Gandhi, then Minister for Information and Broadcasting.
• The Committee recommended among other things the setting
up of two autonomous corporations for radio and television.
This was found unacceptable, but its recommendation for
introduction of Commercial Broadcasting was accepted.
• So in 1967 commercial advertisements were introduced in the
Bombay-Pune-Nagpur chain of Vividh Bharati stations.
• Family planning broadcasts were recognised and intensified with
the creation of Family Planning Units at 22 stations to be paid
for from the budget of the Ministry of Health and Family Planning.
• Perhaps the most important development of 1967 was the
introduction of the nine-point code for individual broadcasters.
• The AIR Code, which was placed before Parliament, was largely
the handiwork of Ashok Mitra, the then Secretary for Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting.
• Criticism of friendly countries;
• Attack on religion or communities;
• Anything obscene or defamatory;
• Incitements to violence or anything
against maintenance of law and order;
• Anything amounting to contempt of
• As persion against the integrity of the
president governors and the judiciary,
• Attack on a political party by name;
• Hostile criticism of any state or the
• Anything showing disrespect to the
constitution or advocating change in
the constiution by violent means.”
According to the nine -point code:
“Broadcasting on All India Radio by individuals will not permit:
In 1975 the SITE Programme was inaugurated
American Satellite ATS was used to transmit
programmes to nearly 2400 villages in the
states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka,
Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.
On 1969, a separate Yuv Vani (Youth) channel
was commissioned at Delhi by the Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi on, July 21. It was
meant to cater to youth of the country with
encouraging participation in the programs.
• Indira Gandhi who was a 'liberal' IB Minister swung to the other
extreme as a Prime Minister.
• She buried the Chanda Committee report
• Openly questioned the need for credibility for the Govt. media
• Widely misused AIR for political propaganda.
• During Emergency
was banned from
All India Radio (AIR)
for refusing to sing
at a Congress rally in
• In 1977 The Janata Party in its election manifesto promised to
give genuine autonomy to Akashvani and Doordarsan. When
they took office, appointed a working group consisting of twelve
members under the chairmanship of B.G. Varghese.
• It recommended the creation of a National Broadcast Trust,
`Akash-Bharati’, responsible for both Akashvani Doordarsan.
• The chairman should to be appointed by the President on the
advice of the Prime Minister recommended by Chief Justice
of India and the Chairman of the Union Public Service
• In 1979, when bill was passed, it was diluted and sought
to create a corporation with a Chairman appointed by the
Government, rather than by the President.
PARTY POLITICAL BROADCASTS
• Introduced by The Janata Party government
• Each political party recognised by the Commission (and
given a symbol) would be given equal opportunities to
broadcast. Accordingly each political party was allowed
15 minutes broadcast each in two rounds from radio
stations and one round only from Doordarsan Kendras in the
states where elections were held.
• The Minister for Information and Broadcasting in the Moraji
Desai Cabinet, L. K. Advani (1977-79) also introduced
another innovation in that the Prime Minister at the centre,
and the Chief Ministers in the States may broadcast on
anniversary of one year of their governments to be followed
by broad-casts by the leaders of opposition.
in late 19s Early 20s
Prasar Bharati Bill to grant autonomy to broadcast media was
passed on 1997 and AIR became autonomous under Prasar
By 2008, AIR comprised a country-wide network - of
√ 219 Centres including
• 32 Vividh Bharati/Commercial Centres,
• 73 local radio stations and
• 114 regional stations.
√ An estimated 115 million radio
transistor sets have access to AIR
programmes; Over 65 million of these
sets in rural homes.
• With a network of 262 radio stations, AIR today is
accessible to almost the entire population and nearly 92%
of the total area.
• A broadcasting giant, AIR today broadcasts in 23
languages and 146 dialects catering to a vast spectrum of
socio-economically and culturally diverse populace.
• Programmes of the External Services Division are broadcast
in 11 Indian and 16 foreign languages reaching out to
more than 100 countries. These external broadcasts aim to
keep the overseas listeners informed about developments
in the country and provide a rich fare of entertainment
• The News Services Division, of All India Radio broadcasts 647
bulletins daily in about 90 Languages/Dialects in Home,
Regional, External and DTH Services.
• 314 news headlines on hourly basis are also being mounted
on FM mode from 41 AIR Stations. Mounts number of news-
based programmes on topical subjects from Delhi and its
Regional News Units
• AIR operates 18 FM channels, called AIR FM Rainbow,
targeting the urban audience in a refreshing style of presentation.
• Four more FM channels called, AIR FM Gold, broadcast
composite news and entertainment programmes from Delhi,
Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai.
• With the FM wave sweeping the country,
AIR is augmenting its Medium Wave
transmission with additional FM
transmitters at Regional stations.
• In keeping with the Government decision
for transition to the digital mode of
transmission, AIR is switching from analog
to digital in a phased manner. With the target of
complete digitization by 2017, the listeners can look forward
to highly enhanced transmission quality in the near future.
• For many in India, television still means Doordarshan,
the only visual Public Service Broadcasting in India.
• The emergence of television in India in 1959 kindled several
prospects of making the medium a facilitator of public
education and social service since, in a country like
India, a public broadcasting can play a very crucial role in
eradicating illiteracy and social superstitions considering
the multi-religious and multi-cultural population it holds.
• Public service broadcasting in its ideal form is driven
by a sincere vision of providing accessible, diverse,
independent and high-quality content to citizens.
• Inform freely, truthfully and objectively the citizens of India
on all matters of public interest, national and international.
• Provide adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and
languages of the various regions of the country through
appropriate programmes in the regional languages/dialects.
• Promote social justice, national consciousness, national
integration, communal harmony, and the upliftment of
women, children and lesser privileged.
• Pay special attention to the fields of education, and spread
of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment,
health and family welfare and science and technology.
• To work towards the holistic social development of the
HISTORY IN OUTLINE
• At first the government felt that television is only a luxury that is not
affordable for a nation like India, which is only in its genesis to reach
• In 1958, Philips demonstrated the television usages in an
exhibition at New Delhi, the capital of India, who also put forward an
offer to provide Indian government with low cost transmitters.
• UNESCO’s grant of $20,000 for the
purchase of community receivers United
States’ offer of some equipment gave a
green signal to it on an experimental basis.
• But the sole purpose was to inspect
what a system like television can do to
developmental programmes and formal
education in India.
FIRST Television Centre
• On September 1959, under the department of AIR , a
Television Centre was established in New Delhi, having low
power transmitter, the range of which was only 40 Kilometers
It was provided at
about 180 ‘teleclubs’,
• Social education programmes began to be telecasted twice
a week each of 20 minutes duration.
• The Federal Republic of Germany helped in setting up a
movable studio at New Delhi.
• The programmes were modest, advising public about
some hygienic activities.
• On 1965 august, apart from social education programmes,
entertainment and information programmes were
• By 1967, the duration of the service was increased to
3 hrs and the range of transmitter too was extended to
60 Kilometers encompassing more areas reaching to
neighboring states like Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
The most significant
‘Krishi Darshan’ (1967)
nature of programmes
• The great man and visionary behind the broadcasting
development in India is Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the brain
behind the Indian Space exploration.
• He believed that satellite television system could bring in
further reach to social and economical developments
and make the communication system in
India more potential.
• As per his vision, a National Satellite
Communication Group (NASCOM) was
established in 1968.
• It recommended a broadcasting system
in which communication satellites
and ground based microwave relay
transmitters will be used.
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
• In 1969, Department of Atomic Energy signed an
agreement with NASA for the loan of a satellite free of
cost for a year for a pilot experiment project called SITE
(Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) which took off
on August 1975.
• The service used NASA’s ATS- 6 satellite to broadcast
programmes directly through the satellite to the receivers
or community sets installed at schools (through earth
transmitters) at 2400 villages, spread over six states- Bihar,
Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and
(Satellite Instructional Television Experiment)
• The programmes on education, agriculture, health and
family planning, were broadcasted four hours a day from
earth stations at Delhi and Ahmedabad.
• Programs were planned and produced by AIR with the help
of government representatives, academicians and social
workers at productions in Delhi, Hyderabad and Cuttack.
• To add with it, ISRO too set up its own Audio- Visual
instruction Division to plan and produce programmes
according to schedule.
nature of programmes
Of these four hours,
one and a half period was aimed
at children of primary and
• A SITE evaluation Studies was instituted by the Planning
Commission and Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad
who concluded that there were no appreciable gains in
the adoption of agricultural practices or family planning
• Technologically too, SITE encountered many problems.
• By the first month itself, half of the TV receivers were out
of order giving valuable learning experience for software
and hardware people of the media.
• But despite its failure, SITE was the most ambitious step
taken by the country in the television broadcasting.
• Indira Gandhi is the first Minister who
recognized the potentiality of television for
• It was during the emergency period that great
developments occurred as far as broadcasting
is considered, even though it is considered
as the darkest period for print media and for
the society at large. By 1976, seven more
transistors began to be operated in different
parts of India- Bombay, Srinagar, Amritsar, Pune,
Calcutta , Madras and Lucknow
• Since its inception and mainly after independence, it had been
under the prejudices of Congress Party, who were ruling India
for decades after independence.
• On April 1, 1976 Television was formally separated from
All India Radio.
• Unlike AIR, Doordarshan, since its inception, relied on
government fund and later on in commercials, even though
license was in currency until 1985.
• The control of broadcasting was completely vested
upon government and hence left no chance of public
• By 1985, in the great television boom, advertising
revenues allowed the abolition of license fees on
television enabling the expansion of Doordarshan
Separation From AIR
• B.G Varghese Committee(1977)
recommended an autonomous Trust
called Akash Bharati which should be
independent, impartial and autonomous,
also under an Act of Parliament.
• Ashok Chanda Committee (1966)
recommended for an institutional change to
liberate the rigid financial and administrative
procedures of the government
• According to them it is not possible for
a creative medium like broadcasting to
flourish under a regime of departmental
rules and regulations.
• It urged for a corporation set up by an Act
• The introduction of colour television prior to the Asian
games in 1982 was an appreciating step taken by the
• Nevertheless the sale of TV sets too soared as the people
wish to watch the games from their drawing rooms itself.
• But the Indian economy was still dwindling because of
its policy of ‘self reliance’, closing doors to the rest of the
world in fear of cultural imperialism.
• This was in fact the best time for Doordarshan to
stamp its presence as a responsible public
broadcaster by telecasting
• It was a thunder hit for the public broadcaster Doordarshan
since the newly came channels concentrated more on
entertainment and refreshing programmes.
• Doordarshan had failed desperately in its agenda of social
development and communication, when the sudden inflow
of satellite channels and foreign programmes conquered the
LPG Policy Satellite Boom
• As a result of LPG (Liberalization, Privitization
Globalization) Policy in 1991, CNN was the first
private channel to operate in India through the live
coverage of Gulf war.
• Subsequently, Star TV owned by the media
mogul Murdoch went on air with its four channels.
• In the wake of LPG Policy itself, there were uprisings from
the part of administrators and officials to free the public
broadcaster from the clutches of political administration.
• Even though the National Front Government introduced
the Prasar Bharati Bill in the first Parliamentary session in
January 1990 to grant autonomy to broadcast media, the
Bill was kept quiescent until 1997.
• Witnessing the proliferation of satellite channels, thinking that
privatization will be the refreshing factor, government waved
green signal to the Act on September 1997.
• But it became too late, as the media scene became
crowded with private satellite broadcasters, where
Doordarshan became a mere cacophony.
• Doordarshan responded to the proliferation of satellite channels
through two ways- increasing the number of channels and
restructuring the contents.
• Hence, its four second channels operating in Delhi, Bombay,
Madras and Lucknow operating their regional services, were
merged into a single national channel named DD2 or DD Metro,
which turned to be a pure entertainment channel with soap
operas, film based programmes, sit-coms, game shows etc.
• Later on in the subsequent months, the coverage of this new
channel was extended to include 18 more cities which now
reach at almost everywhere in India.
• The DD 1 remained under the banner of development
programming, along with the news bulletins.
Amidst the Satellite Boom
• In order to compete with the growing popularity of STAR TV
and Zee TV, Doordarshan started a 24 hr satellite movie
channel through INSAT 2B, dubbed ‘Movie Club’, showing
Hindi and English hit movies. However the channel was
abolished four years later since its viewership declined
because of its regular broadcasting of flop movies and its
• DD 3, a channel launched for current affairs and arts,
also died off with political interruptions. The remarkable
shift in the content orientation of Public broadcaster began
when Doordarshan being unable to find programs to run 24
hour long in DD 2, leased time to private channels. As such
MTV, the icon of western culture, conquered that opportunity,
swiftly moving from STAR TV to DD 2 in 1994.
Amidst the Satellite Boom
• Doordarshan is presently operating 35 satellite TV channels
besides free-to-air (FTA) DTH service and has a vast
network of 67 studio centers and over 1400 terrestrial
• Terrestrial transmission is presently available to approximately
92 percent of the population of the country.
• It has already digitized all its satellite services.
• On production side, 24 studio centers are presently fully
digital and digitization of 39 studio centers is on a fast
• Doordarshan has planned establishment of 630 digital
transmitters across the country to offer the present level of
coverage as being provided by analog transmitters.
• It is also moving ahead in the direction of adopting HDTV.
• It is presently engaged in establishing various HDTV
production facilities including multicamera HD studios and
OB vans at Delhi and Mumbai; HD field production,
post production, and preview facilities at
the four metro cities; and HD playout
facility at Delhi besides terrestrial
transmitters for HDTV transmission
in Delhi, Mumbai,
Kolkata, and Chennai.
• Prasar Bharati is India’s largest public broadcaster.
• It is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament
(passed in 1997) and comprises Doordarshan television
network and All India Radio which were earlier media units
of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
• The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is
responsible for the administration of Prasar Bharati.
• To uphold the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in
• To promote national integration;
• To safeguard citizens’ rights to be informed on all matters of public
interest by presenting a fair and balanced flow of information;
• To pay special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy,
agriculture, rural development, environment, health family welfare and
• To create awareness about women’s issues and take special steps to protect
the interests of children, aged and other vulnerable sections of the society;
• To provide adequate coverage to diverse cultures, sports and games and
• To promote social justice, safeguarding the rights of working classes,
minorities and tribal communities.
• To promote research and expand broadcasting faculties development
in broadcast technology
Prasar Bharati Board
• The Corporation is governed by the Prasar Bharati Board, which
ØØ a Chairman,
ØØ an Executive Member (Chief Executive Officer),
ØØ a Member (FINANCE), a Member (Personnel),
ØØ six Part-time Members,
ØØ a representative of the Ministry of Information Broadcasting and
ØØ the Directors General of AIR and Doordarshan as ex-officio Members.
• The Chairman is a part time member with a six year tenure. The Executive
Member has a tenure of five years, subject to the age limit of 65 years.
Member (Finance) and Member (Personnel) are whole time members with
a six year tenure, subject to the age limit of 62 years.
• Dr. A. Surya Prakash is the current chairperson of Prasar Bharati and
Jawhar Sircar is the CEO. Addl. Secretary is Shri J. S. Mathur, Ministry
• The Prasar Bharati Board meets at least six times in a year.
• Political interventions
• Management staffing inadequacies
• Lack of enthusiasm or innovation
• Failure to reach to the audience
• Failure to catch up with the trend
• News quality credibility back drop
• Minimal quality of programmes
• Drawbacks in policy
Failures within THE