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HISTORY of
IndiaN
BROADCASTING
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
CONCEPT OF
BROADCASTING
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Definition
Broadcasting is the practice of creating
audio and video program content ...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
EVOLUTION OF
BROADCASTING
AROUND THE WORLD
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
By Ancient Greeks
Tops Of Hills • Fire By Night
Columns Of Smoke
Large Mirrors By Da...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
• The story of broadcasting begins in the the telegraph.
• It transmits and receives...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
TELEPHONE
BROADCASTING
• Began with the Théâtrophone systems
• Telephone-based distr...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
RADIO BROADCASTING
• The audio signals sent through the air as radio waves
from a tr...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
TELEVISION BROADCASTING
• Older televisions rely on a cathode-ray tube
to produce im...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Other means of
broadcasting
CABLE RADIO (CABLE FM, 1928) AND CABLE TELEVISION (1932)...
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All India Radio (AIR) /
AKASHVANI
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
All India Radio
• Broadcasting in India is a national service,
developed and operate...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
AIMS  OBJECTIVES of air
• To keep the people all over the country informed quickly
a...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
HISTORY IN OUTLINE
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
• The Madras Radio Club: 31, 1924.
	Assembled by C. V. Krishttamurty Chetty who brou...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Organized broadcasting
• First station of the Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was
...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
GOVERNMENT TAKES OVER
• Controller of Broadcasting: Lionel Fielden
				 • On Decembe...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
parallel efforts
• The Indian Agricultural
Research Institute at
Allahabad started t...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
UNDERGROUND ‘CONGRESS RADIO’
• The leaders of the ‘Quit India’ movement had no acces...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
All India Radio
• On October 24, 1941, All India Radio
was set up.
• Ahmed Shah Bokh...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
TRANSFER OF POWER
• On June 3, 1947 Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten, Jawaharlal
Nehru...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
PLANNED DEVELOPMENT
• Expansion was brought
within the ambit of
planned development ...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
• In 1955, J. C. Mathur a member of the Indian Civil
Service took over as Director-G...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
• At the end of the First Five Year Plan All India Radio had:
• 26 stations with mw....
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
MEDIUM WAVE EXPANSION PLAN
• The Third Five Year Plan
(1961-66) saw what was
known a...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
first independent review
• The first ever independent review of broadcasting was set...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
AIR CODE
• Perhaps the most important development of 1967 was the
introduction of th...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
In 1975 the SITE Programme was inaugurated
American Satellite ATS was used to transm...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Emergency
• Indira Gandhi who was a 'liberal' IB Minister swung to the other
extreme...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
deMAND FOR
Autonomy
• In 1977 The Janata Party in its election manifesto promised to...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
PARTY POLITICAL BROADCASTS
• Introduced by The Janata Party government
• Each politi...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
in late 19s  Early 20s
Prasar Bharati Bill to grant autonomy to broadcast media was
...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	With a network of 262 radio stations, AIR today is
accessible to almost the entire...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	The News Services Division, of All India Radio broadcasts 647
bulletins daily in a...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	With the FM wave sweeping the country,
AIR is augmenting its Medium Wave
transmiss...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Doordarsanwww.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Doordarshan
• For many in India, television still means Doordarshan,
the only visual...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
AIMS  OBJECTIVES
•	Inform freely, truthfully and objectively the citizens of India
o...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
HISTORY IN OUTLINE
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Philips’ demonstration
• At first the government felt that television is only a luxu...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
FIRST Television Centre
•	On September 1959, under the department of AIR , a
Televis...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	The programmes were modest, advising public about
some hygienic activities.
•	On 1...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	The great man and visionary behind the broadcasting
development in India is Dr. Vi...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	In 1969, Department of Atomic Energy signed an
agreement with NASA for the loan of...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	The programmes on education, agriculture, health and
family planning, were broadca...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	A SITE evaluation Studies was instituted by the Planning
Commission and Space Appl...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Propaganda Machine
•	 Indira Gandhi is the first Minister who
recognized the potenti...
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•	On April 1, 1976 Television was formally separated from
All India Radio.
•	Unlike ...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
Chanda
Committee
B.G Varghese
Committee
•	B.G Varghese Committee(1977)
recommended a...
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•	The introduction of colour television prior to the Asian
games in 1982 was an appr...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	It was a thunder hit for the public broadcaster Doordarshan
since the newly came c...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	In the wake of LPG Policy itself, there were uprisings from
the part of administra...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	Doordarshan responded to the proliferation of satellite channels
through two ways-...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	In order to compete with the growing popularity of STAR TV
and Zee TV, Doordarshan...
www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
•	Doordarshan is presently operating 35 satellite TV channels
besides free-to-air (F...
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•	Doordarshan has planned establishment of 630 digital
transmitters across the count...
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Prasar Bharati
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Prasar Bharati
•	Prasar Bharati is India’s largest public broadcaster.
•	It is an au...
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MISSION  OBJECTIVES
•	 To uphold the unity and integrity of the country and the valu...
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Prasar Bharati Board
•	 The Corporation is governed by the Prasar Bharati Board, whi...
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•	 Political interventions
•	 Management  staffing inadequacies
•	 Lack of enthusias...
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?
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Thank
You
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History of indian broadcasting

This slides give a brief about history of indian broadcasing, Doordarsan and AIR.

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History of indian broadcasting

  1. 1. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes HISTORY of IndiaN BROADCASTING
  2. 2. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes CONCEPT OF BROADCASTING
  3. 3. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Definition Broadcasting is the practice of creating audio and video program content and distributing it to the mass audiences of Radio, Television and Internet media.
  4. 4. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes EVOLUTION OF BROADCASTING AROUND THE WORLD
  5. 5. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes By Ancient Greeks Tops Of Hills • Fire By Night Columns Of Smoke Large Mirrors By Day. CONVENTIONAL METHODS www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  6. 6. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The story of broadcasting begins in the the telegraph. • It transmits and receives electric impulses, whose stations are directly connected by wires. • Long distance telegraphy started in 1792 TELEGRAPHICAL BROADCASTING
  7. 7. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes TELEPHONE BROADCASTING • Began with the Théâtrophone systems • Telephone-based distribution systems which allows subscribers to listen to live opera theatre performances over telephone lines • By French inventor Clément Ader in 1881
  8. 8. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes RADIO BROADCASTING • The audio signals sent through the air as radio waves from a transmitter, picked up by an antenna and sent to a receiver. • The first documented radio transmission occurred in 1895 and was sent by a 21 year old Italian, Guglielmo Marconi www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  9. 9. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes TELEVISION BROADCASTING • Older televisions rely on a cathode-ray tube to produce images, and operated with an analog signal. As technology has advanced and broadcast signals transitioned from analog to digital, plasma and LCD televisions were created. • The first successful television transmissions occured between 1928 and 1935. • The first high definition system was introduced by the BBC in 1936.
  10. 10. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Other means of broadcasting CABLE RADIO (CABLE FM, 1928) AND CABLE TELEVISION (1932): Both via coaxial cable, expanded into a broad universe of cable originated channels. DIRECT-BROADCAST SATELLITE (DBS, 1974) AND SATELLITE RADIO (1990): Meant for direct-to-home broadcast programming with dedicated satellite radio programming. WEBCASTING OF VIDEO/TELEVISION (1993) AND AUDIO/RADIO (1994) STREAMS: It offers a mix of traditional radio and television station broadcast programming with dedicated internet radio. MOBILE WEB OR MOBILE INTERNET: Employs a Web browser on a mobile device such as a smartphone, laptop or tablet computer to access the Internet via a wireless network.
  11. 11. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes All India Radio (AIR) / AKASHVANI
  12. 12. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes All India Radio • Broadcasting in India is a national service, developed and operated by the Government Of India. • All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. • Its headquarters is at the Akashvani Bhavan in New Delhi.
  13. 13. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes AIMS OBJECTIVES of air • To keep the people all over the country informed quickly about Government policies, plans, programmes and achievements, through the medium of sound broadcasting with a variety of programmes. • To keep the people informed of the important news and current events of topical interest and to provide an appreciable amount of entertaining programmes. • To promote education, national integration and also develop various aspects of Indian culture through its broadcasting. • To give timely assistance to public and Government Departments by quick dissemination of information during natural calamities. • To run a Commercial service which helps in promoting sale of goods and services through advertisement.
  14. 14. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes HISTORY IN OUTLINE
  15. 15. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The Madras Radio Club: 31, 1924. Assembled by C. V. Krishttamurty Chetty who brought the components from England on completion of studies there. Two and a half hours of transmission consisting of music and talks was broadcast every evening. The service closed down in 1927 resumed the service on April 1, 1930 and continued it till AIR took over in 1938. Amateurs • The Radio Club of Bombay: June 1923 • Calcutta Radio Club: November 1923. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  16. 16. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Organized broadcasting • First station of the Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was inaugurated at Bombay by the British Viceroy of India Lord Irwin on July 23, 1927. • Five weeks later, on August 26, 1927, the Calcutta station was inaugurated by the Governor of Bengal, Sir Stanley Jackson. • The stations were operating on medium wave and broadcasting by the end of the year to 3,594 licence holders. • Chairman of the IBC was Sir Ibrahim Rahimtoola Managing Director was Sultan Chenoy. • Both the stations at Bombay and Calcutta did much for encouragement of music and drama.
  17. 17. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes GOVERNMENT TAKES OVER • Controller of Broadcasting: Lionel Fielden • On December, 1937, the Lahore, on April 2, 1938, the Lucknow on June 16, 1938, the Madras stations started broadcasting. • From April 1, 1930, The government took over the stations at Bombay and Calcutta due to financial crisis in IBC. • It was placed in the Department of Industries and Labour under the designation ‘Indian Broadcasting Service’. • The Delhi station of the Indian State Broadcasting service went on the air on January 1, 1936. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  18. 18. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes parallel efforts • The Indian Agricultural Research Institute at Allahabad started transmitting rural programmes for the neighbourhood. • In September 1935, broadcasting began in the princely state of Mysore with the name AKASHVANI (the voice from the sky) by Dr. Gopalaswamy. • It continued with support from the public and the Mysore Municipality till it was taken over by the Mysore State in 1941.
  19. 19. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes UNDERGROUND ‘CONGRESS RADIO’ • The leaders of the ‘Quit India’ movement had no access to either radio or the press. • A group of young Congress freedom fighters (Usha Mehta, Vithaldas Khakar, Chandrakant Jhaveri) launched their shortlived Congress Radio on September 3, 1942 ‘from somewhere in India’ • The broadcasts continued till November 11. • The British police soon got wind of the underground broadcast centre the young radio enthusiasts were soon arrested • Khakar was awarded a five year prison term while the others were imprisoned for a year each. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  20. 20. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes All India Radio • On October 24, 1941, All India Radio was set up. • Ahmed Shah Bokhari was the Director- General till the partition of the country.
  21. 21. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes TRANSFER OF POWER • On June 3, 1947 Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohammed Ali Jinnah made their historic broadcasts on the partition of India. • The AIR network by then had nine stations of which six--Deihi, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Luck-now and Tiruchi remained with India; Lahore, Peshawar and Dacca having gone to Pakistan. The transfer of power on the midnight of 14-15 August, 1947 was broadcast live with Jawaharlal Nehru’s famous speech ’Tryst with destiny’ which is preserved in the archives of AIR • When the princely states were integrated with India, low-power radio stations at Mysore, Trivandrum, Hyderabad, Aurangabad and Baroda became a part of the network by 1950.
  22. 22. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes PLANNED DEVELOPMENT • Expansion was brought within the ambit of planned development in 1951 with an allocation of 40 million rupees, when India’s First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) was launched. • During the first five-year plan period, six new radio stations were set up and a number of low- power transmitters were up-graded. • On July 20, 1952 the first National Programme of Music went on the air. • In the same year in October the first Radio Sangeet Sammelan was broadcast. • Sardar Patel Memorial lectures and Radio news-reel also started in 1955.
  23. 23. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • In 1955, J. C. Mathur a member of the Indian Civil Service took over as Director-General of Air • The first National Symposium of Poets, Sahitya Samaroh, the year long celebration of Buddha Parinirvana, plays and features were also started in the same year mainly under his direction. • While under his leadership, culture got a much needed boost, the then Minister for Information and Broadcasting (1953-61), Dr. B. V. Keskar did much for encouragement of Indian classical music. • Dr. Keskar’s other contribution was induction into AIR as ‘Producers’, of eminent writers, poets, musicians, and dramatists, on staff-artists’ contract hitherto confined to ‘performers’. Cultural revival www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  24. 24. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • At the end of the First Five Year Plan All India Radio had: • 26 stations with mw.• Covered 46% of the population • Covered 31% of the area of the country. • While observing the centenary of India’s freedom struggle, AIR recorded for its sound archives reminiscences of a large number of freedom fighters. • On 3rd Oct 1957, Vividh Bharati, which was being radiated from two 100 kw sw transmitters located at Bombay and Madras to meet the growing demand for popular music and light features. • On 1960, the External Service began its Nepali service. • Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s speech at the UN General Assembly was directly relayed from New York on Oct 3, 1960. EXPANSION
  25. 25. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes MEDIUM WAVE EXPANSION PLAN • The Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) saw what was known as the medium wave expansion plan through a number of auxiliarys with limited studio facilities provided in the transmitter premises itself. At the end of the Third Five Year Plan (on 31-3-66), AIR network had • 54 centres with 82 medium-wave and • 28 short-wave transmitters • Covered on the medium wave 70% of the population and 52% of the area of the country.
  26. 26. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes first independent review • The first ever independent review of broadcasting was set up by the Government of India on December 4, 1964 under the chairmanship of Ashok K. Chanda ordered at the initiative of Indira Gandhi, then Minister for Information and Broadcasting. • The Committee recommended among other things the setting up of two autonomous corporations for radio and television. This was found unacceptable, but its recommendation for introduction of Commercial Broadcasting was accepted. • So in 1967 commercial advertisements were introduced in the Bombay-Pune-Nagpur chain of Vividh Bharati stations. • Family planning broadcasts were recognised and intensified with the creation of Family Planning Units at 22 stations to be paid for from the budget of the Ministry of Health and Family Planning. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  27. 27. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes AIR CODE • Perhaps the most important development of 1967 was the introduction of the nine-point code for individual broadcasters. • The AIR Code, which was placed before Parliament, was largely the handiwork of Ashok Mitra, the then Secretary for Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. • Criticism of friendly countries; • Attack on religion or communities; • Anything obscene or defamatory; • Incitements to violence or anything against maintenance of law and order; • Anything amounting to contempt of court; • As persion against the integrity of the president governors and the judiciary, • Attack on a political party by name; • Hostile criticism of any state or the centre, and • Anything showing disrespect to the constitution or advocating change in the constiution by violent means.” According to the nine -point code: “Broadcasting on All India Radio by individuals will not permit: www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  28. 28. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes In 1975 the SITE Programme was inaugurated American Satellite ATS was used to transmit programmes to nearly 2400 villages in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. SITE On 1969, a separate Yuv Vani (Youth) channel was commissioned at Delhi by the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on, July 21. It was meant to cater to youth of the country with encouraging participation in the programs. YUV VANi www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  29. 29. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Emergency • Indira Gandhi who was a 'liberal' IB Minister swung to the other extreme as a Prime Minister. • She buried the Chanda Committee report • Openly questioned the need for credibility for the Govt. media • Widely misused AIR for political propaganda. • During Emergency famous singer Kishore Kumar was banned from All India Radio (AIR) and Doordarshan, for refusing to sing at a Congress rally in Mumbai. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  30. 30. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes deMAND FOR Autonomy • In 1977 The Janata Party in its election manifesto promised to give genuine autonomy to Akashvani and Doordarsan. When they took office, appointed a working group consisting of twelve members under the chairmanship of B.G. Varghese. • It recommended the creation of a National Broadcast Trust, `Akash-Bharati’, responsible for both Akashvani Doordarsan. • The chairman should to be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister recommended by Chief Justice of India and the Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission. • In 1979, when bill was passed, it was diluted and sought to create a corporation with a Chairman appointed by the Government, rather than by the President.
  31. 31. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes PARTY POLITICAL BROADCASTS • Introduced by The Janata Party government • Each political party recognised by the Commission (and given a symbol) would be given equal opportunities to broadcast. Accordingly each political party was allowed 15 minutes broadcast each in two rounds from radio stations and one round only from Doordarsan Kendras in the states where elections were held. • The Minister for Information and Broadcasting in the Moraji Desai Cabinet, L. K. Advani (1977-79) also introduced another innovation in that the Prime Minister at the centre, and the Chief Ministers in the States may broadcast on anniversary of one year of their governments to be followed by broad-casts by the leaders of opposition.
  32. 32. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes in late 19s Early 20s Prasar Bharati Bill to grant autonomy to broadcast media was passed on 1997 and AIR became autonomous under Prasar Bharathi. By 2008, AIR comprised a country-wide network - of √ 219 Centres including • 32 Vividh Bharati/Commercial Centres, • 73 local radio stations and • 114 regional stations. √ An estimated 115 million radio transistor sets have access to AIR programmes; Over 65 million of these sets in rural homes.
  33. 33. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • With a network of 262 radio stations, AIR today is accessible to almost the entire population and nearly 92% of the total area. • A broadcasting giant, AIR today broadcasts in 23 languages and 146 dialects catering to a vast spectrum of socio-economically and culturally diverse populace. • Programmes of the External Services Division are broadcast in 11 Indian and 16 foreign languages reaching out to more than 100 countries. These external broadcasts aim to keep the overseas listeners informed about developments in the country and provide a rich fare of entertainment as well. CURRENT SCENARIO
  34. 34. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The News Services Division, of All India Radio broadcasts 647 bulletins daily in about 90 Languages/Dialects in Home, Regional, External and DTH Services. • 314 news headlines on hourly basis are also being mounted on FM mode from 41 AIR Stations. Mounts number of news- based programmes on topical subjects from Delhi and its Regional News Units • AIR operates 18 FM channels, called AIR FM Rainbow, targeting the urban audience in a refreshing style of presentation. • Four more FM channels called, AIR FM Gold, broadcast composite news and entertainment programmes from Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai. CURRENT SCENARIO
  35. 35. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • With the FM wave sweeping the country, AIR is augmenting its Medium Wave transmission with additional FM transmitters at Regional stations. • In keeping with the Government decision for transition to the digital mode of transmission, AIR is switching from analog to digital in a phased manner. With the target of complete digitization by 2017, the listeners can look forward to highly enhanced transmission quality in the near future. Future plans
  36. 36. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Doordarsanwww.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  37. 37. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Doordarshan • For many in India, television still means Doordarshan, the only visual Public Service Broadcasting in India. • The emergence of television in India in 1959 kindled several prospects of making the medium a facilitator of public education and social service since, in a country like India, a public broadcasting can play a very crucial role in eradicating illiteracy and social superstitions considering the multi-religious and multi-cultural population it holds. • Public service broadcasting in its ideal form is driven by a sincere vision of providing accessible, diverse, independent and high-quality content to citizens.
  38. 38. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes AIMS OBJECTIVES • Inform freely, truthfully and objectively the citizens of India on all matters of public interest, national and international. • Provide adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and languages of the various regions of the country through appropriate programmes in the regional languages/dialects. • Promote social justice, national consciousness, national integration, communal harmony, and the upliftment of women, children and lesser privileged. • Pay special attention to the fields of education, and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health and family welfare and science and technology. • To work towards the holistic social development of the country.
  39. 39. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes HISTORY IN OUTLINE
  40. 40. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Philips’ demonstration • At first the government felt that television is only a luxury that is not affordable for a nation like India, which is only in its genesis to reach economically stable. • In 1958, Philips demonstrated the television usages in an exhibition at New Delhi, the capital of India, who also put forward an offer to provide Indian government with low cost transmitters. • UNESCO’s grant of $20,000 for the purchase of community receivers United States’ offer of some equipment gave a green signal to it on an experimental basis. • But the sole purpose was to inspect what a system like television can do to developmental programmes and formal education in India.
  41. 41. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes FIRST Television Centre • On September 1959, under the department of AIR , a Television Centre was established in New Delhi, having low power transmitter, the range of which was only 40 Kilometers around Delhi. It was provided at about 180 ‘teleclubs’, situated around New Delhi. • Social education programmes began to be telecasted twice a week each of 20 minutes duration. • The Federal Republic of Germany helped in setting up a movable studio at New Delhi.
  42. 42. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The programmes were modest, advising public about some hygienic activities. • On 1965 august, apart from social education programmes, entertainment and information programmes were introduced. • By 1967, the duration of the service was increased to 3 hrs and the range of transmitter too was extended to 60 Kilometers encompassing more areas reaching to neighboring states like Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The most significant programme was ‘Krishi Darshan’ (1967) nature of programmes
  43. 43. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The great man and visionary behind the broadcasting development in India is Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the brain behind the Indian Space exploration. • He believed that satellite television system could bring in further reach to social and economical developments and make the communication system in India more potential. • As per his vision, a National Satellite Communication Group (NASCOM) was established in 1968. • It recommended a broadcasting system in which communication satellites and ground based microwave relay transmitters will be used. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  44. 44. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • In 1969, Department of Atomic Energy signed an agreement with NASA for the loan of a satellite free of cost for a year for a pilot experiment project called SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) which took off on August 1975. • The service used NASA’s ATS- 6 satellite to broadcast programmes directly through the satellite to the receivers or community sets installed at schools (through earth transmitters) at 2400 villages, spread over six states- Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment)
  45. 45. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The programmes on education, agriculture, health and family planning, were broadcasted four hours a day from earth stations at Delhi and Ahmedabad. • Programs were planned and produced by AIR with the help of government representatives, academicians and social workers at productions in Delhi, Hyderabad and Cuttack. • To add with it, ISRO too set up its own Audio- Visual instruction Division to plan and produce programmes according to schedule. nature of programmes Of these four hours, one and a half period was aimed at children of primary and pre-primary schools.
  46. 46. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • A SITE evaluation Studies was instituted by the Planning Commission and Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad who concluded that there were no appreciable gains in the adoption of agricultural practices or family planning methods. • Technologically too, SITE encountered many problems. • By the first month itself, half of the TV receivers were out of order giving valuable learning experience for software and hardware people of the media. • But despite its failure, SITE was the most ambitious step taken by the country in the television broadcasting. Initial impact
  47. 47. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Propaganda Machine • Indira Gandhi is the first Minister who recognized the potentiality of television for political propaganda. • It was during the emergency period that great developments occurred as far as broadcasting is considered, even though it is considered as the darkest period for print media and for the society at large. By 1976, seven more transistors began to be operated in different parts of India- Bombay, Srinagar, Amritsar, Pune, Calcutta , Madras and Lucknow • Since its inception and mainly after independence, it had been under the prejudices of Congress Party, who were ruling India for decades after independence. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  48. 48. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • On April 1, 1976 Television was formally separated from All India Radio. • Unlike AIR, Doordarshan, since its inception, relied on government fund and later on in commercials, even though license was in currency until 1985. • The control of broadcasting was completely vested upon government and hence left no chance of public commitment. • By 1985, in the great television boom, advertising revenues allowed the abolition of license fees on television enabling the expansion of Doordarshan services. Separation From AIR
  49. 49. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Chanda Committee B.G Varghese Committee • B.G Varghese Committee(1977) recommended an autonomous Trust called Akash Bharati which should be independent, impartial and autonomous, also under an Act of Parliament. • Ashok Chanda Committee (1966) recommended for an institutional change to liberate the rigid financial and administrative procedures of the government • According to them it is not possible for a creative medium like broadcasting to flourish under a regime of departmental rules and regulations. • It urged for a corporation set up by an Act of Parliament. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  50. 50. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • The introduction of colour television prior to the Asian games in 1982 was an appreciating step taken by the broadcasting ministry. • Nevertheless the sale of TV sets too soared as the people wish to watch the games from their drawing rooms itself. • But the Indian economy was still dwindling because of its policy of ‘self reliance’, closing doors to the rest of the world in fear of cultural imperialism. • This was in fact the best time for Doordarshan to stamp its presence as a responsible public broadcaster by telecasting everlasting developmental stories. GOLDEN PERIOD www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  51. 51. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • It was a thunder hit for the public broadcaster Doordarshan since the newly came channels concentrated more on entertainment and refreshing programmes. • Doordarshan had failed desperately in its agenda of social development and communication, when the sudden inflow of satellite channels and foreign programmes conquered the small screens. LPG Policy Satellite Boom • As a result of LPG (Liberalization, Privitization Globalization) Policy in 1991, CNN was the first private channel to operate in India through the live coverage of Gulf war. • Subsequently, Star TV owned by the media mogul Murdoch went on air with its four channels.
  52. 52. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • In the wake of LPG Policy itself, there were uprisings from the part of administrators and officials to free the public broadcaster from the clutches of political administration. • Even though the National Front Government introduced the Prasar Bharati Bill in the first Parliamentary session in January 1990 to grant autonomy to broadcast media, the Bill was kept quiescent until 1997. • Witnessing the proliferation of satellite channels, thinking that privatization will be the refreshing factor, government waved green signal to the Act on September 1997. • But it became too late, as the media scene became crowded with private satellite broadcasters, where Doordarshan became a mere cacophony. Autonomy
  53. 53. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • Doordarshan responded to the proliferation of satellite channels through two ways- increasing the number of channels and restructuring the contents. • Hence, its four second channels operating in Delhi, Bombay, Madras and Lucknow operating their regional services, were merged into a single national channel named DD2 or DD Metro, which turned to be a pure entertainment channel with soap operas, film based programmes, sit-coms, game shows etc. • Later on in the subsequent months, the coverage of this new channel was extended to include 18 more cities which now reach at almost everywhere in India. • The DD 1 remained under the banner of development programming, along with the news bulletins. Amidst the Satellite Boom
  54. 54. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • In order to compete with the growing popularity of STAR TV and Zee TV, Doordarshan started a 24 hr satellite movie channel through INSAT 2B, dubbed ‘Movie Club’, showing Hindi and English hit movies. However the channel was abolished four years later since its viewership declined because of its regular broadcasting of flop movies and its repeated telecasts. • DD 3, a channel launched for current affairs and arts, also died off with political interruptions. The remarkable shift in the content orientation of Public broadcaster began when Doordarshan being unable to find programs to run 24 hour long in DD 2, leased time to private channels. As such MTV, the icon of western culture, conquered that opportunity, swiftly moving from STAR TV to DD 2 in 1994. Amidst the Satellite Boom www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes
  55. 55. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • Doordarshan is presently operating 35 satellite TV channels besides free-to-air (FTA) DTH service and has a vast network of 67 studio centers and over 1400 terrestrial transmitters. • Terrestrial transmission is presently available to approximately 92 percent of the population of the country. • It has already digitized all its satellite services. • On production side, 24 studio centers are presently fully digital and digitization of 39 studio centers is on a fast track. current scenario
  56. 56. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • Doordarshan has planned establishment of 630 digital transmitters across the country to offer the present level of coverage as being provided by analog transmitters. • It is also moving ahead in the direction of adopting HDTV. • It is presently engaged in establishing various HDTV production facilities including multicamera HD studios and OB vans at Delhi and Mumbai; HD field production, post production, and preview facilities at the four metro cities; and HD playout facility at Delhi besides terrestrial transmitters for HDTV transmission in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai. Future plans
  57. 57. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Prasar Bharati
  58. 58. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Prasar Bharati • Prasar Bharati is India’s largest public broadcaster. • It is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament (passed in 1997) and comprises Doordarshan television network and All India Radio which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. • The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is responsible for the administration of Prasar Bharati.
  59. 59. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes MISSION OBJECTIVES • To uphold the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the Constitution; • To promote national integration; • To safeguard citizens’ rights to be informed on all matters of public interest by presenting a fair and balanced flow of information; • To pay special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health family welfare and science technology; • To create awareness about women’s issues and take special steps to protect the interests of children, aged and other vulnerable sections of the society; • To provide adequate coverage to diverse cultures, sports and games and youth affairs; • To promote social justice, safeguarding the rights of working classes, minorities and tribal communities. • To promote research and expand broadcasting faculties development in broadcast technology
  60. 60. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Prasar Bharati Board • The Corporation is governed by the Prasar Bharati Board, which comprises ØØ a Chairman, ØØ an Executive Member (Chief Executive Officer), ØØ a Member (FINANCE), a Member (Personnel), ØØ six Part-time Members, ØØ a representative of the Ministry of Information Broadcasting and ØØ the Directors General of AIR and Doordarshan as ex-officio Members. • The Chairman is a part time member with a six year tenure. The Executive Member has a tenure of five years, subject to the age limit of 65 years. Member (Finance) and Member (Personnel) are whole time members with a six year tenure, subject to the age limit of 62 years. • Dr. A. Surya Prakash is the current chairperson of Prasar Bharati and Jawhar Sircar is the CEO. Addl. Secretary is Shri J. S. Mathur, Ministry of IB. • The Prasar Bharati Board meets at least six times in a year.
  61. 61. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes • Political interventions • Management staffing inadequacies • Lack of enthusiasm or innovation • Failure to reach to the audience • Failure to catch up with the trend • News quality credibility back drop • Minimal quality of programmes • Drawbacks in policy • Controversies Failures within THE Public Broadcasting
  62. 62. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes ?
  63. 63. www.facebook.com/waningwhispers.anjes Thank You
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This slides give a brief about history of indian broadcasing, Doordarsan and AIR.

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