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Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856— 1939)• Oldest of eight children• Married with 3 girls and 3 boys• Physician - Neurologist• Based theory on personal experiences• Died of cancer of jaw & mouth lifelong cigar chain-smoker
Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Approach• Unconscious factors motivate our behaviour• Experiences or events of first 6 yrs of life are determinants of later development of personality (attention is given to those experiences )• Unconscious motives and conflicts are central• Later personality problems will have its roots on early repressed childhood conflicts
BASIC CONCEPTSI. Human NatureII. InstinctsIII. Theory of Personality – Functional or Dynamic – Structural or TopographicalIV. AnxietyV. Ego Defence MechanismsVI. Psycho Sexual Stages
I. Human Nature - Determinism• Deterministic : Our behaviour is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives as these evolve through key psychosexual stages in the first six yrs of life• One can liberate from these – unconscious becomes conscious
II. Instincts• Life Instincts ( Eros) • Maintain the survival of the individual and humankind • Identified with libido ( Sexual energy ) • All pleasurable acts• Death Instincts (Thanatos) • Aggressive Drives • Manifest themselves in one’s unconscious wish to die or to hurt oneself or others• These two – Powerful determinants of our behaviour
III. Theory of Personality Structural or Topographical Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Functional or Dynamic Id Ego Superego
Structural or Topographical Theory• According to Freud, there are three levels of consciousness: – Conscious (small): This is the part of the mind that holds what you’re aware of. You can verbalize about your conscious experience and you can think about it in a logical fashion. – Preconscious (small-medium): This is ordinary memory. So although things stored here aren’t in the conscious, they can be readily brought into conscious. – Unconscious (enormous): Freud felt that this part of the mind was not directly accessible to awareness. In part, he saw it as a dump box for urges, feelings and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. These feelings and thoughts have not disappeared and according to Freud, they are there, exerting influence on our actions and our conscious awareness.
Structural or Topographical Theory• Material passes easily back and forth between the conscious and the preconscious. Material from these two areas can slip into the unconscious. Truly unconscious material cant’ be made available voluntarily, according to Freud. You need a psychoanalyst to do this!...........• Iceberg metaphor for the mind’s layout: – We can use the metaphor of an iceberg to help us in understanding Freuds topographical theory. – Only 10% of an iceberg is visible (conscious) whereas the other 90% is beneath the water (preconscious and unconscious). – The Preconscious is allotted approximately 10% -15% whereas the Unconscious is allotted an overwhelming 75%-80%.
Functional or Dynamic Theory Freud argued that the human mind and personality are made up of three parts:• The id ( Biological component ): a primitive part of the personality that pursues only pleasure and instant gratification.• The ego ( Psychological Component ): that part of the personality that is aware of reality and is in contact with the outside world. It is the part that considers the consequences of an action and deals with the demands of the id and superego.• The superego (Social Component ): contains our social conscience and through the experience of guilt and anxiety when we do something wrong, it guides us towards socially acceptable behaviour.
Functional or Dynamic Theory• According to Freud, the ego dwells in the conscious mind and the id and superego are in the area of our unconscious.• Freud argued that our personality should be in a state of dynamic equilibrium (balance) and if there is too much id, superego or a weak ego then an individual will become unbalanced and possibly suffer from psychological difficulties. This is the basis of the psychoanalytic explanation of mental illness.
IV. Anxiety• It is a state of tension that motivates an individual to do something.• It arises out of a conflict among the id, the ego and the superego• Three kinds of anxiety – Reality Anxiety – Fear of danger from the external world , real, objective sources of danger in the environment – Neurotic Anxiety – Fear that the Id impulses will overwhelm the ego and cause the person to do something that will be punished. – Moral Anxiety – Fear of one’s own conscience, Fear the that person will do something contrary to the desires of the Superego
Defense MechanismsWhen the ego is not in a position to controlanxiety by rational and direct methods, itresorts to unrealistic methods – Ego defensemechanismsIt operates on an unconscious level and theytend to deny or distort realityTwo characteristics – a) Denying, falsifyingand distorting realty b) Operatingunconsciously
Defense Mechanisms• Projection — In this mechanism, an individual puts the blame of his own failure upon others and some unfavourable factors of his environment. Blaming others for his mistake .e.g. a student comes late to the class excuses by saying that the bus or train was late or traffic jam.• Sublimation — It is a defence mechanism in which unacceptable desire are redirected into socially accepted channels. e.g. Anger –Kick boxing -- some people, poem writing, engage in social services etc.• Repression — Pushes threatening thoughts back into the unconscious - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder- PTSD – Common with veterans and victims of sexual abuse• Rationalisation — An individual tries to justify his failure by giving some excuses e.g. A student makes use of rationalisation, when he tries to blame teachers for hard question paper.• Compensation — It is an attempt to cover ones deficiency in one field by exhibiting his strength in another field e.g. If a student is not good in his studies, may show his ability in sports.
Defense Mechanisms• Identification — It is a process which may operate outside and beyond conscious awareness. Hero worshipping by an individual is a sort of identification where an individual identifies himself with a popular hero or an actor.• Displacement — An individual does something as a substitute for something else e.g. If a wife gets angry with Husband and cannot say anything to him, she beats her child.• Withdrawal —- Some persons withdraw themselves from the circumstances that cause tension, frustration or pain e.g. If a person is being humiliated or laughed at, he may shut himself in a room and may not need any one.• Day-dreaming —- It is a defence mechanism which sometimes helps in making adjustment. e.g. A young man who has been jilted in love, dreams of becoming a bride groom and feels satisfaction in the imaginary world.
Defense Mechanisms• Denial – Simplest form of self defence eg. If a person is diagnosed as having cancer, they will first get shock, then start denying reality saying perhaps that the diagnosis was not proper• Reaction Formation – It is the replacement in consciousness of an anxiety producing impulse or feeling by its oppsite eg. A person who hates another cannot accept the painful fact of hating and so shows extraordinary love towards that person• Introjection – taking in and accepting uncritically the values and standards of others eg. If a child is constantly called stupid, the child thinks that it is really stupid There is a popular saying, excess of anything is bad. Similar is the case of Defence Mechanisms. They should be used with in limits. They are temporary. Therefore we have to keep a watch on our children so that should not use defence mechanism frequently
Psychosexual Stages Oral Stage ( First year of life ): Sucking at the breast of the mother satisfies the need for food and pleasure Oral – Incorporative behaviour ---- Pleasurable stimulation of the mouth – absence – excessive eating, chewing, talking, smoking, drinking (Oral fixation ) Oral – Aggressive behaviour --- Infant teethes, biting need – if not adequately met – result in feelings of greediness and acqusitiveness etc..
Psychosexual Stages Anal Stage (Age 1-3 ) : Toilet training starts One learns independence, accepts personal power, knows to express negative feelings of rage and aggression Learns first lessons of discipline Strict toilet training “ Anal Aggressive Personality – Cruelty, inappropriate displays of anger, extreme disorderliness etc.. Too much importance to the anal activity “Anal retentive personality – extreme orderliness, hoarding, stubbornness and stinginess etc..
Psychosexual Stages Phallic Stage ( Age 3-6 ) : Child experiences unconscious incestuous desires for the parent of the opposite sex which is repressed because of its threatening nature – Conflict at this period Oedipus complex – boy desiring mother as love object Electra Complex - girl desiring father and his love and approval Attitudes of the parents at this stage towards the emerging sexuality of the child are going to affect the sexual attitudes and feelings of the child Threatening or punishing --- adverse effect in adult sexual life
Psychosexual Stages Latency Stage ( Age 6-12 ) : Sleeping period Child socializes and turns its attention outward and forms relationship with others Formal sexual interests are replaced by interests in playmates in a wide variety of activities in school like games and sports
Psychosexual Stages Genital Stage (Age 12-18 ) : Starts with puberty Adolescent develops interest in the opposite sex, does sexual experimentation and assumes adult responsibilities “To love and to work” – Motto “ Since Freud wanted to resolve sexual issues during the first six yrs of life he did not go into great detail in discussing the crisis associated with adolescence or adulthood or old age “
Therapeutic Techniques Lengthy therapies Aim – Uncovering and resolving conflicts and unconscious impulses Goals – to discover relationships between unconscious motivations and present behaviour Therapy starts off --- Client’s talking (Catharsis) --- Client gains insight into the problem --- Working through the unconscious material
T her apeutic Techniques Free Association Interpretation Dream Analysis Analysis and Interpretation of resistance Analysis and Interpretation of Transference
1. Free Association Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Freud asked patients to relate anything which came into their mind, regardless of how apparently unimportant or potentially embarrassing the memory threatened to be. This technique assumed that all memories are arranged in a single associative network, and that sooner or later the subject would stumble across the crucial memory One of the ways to have access to unconscious wishes, fantacies, conflicts and motivations While the free association goes on, the therapist identifies the repressed materal that is hidden in the unconscious Any blockings or disruptions in free association indicate cues to anxiety arousing materials No question of taking things at face value --- slip of the tongue, forgetting a familiar name
2. Interpretation It is the task of of the analyst to point out, explain, and even teach the client the meaning of the behaviour that is manifested in free association, dreams, resistance, and the therapeutic relationship itself Analyst identifies , clarifies, and translates the materials of the client Proceed from the surface to the deeper level
3. Dream Analysis While one is asleep – defences are lowered – repressed materials erupt into the surface Manifestations – so.. unacceptable and painful – expressed in disguised or symbolic form Manifest Content : what a person remembers and consciously considers - only a partial representation ( Real dream ) Latent Content : Hidden, symbolic and unconscious motives, wishes and fears Process of converting the latent content into manifest content – Dream work
Dream Analysis “Royal road to the unconscious” What is important in dreams is the infantile wish fulfillment represented in them Freud assumed every dream has a meaning that can be interpreted by decoding representations of the unconscious material Dream symbol = represents some person, thing, or activity involved in the unconscious process
Dream Interpretations Knife, umbrella, snake = Penis Room, table with food = Women Water = Birth, mother Children playing = masturbation Fire = bedwetting Falling = anxiety
4. Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance Repressed materials are painful and unacceptable and that is why we repressed them into the unconscious In free associating – One becomes aware of the painful repressed materials – It produce intolerable anxiety and pain Resistance is an unconscious dynamic that one employs to defend against the intolerable anxiety and pain Resistance prevents the material from coming to the conscious and thereby reduces anxiety and pain to the individual
5. Analysis and Interpretation ofTransference Clients project their relationship with the significant persons in their past life to the present therapist Through this relationship , client expresses feelings, beliefs and desires which are buried in his/her unconscious