1. Kingdom Plantae
The Plants, Kingdom also called plantae green can plants be defined (Viridiplantae as multicellular,
are autotrophic multicellular eukaryotes, eukaryotes of which the conduct kingdom Plantae. photosynthesis.
a clade that includes the flowering plants, conifers and
All member of this family comprises of true nucleus and
other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and
advanced the green algae. membrane Plants exclude bound the organelles. red and brown They algae, are animals,
different the fungi, archaea from and animals. bacteria.
The Kingdom Plantae contains
about 300,000 different species of plants. Among the
five kingdoms, Kingdom plantae is a very important, as
they are the source of food for all other living creatures
present on planet earth, which depends on plants to
2. Characteristics of The Kingdom Plantae
•Most of the plants are eukaryotic and chlorophyll
•Cell walls of plant cells are comprised of cellulose.
•They have an ability to grow by cell division.
•In life cycle of plant cells, the interchanges occur from the
embryos and are supported by other tissues and self
•Plants have both organs and organ systems.
•They obtain their energy from sun through photosynthesis.
•Plants reproduce both by sexual and asexual.
•Plants develop a self defense mechanism to protect them
from being destroyed by animals, fungi and other plants.
•Organisms within Kingdom Plantae are multicellular,
eukaryotic and autotrophic.
•They lack motility.
3. Examples of Kingdom Plantae
This kingdom includes all types plants like herbs, shrubs,
trees, creepers, climbers,aquatic plants, desert plants,
mountain plants,flowering and non flowering plants,
4. Importance of Plants
Food: Everything we eat comes directly or indirectly from plants. Throughout
human history, approximately 7,000 different plant species have been used as
food by people.
Water: Plants regulate the water cycle: they help distribute and purify the planet's
water. They also help move water from the soil to the atmosphere through a
process called transpiration.
Medicine: One-quarter of all prescription drugs come directly from or are
derivatives of plants. Additionally, four out of five people around the world today
rely on plants for primary health care.
Air: Oxygen is brought to you by plants, as a byproduct of photosynthesis.
Habitat: Of course, aside from humans' myriad uses, plants make up the
backbone of all habitats. Other species of fish and wildlife also depend on plants
for food and shelter.
Climate: Plants store carbon, and have helped keep much of the carbon dioxide
produced from the burning of fossil fuels out of the atmosphere.
› The diploid multicellular stage in the life
cycle of a plant or alga.
• Diploid – (of a cell or nucleus) containing
two complete sets of chromosomes, one
from each parent.
14. A sporophyte develops from a zygote
produced when a haploid egg cell is
fertilized by a haploid sperm.
Haploid - (of a cell or nucleus) having a single
set of unpaired chromosomes
Sporophyte cell has a double set of Chromosomes.
15. Sporophyte produces spores by meiosis.
Spores - typically one-celled, reproductive
unit capable of giving rise to a new individual
without sexual fusion
Meiosis - a type of cell division that results in
four daughter cells each with half the number
of chromosomes of the parent cell.
35. Major Characteristics:
Bryophytes do not have true vascular tissues
for support and transport of water and nutrients.
They lack leaves.
However, they have leaf-like scales that
contains chloroplasts in which photosynthesis
36. They lack true roots
They anchor themselves in the soil by root-like
structures called rhizoids.
37. Lack of true stems
Usually small and
measure between 2 to 4
45. Many have a flattened body called
thallus, but some have a leafy
Some liverworts are capable
of asexual reproduction; in bryophytes
in general "it would almost be true to
say that vegetative reproduction is the
rule and not the exception.“ For
example in Riccia, when the older parts
of the forked thalli die, the younger tips
become separate individuals.
47. 3. Class Anthocerotae (Hornworts)
The sporophytes of hornworts look like small
green broom hancles. Its shape os unique
48. Unlike bryophytes and higher
plants most species of hornworts
have cells that contain only single
57. have two forms – leafy and thalloid.
Leafy liverworts are leafy. The arrangements in liverworts are have
2 or 3 rows.
58. Thalloid liverworts do not have stems or leaves, instead
their body is flat because it is composed of thalloid.
Are small flowerless plants that are
usually composed of simple, one-cell
thick leaves, covering a
thin stem that supports them but
does not conduct water and
They are small (a few centimeters tall)
Herbaceous (non-woody) plants with rhizoids.
absorb water and nutrients mainly through their leaves
harvest carbon dioxide and sunlight to create food by photosynthesis.
The plant body of a hornwort is a haploid gametophyte stage.
Also consist of the flattish green sheet called- thallus .
A horn-like structure and also does have rhizoids.
Usually grow on damp soils or on rock in tropical and warm
66. These Bryophytes are thought to
be the first plants.
They grow in shaded, moist
places, like the rainforests.
Mosses , Liverworts and
Hornworts reproduce by means
of sexual and asexual