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8D – Problem Solving Process Using 8 Disciplines -  a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence Anand Subramaniam
2 “An undefined problem has an infinite number of solutions.”  - Robert A. Humphrey
Quality Process - Definition Vendor / partner management Corrective & preventative action Continuous improvement Review operations results Customer management  / satisfaction Quality Process Process targets linked to business results People performance / training Cross functional teams along with people & process measures Non conforming material 3
Problem Solving Challenges Lack procedures Poor team participation No priorities, resources, $, approvals Management Impatient for a quick fix No logical thought process Problem solving steps skipped in order to obtain a quick solution Challenges Potential causes misidentified as root cause No action taken to implement a permanent corrective action Problem defined incorrectly Lack of technical skills / knowledge 4
Problem Solving – Why 8D is used ? Cause(s) unknown Major non conformances Special Cause Continuously improve quality  Reoccurring issues Why 8D? Customer complaints Tackle engineering problems Cross functional team approach needed To prevent recurrence  5
8 Discipline – Process D1. Define Team D2. Define Problem / Failure D3. Choose & Verify Interim Containment Action (ICA) D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s) D5. Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action(s) (PCA) D6. Implement & Validate PCA D7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence  D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
D1. Define Team 7 No Establish team cham-pion Select cross function-al team members who will partici-pate Does each member have product / process know-ledge & work experi-ence? Is the team size correct ? Define role, scope, schedule etc for each team  member Establish a team leader Establish advisors who will help the team members with the problem solving Ensure all areas for technical expertise are represen-ted Ensure team members are clear on goals, commu-nication, roles & respon-sibilities  ,[object Object]
The group must have an actively interested designated champion,[object Object]
Pareto analysis to select priority problems
Control charts to indicate special causes
Check sheets to define 5W2H  action plan to coordinate problem definition actions,[object Object]
Control charts and histograms with intensive sampling for process monitoring,[object Object]
Use Check sheet, comparison plots, histograms etc to evaluate stratification factors
Use Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics
Use Gage studies to evaluate the measurement system,[object Object]
Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information
FMEA,[object Object]

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8D Problem Solving Process

  • 1. 8D – Problem Solving Process Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence Anand Subramaniam
  • 2. 2 “An undefined problem has an infinite number of solutions.” - Robert A. Humphrey
  • 3. Quality Process - Definition Vendor / partner management Corrective & preventative action Continuous improvement Review operations results Customer management / satisfaction Quality Process Process targets linked to business results People performance / training Cross functional teams along with people & process measures Non conforming material 3
  • 4. Problem Solving Challenges Lack procedures Poor team participation No priorities, resources, $, approvals Management Impatient for a quick fix No logical thought process Problem solving steps skipped in order to obtain a quick solution Challenges Potential causes misidentified as root cause No action taken to implement a permanent corrective action Problem defined incorrectly Lack of technical skills / knowledge 4
  • 5. Problem Solving – Why 8D is used ? Cause(s) unknown Major non conformances Special Cause Continuously improve quality Reoccurring issues Why 8D? Customer complaints Tackle engineering problems Cross functional team approach needed To prevent recurrence 5
  • 6. 8 Discipline – Process D1. Define Team D2. Define Problem / Failure D3. Choose & Verify Interim Containment Action (ICA) D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s) D5. Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action(s) (PCA) D6. Implement & Validate PCA D7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Pareto analysis to select priority problems
  • 10. Control charts to indicate special causes
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Use Check sheet, comparison plots, histograms etc to evaluate stratification factors
  • 14. Use Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics
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  • 16. Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information
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  • 18. Comparison plots to periodically ensure stratification factors are not influencing process output
  • 19.
  • 20. Action plan to coordinate needed changes
  • 21.
  • 22. 16 “If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” - Abraham Maslow
  • 23. 17 Good Luck http://www.linkedin.com/in/anandsubramaniam