2. Each of us has a preferred learning style, a set of ways
through which we like to learn by
receiving, processing, and recalling new information.
RECEIVING PROCESSING RECALLING
3. What we now call the classical school was
launching a path of rapid and continuing
development in the science and practices
The principal object of management should be to secure maximum
prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity
for the employee.
Scientific management included these four core principles:
1.Develop a science for each job-rules of motion, standard work tools, and
proper work conditions.
2.Hire workers with the right abilities for the job.
3.Train and motivate workers to do their jobs according to the science.
4.Support workers by planning and assisting their work according to the science.
5. Max Weber was especially concerned that
people were in positions of authority not
because of their job-related capabilities
but because of their social standing or
A bureaucracy is a rational and efficient
form of organization founded on
logic, order, and legitimate authority.
6. Clear Division of Labor Jobs are well defined, and workers
become highly skilled at performing them.
Clear Hierarchy of Authority Authority and responsibility are
well defined, and each position reports to a higher-level one.
Formal Rules and Procedures Written guidelines describe
expected behavior and decisions in jobs; written files are kept
for the historical record.
Impersonality Rules and procedures are impartially and
uniformly applied; no one gets preferential treatment.
Careers Based on Merit Workers are selected and promoted on
ability and performance; managers are career employees of
Characteristics of an Ideal Bureaucracy
7. Fayol’s Five Rules Of Management:
•Foresight—complete a plan of action for the future.
•Organization—provide and mobilize resources to implement plan.
•Command—lead, select, and evaluate workers.
•Coordination—fit diverse efforts together, ensure information is shared and
problems are solved.
•Control—make sure things happen according to plan, take necessary
The scalar chain principle
states that organizations should
operate with clear and unbroken
lines of communication top to
The unity of command
Principle states that a worker
should receive orders from only
8. The underlying assumptions of Behavioral Management
approaches are that people are social and self-actualizing,
and that workers seek satisfying social relationships,
respond to group pressures, and search for personal
9. Good things really do grow from strong foundations
Follett suggested that making every employee an owner in the business.
10. The Hawthorne effect is the tendency of persons
singled out for special attention to perform as
The Hawthorne studies helped shift the attention of
managers and researchers away from the technical
and structural concerns of the classical approaches
and toward social and human concerns as important
keys to workplace productivity.
11. Maslow :
Needs create tensions that can influence a person’s
work attitudes and behaviors.
A NEED is a physiological or
psychological deficiency that a
person wants to satisfy.
13. Maslow’s Progression Principle
is that a need at any level
becomes activated only after the
next-lower-level need is satisfied.
Maslow’s Deficit Principle is that
people act to satisfy needs for
which a satisfaction deficit exists;
a satisfied need doesn’t motivate
14. McGregor :
managers should pay more attention to the social
and self-actualizing needs of people at work.
Theory X assumes people
dislike work, lack ambition,
are irresponsible, and prefer
to be led.
Theory Y assumes people
are willing to work, accept
responsibility, are self-
directed, and are creative.
A self-fulfilling prophecy
occurs when a person acts in
ways that confirm another’s
15. Argyris suggests that workers treated
as adults will be more productive.
Psychological success is more
likely when people define
their own goals.
Fayol’s Administrative Principles
16. Analytics is the systematic use and analysis
of data to solve problems and make
Management science and operations research
apply mathematical techniques to solve
18. Operations Management is the study of
how organizations produce goods and
services efficiently and effectively.
Business Process Analysis
Facilities Layouts and Locations
Work Scheduling and Project Management
19. An Open System transforms resource
inputs from the environment into product
20. Any organization also operates as a complex network of
subsystems, or smaller components, whose activities
individually and collectively support the work of the
21. Contingency Thinking recognizes organizational complexities
and attempts to identify practices that best fit with the unique
demands of different situations.
Contingency Thinking recognizes that the structure that works
well for one organization may not work well for another in
22. Quality Management focuses attention on
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Product Quality Customer Needs
23. Continuous Improvement involves always searching
for new ways to improve work quality and
The goal is that one can never be satisfied;
something always can and should be
24. A High-Performance Organization consistently
achieves excellence while creating a high-quality
Evidence-Based Management (EBM) involves
making decisions based on hard facts about
what really works.
Hard Facts Half-Truths
Things that sound good but lack