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Saturday, 06 December 
2014
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Saturday, 06 December 2014
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What is Cyber 
CCrimre icommmeitte?d u?sin?g a computer and the internet to steal a person's 
identity or sell contraband or stalk victims or disrupt operations with 
malicious programs.. 
 Threatening Email, Assuming someone's Identity, Sexual Harassment, 
Defamation, Spam and Phishing are some examples where computers 
are used to commit crime. 
 Viruses, Worms and Industrial Espionage, Software Piracy and Hacking 
are examples where computers become target of crime.
The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820! 
In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced 
loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of 
special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their 
traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed 
acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new 
technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime! 
7
• Teen (age group 11-19 etc.) 
• Organized hacktivists 
• Disgruntled employees 
• Professional hackers 
• Terrorists 
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We can categorize cyber crime in two ways:- 
1. The computer as a Target :- using a computer to 
attack other computers . e.g. hacking , virus/worm 
attacks etc. 
2. The computer as a Weapon :- using a computer to 
commit real world crimes. e.g. cyber terrorism , 
credit card frauds , pornography etc. 
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1. HACKING 
2. VIRUS ATTACK 
3. CREDIT CARD FRAUD 
4. PHISHING 
5. CYBER DEFAMATION 
6. DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK 
7. SOFTWARE PIRACY 
8. NET EXTORTION 
9. SPOOFING 
10. IRC CRIME 
11. BLUE BUGGING 
12. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY 10
Hackingis the gaining of access of others computer 
and viewing, copying, or creating data without the knowledge of owner 
 The person who is consistently engaging in hacking activities, and 
has accepted hacking as a lifestyle and philosophy of their choice, is 
called a hacker. 
Kevin David Mitnick is first hacker 
11
 A computer virus is a maliciously made program 
that is used to destroy data, or hurt the performance of the computer. 
 It is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs 
against your wishes 
 Viruses can replicate themselves. All computer viruses are man-made. 
A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again 
is relatively easy to produce. 
The first virus was made in 1971 by Bob Thomas 
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 A Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire 
Information such as usernames, passwords, 
and credit card details by pretending as 
a trustworthy entity in an electronic 
communication 
 Phishing emails may contain links to 
websites that are infected with malware. 
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A term used to describe the act of illegally using, copying or 
distributing software without purchasing the software or having 
the legal rights. 
The majority of software purchased today is purchased as a 
one-site license, meaning that only one computer may have that 
software installed on it at one time. 
 Copying that software to multiple computers or sharing it 
with your friend without multiple licenses is considered illegal 
and is considered software piracy.. 
15
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat. It is 
mainly designed for group (many-to-many) communication in discussion forums 
called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message. 
 Criminal use it for meeting co-conspirators. 
 Hackers use it for discussing their exploits / sharing the techniques. 
 Paedophiles use chat rooms to allure small children. 
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Internet extortion is hacking into and controlling 
various industry databases , promising to release control back to 
the company if funds are received or some other demand is 
satisfied. Similarly, the subject will threaten 
tocompromise information about consumers in the 
industry database unless funds are received. 
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Top Countries in 
Cyber Crime 
India stands 4th in the ranking for Cyber Crime in the World, constituting 
9.5% of the Global Cyber Crime.
Indian Crime Scene 
 The major Cyber Crimes reported, in India, are Denial of Services, 
Defacement of Websites, Spam, Computer Virus and Worms, 
Pornography, Cyber Squatting, Cyber Stalking and Phishing. 
 Given the fact that nearly $ 120 million worth of Mobiles are being lost 
or stolen in the country every year. 
 Nearly 69 per cent of information theft is carried out by current 
and ex-employees and 31 per cent by hackers.
India is the third-most targeted country for Phishing attacks after the US and the UK, 
Social networks as well as ecommerce sites are major targets, 
14,348 website defacements in 2013. 
6,850 .in and 4,150 .com domains were defaced during 2013, 
India is the number 1 country in the world for generating spam.
The police have recorded 3,038 cases but made only 2,700 arrests in 3 years 
(between 2007 and 2010). 
India registered only 1,350 cases under the IT Act and IPC in 2010 
50% of cybercrimes are not even reported.
Cost Of Cyber Crime In India 
(2013) 
 39.9 million people fell victim to cybercrime, 
 $5 billion in direct financial losses, 
 $3.6 billion in time spent resolving the crime, 
 4 in 5 online adults (80%) have been a victim of 
Cybercrime, 
 17% of adults online have experienced cybercrime on 
their mobile phone. 
Source: Norton Cybercrime 
Report Jan 2014
Why India??? 
A rapidly growing online user base 
 Adminstration is very bad . No laws are properly followed 
 321 Million Internet Users 
 105 Million Active Internet Users, up by 58% from 51 million in 2013 
 50 Million users shop online on Ecommerce and Online Shopping 
Sites 
 66+ Million Social Network Users 
 546 million mobile users had subscribed to Data Packages.
Recent cases 
 Pakistan hackers deface 22 Indian 
websites and abuse PM Modi on 10 
nov 
Goa State government website 
hacked last week. 
Maharaja Agrasen official website 
hacked by a teen recently. 
NRI transfers 50 lakh in his own 
account 
Man arrested for posting offensive 
pictures on facebook 
Saturday, 06 December 2014
Cyber 
Laws 
in India 
25
Whoever without permission of the owner of the computer : 
 Secures Access; 
 Downloads, Copies or extracts 
any data, computer database or 
any information; 
 Introduce or causes to be introduce 
any Virus or Contaminant; 
 Disrupts or causes disruption; 
 Denies or causes denial of access to any person; 
 Provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access 
 Charges the services availed of by a person to the 
account of another person by Tampering with or 
Manipulating any Computer, Computer System, or 
Computer Network 
Shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation 
not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so 
affected. 
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Information Technology 
Amendment Act, 2008 
 Section – 43, 
 Destroys, Deletes or Alters any Information residing in a computer 
resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by 
any means. 
 Steals, conceals, destroys or alters any computer source code 
with an intention to cause damage. 
“If any person, dishonestly, or fraudulently, does any act referred to 
in section 43, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term 
which may extend to two three years or with fine which may extend 
to five lakh rupees or with both.”
 S .66A Punishment for sending offensive messages through 
communication service, etc 
Any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the 
purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to 
deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the 
origin of such messages. Shall be punishable with 
imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and 
with fine. 
 S. 66C - Punishment for identity theft 
Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of the electronic 
signature, password or any other unique identification feature of 
any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either 
description for a term which may extend to three years and shall 
also be liable to fine which may extend to rupees one lakh.
 S. 66D - Punishment for cheating by personation 
by using computer resource 
Whoever, by means of any communication device or 
computer resource cheats by personation, shall be punished 
with imprisonment of either description for a term which may 
extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which 
may extend to one lakh rupees. 
 S. 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy. 
Whoever, intentionally or knowingly captures, 
publishes or transmits the image of a private area of any person 
without his or her consent, under circumstances violating the privacy 
of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment which may 
extend to three years or with fine not exceeding two lakh rupees, 
or with both
 S. 67 A - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material 
containing sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form 
Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published 
or transmitted in the electronic form any material which 
contains sexually explicit act or conduct shall be punished 
on first conviction with imprisonment of either description 
for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which 
may extend to ten lakh rupees. 
 S. 67 C - Preservation and Retention of information by 
intermediaries. 
Intermediary shall preserve and retain such information as may be 
specified for such duration and in such manner and format as the 
Central Government may prescribe.Any intermediary who 
intentionally or knowingly contravenes the provisions of sub section 
shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which 
may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
Arrests & Reports Under IT 
31 
Act 
 Under the IT Act, 966 cybercrime 
cases were filed in 2013 
420 in 2012) 
 Geographic breakdown of cases 
reported: 
o 153 from Karnataka, 
o 148 from Kerala 
o 142 from Maharashtra 
o 105 Andhra Pradesh 
o 52 Rajasthan 
o 52 Punjab 
 233 persons were arrested in 2013 
 33% of the cases registered were 
related to hacking 
Source: National Crime Records 
Bureau
The Future of Cyber-Crimes in 
India 
• Continued Website Hacks and 
Defacements 
• Data and Information theft 
• Increasing phishing attacks on 
Ecommerce and Financial Websites 
• Cybercriminals targeting Social and 
Professional Networks 
• Threats directed at the Mobile Platform: 
Smartphones and Tablets 
Saturday, 06 December 2014
How to Tackle Such activity??? 
An important question arises that how can these crimes be prevented. A number 
of techniques and solutions have been presented but the problems still exists and 
are increasing day by day. 
 Antivirus And Anti Spyware Software: 
Аntivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to 
identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious 
software. 
Anti spywares are used to restrict backdoor program, trojans and 
other spywares to be installed on the computer. 
 Firewalls: 
Protects a computer network from unauthorized access. 
may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of the 
two. typically guards an internal computer network against malicious 
access from outside the network.
34
 Education 
 Use a firewall 
 Click with caution 
 Practice safe surfing 
 Practice safe shopping 
 Use comprehensive security software 
and keep your system updated 
 Secure your wireless network 
 Use strong passwords 
 Use common sense 
 Be suspicious 35
As someone rightly said that “bytes are replacing bullets in the crime world”. 
The growth of cyber crime in India, as all over the world, is on the rise and to curb its 
scope and complexity is the pertinent need today. India’s profile and wealth have 
risen enormously in the world due to the constructive use of information technology. 
At the same time, India ranks fourth in the world for cyber crime. Even under the IT 
Act, investigations in India are not easy. This is mainly due to the lack of what is called 
“cyber forensics.” We know that forensic evidence is important in normal criminal 
investigations. But the collection and presentation of electronic evidence to prove 
cyber crimes have posed a challenge to investigation and prosecution agencies and the 
judiciary. 
To sum up, India needs a good combination of laws and technology, in 
harmony with the laws of other countries and keeping in mind common security 
standards. In the era of e-governance and e-commerce, a lack of common security 
standards can create havoc for global trade as well as military matters. 
36
37 
And Keep Browsing
38
 The term defamationis used to define the injury that is caused to 
the reputation of a person in the eyes of a third person. 
 The injury can be done by words oral or written, or by signs or by visible 
representations. 
 Cyber defamation is publishing of defamatory material against another 
person with the help of computers or internet. 
39

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cyber crime and laws

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  • 5. 5
  • 6. What is Cyber CCrimre icommmeitte?d u?sin?g a computer and the internet to steal a person's identity or sell contraband or stalk victims or disrupt operations with malicious programs..  Threatening Email, Assuming someone's Identity, Sexual Harassment, Defamation, Spam and Phishing are some examples where computers are used to commit crime.  Viruses, Worms and Industrial Espionage, Software Piracy and Hacking are examples where computers become target of crime.
  • 7. The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820! In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime! 7
  • 8. • Teen (age group 11-19 etc.) • Organized hacktivists • Disgruntled employees • Professional hackers • Terrorists 8
  • 9. We can categorize cyber crime in two ways:- 1. The computer as a Target :- using a computer to attack other computers . e.g. hacking , virus/worm attacks etc. 2. The computer as a Weapon :- using a computer to commit real world crimes. e.g. cyber terrorism , credit card frauds , pornography etc. 9
  • 10. 1. HACKING 2. VIRUS ATTACK 3. CREDIT CARD FRAUD 4. PHISHING 5. CYBER DEFAMATION 6. DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK 7. SOFTWARE PIRACY 8. NET EXTORTION 9. SPOOFING 10. IRC CRIME 11. BLUE BUGGING 12. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY 10
  • 11. Hackingis the gaining of access of others computer and viewing, copying, or creating data without the knowledge of owner  The person who is consistently engaging in hacking activities, and has accepted hacking as a lifestyle and philosophy of their choice, is called a hacker. Kevin David Mitnick is first hacker 11
  • 12.  A computer virus is a maliciously made program that is used to destroy data, or hurt the performance of the computer.  It is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes  Viruses can replicate themselves. All computer viruses are man-made. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. The first virus was made in 1971 by Bob Thomas 12
  • 13.  A Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire Information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by pretending as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication  Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. A term used to describe the act of illegally using, copying or distributing software without purchasing the software or having the legal rights. The majority of software purchased today is purchased as a one-site license, meaning that only one computer may have that software installed on it at one time.  Copying that software to multiple computers or sharing it with your friend without multiple licenses is considered illegal and is considered software piracy.. 15
  • 16. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat. It is mainly designed for group (many-to-many) communication in discussion forums called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message.  Criminal use it for meeting co-conspirators.  Hackers use it for discussing their exploits / sharing the techniques.  Paedophiles use chat rooms to allure small children. 16
  • 17. Internet extortion is hacking into and controlling various industry databases , promising to release control back to the company if funds are received or some other demand is satisfied. Similarly, the subject will threaten tocompromise information about consumers in the industry database unless funds are received. 17
  • 18. Top Countries in Cyber Crime India stands 4th in the ranking for Cyber Crime in the World, constituting 9.5% of the Global Cyber Crime.
  • 19. Indian Crime Scene  The major Cyber Crimes reported, in India, are Denial of Services, Defacement of Websites, Spam, Computer Virus and Worms, Pornography, Cyber Squatting, Cyber Stalking and Phishing.  Given the fact that nearly $ 120 million worth of Mobiles are being lost or stolen in the country every year.  Nearly 69 per cent of information theft is carried out by current and ex-employees and 31 per cent by hackers.
  • 20. India is the third-most targeted country for Phishing attacks after the US and the UK, Social networks as well as ecommerce sites are major targets, 14,348 website defacements in 2013. 6,850 .in and 4,150 .com domains were defaced during 2013, India is the number 1 country in the world for generating spam.
  • 21. The police have recorded 3,038 cases but made only 2,700 arrests in 3 years (between 2007 and 2010). India registered only 1,350 cases under the IT Act and IPC in 2010 50% of cybercrimes are not even reported.
  • 22. Cost Of Cyber Crime In India (2013)  39.9 million people fell victim to cybercrime,  $5 billion in direct financial losses,  $3.6 billion in time spent resolving the crime,  4 in 5 online adults (80%) have been a victim of Cybercrime,  17% of adults online have experienced cybercrime on their mobile phone. Source: Norton Cybercrime Report Jan 2014
  • 23. Why India??? A rapidly growing online user base  Adminstration is very bad . No laws are properly followed  321 Million Internet Users  105 Million Active Internet Users, up by 58% from 51 million in 2013  50 Million users shop online on Ecommerce and Online Shopping Sites  66+ Million Social Network Users  546 million mobile users had subscribed to Data Packages.
  • 24. Recent cases  Pakistan hackers deface 22 Indian websites and abuse PM Modi on 10 nov Goa State government website hacked last week. Maharaja Agrasen official website hacked by a teen recently. NRI transfers 50 lakh in his own account Man arrested for posting offensive pictures on facebook Saturday, 06 December 2014
  • 25. Cyber Laws in India 25
  • 26. Whoever without permission of the owner of the computer :  Secures Access;  Downloads, Copies or extracts any data, computer database or any information;  Introduce or causes to be introduce any Virus or Contaminant;  Disrupts or causes disruption;  Denies or causes denial of access to any person;  Provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access  Charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by Tampering with or Manipulating any Computer, Computer System, or Computer Network Shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so affected. 26
  • 27. Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008  Section – 43,  Destroys, Deletes or Alters any Information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means.  Steals, conceals, destroys or alters any computer source code with an intention to cause damage. “If any person, dishonestly, or fraudulently, does any act referred to in section 43, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two three years or with fine which may extend to five lakh rupees or with both.”
  • 28.  S .66A Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service, etc Any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages. Shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine.  S. 66C - Punishment for identity theft Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of the electronic signature, password or any other unique identification feature of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to rupees one lakh.
  • 29.  S. 66D - Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource Whoever, by means of any communication device or computer resource cheats by personation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to one lakh rupees.  S. 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy. Whoever, intentionally or knowingly captures, publishes or transmits the image of a private area of any person without his or her consent, under circumstances violating the privacy of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine not exceeding two lakh rupees, or with both
  • 30.  S. 67 A - Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted in the electronic form any material which contains sexually explicit act or conduct shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.  S. 67 C - Preservation and Retention of information by intermediaries. Intermediary shall preserve and retain such information as may be specified for such duration and in such manner and format as the Central Government may prescribe.Any intermediary who intentionally or knowingly contravenes the provisions of sub section shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
  • 31. Arrests & Reports Under IT 31 Act  Under the IT Act, 966 cybercrime cases were filed in 2013 420 in 2012)  Geographic breakdown of cases reported: o 153 from Karnataka, o 148 from Kerala o 142 from Maharashtra o 105 Andhra Pradesh o 52 Rajasthan o 52 Punjab  233 persons were arrested in 2013  33% of the cases registered were related to hacking Source: National Crime Records Bureau
  • 32. The Future of Cyber-Crimes in India • Continued Website Hacks and Defacements • Data and Information theft • Increasing phishing attacks on Ecommerce and Financial Websites • Cybercriminals targeting Social and Professional Networks • Threats directed at the Mobile Platform: Smartphones and Tablets Saturday, 06 December 2014
  • 33. How to Tackle Such activity??? An important question arises that how can these crimes be prevented. A number of techniques and solutions have been presented but the problems still exists and are increasing day by day.  Antivirus And Anti Spyware Software: Аntivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. Anti spywares are used to restrict backdoor program, trojans and other spywares to be installed on the computer.  Firewalls: Protects a computer network from unauthorized access. may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of the two. typically guards an internal computer network against malicious access from outside the network.
  • 34. 34
  • 35.  Education  Use a firewall  Click with caution  Practice safe surfing  Practice safe shopping  Use comprehensive security software and keep your system updated  Secure your wireless network  Use strong passwords  Use common sense  Be suspicious 35
  • 36. As someone rightly said that “bytes are replacing bullets in the crime world”. The growth of cyber crime in India, as all over the world, is on the rise and to curb its scope and complexity is the pertinent need today. India’s profile and wealth have risen enormously in the world due to the constructive use of information technology. At the same time, India ranks fourth in the world for cyber crime. Even under the IT Act, investigations in India are not easy. This is mainly due to the lack of what is called “cyber forensics.” We know that forensic evidence is important in normal criminal investigations. But the collection and presentation of electronic evidence to prove cyber crimes have posed a challenge to investigation and prosecution agencies and the judiciary. To sum up, India needs a good combination of laws and technology, in harmony with the laws of other countries and keeping in mind common security standards. In the era of e-governance and e-commerce, a lack of common security standards can create havoc for global trade as well as military matters. 36
  • 37. 37 And Keep Browsing
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  • 39.  The term defamationis used to define the injury that is caused to the reputation of a person in the eyes of a third person.  The injury can be done by words oral or written, or by signs or by visible representations.  Cyber defamation is publishing of defamatory material against another person with the help of computers or internet. 39