2. MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION
*is a term used to denote a section of the
media specifically envisioned and designed
to reach a very large audience such as the
population of a nation state.
3. MASS MEDIA: DEFINITION
It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of
nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation
newspapers and magazines.
Although mass media (like books and
manuscripts) were present centuries before
the term became common.
4. PUBLIC MEDIA
*The term public media has a similar
―It is the sum of the public mass
distributors of news and entertainment
across media such as newspapers,
television, radio, broadcasting.‖
5. HISTORY: EARLY DEVELOPMENTS
Types of drama in numerous cultures were
probably the first mass-media, going back
into the Ancient World.
Cave art, hieroglyphics, alphabets, scrolls
The first dated printed book known is the
"Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD.
Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in
6. HISTORY: 1400
The earliest printed mass-medium was
probably European popular prints from
Although these were produced in huge
numbers, very few early examples
survive, and even most known to be
printed before about 1600 have not
7. HISTORY: PRINTING PRESS
*Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book
on a printing press with movable type in
*This invention transformed the way the
world received printed materials, although
books remained too expensive really to be
called a mass-medium for at least a century
8. HISTORY: 1600-1800
*Newspapers developed around from 1612,
with the first example in English in 1620; but
they took until the nineteenth century to
reach a mass-audience directly.
9. HISTORY: 20TH CENTURY
*The growth of mass media in this century
was driven by technology that allowed the
massive duplication of material.
*Physical duplication technologies such as
printing, record pressing and film
duplication allowed the duplication of
books, newspapers and movies at low
prices to huge audiences.
Radio and television allowed the electronic
duplication of information for the first time.
c1400: Appearance of European popular
*1453: Johnannes Gutenberg uses his
printing press to print the Bible, making
books freely accessible to many people
during the Renaissance.
1620: First newspaper (or coranto) in
*1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the first
1830: Telegraphy is independently developed
in England and the United States.
*1876: First telephone call made by
Alexander Graham Bell.
*1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents the
1890: First juke box in San Francisco's
Palais Royal Saloon.
1890: Telephone wires are installed in
1894: Thomas Edison patents the
Kinetograph and Kinetoscope, which were
invented in his laboratories.
*1895: Cinematograph invented by Auguste
and Louis Lumiere, based on Edison's
1896: Hollerith founds the Tabulating
Machine Co. It will become IBM in 1924.
*1897: Guglielmo Marconi patents the
*1898: Loudspeaker is invented.
1902: Daily Nation is started in Kenya.
*1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang from
Australia is world's first feature length film.
*1912: Air mail begins.
1913: Edison transfers from cylinder
recordings to more easily reproducible discs.
*1913: The portable phonograph is
1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, United
States, becoming the world's first commercial
1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting to
1924: KDKA created a short-wave radio
1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority of
1926: NBC is formed.
*1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motion
picture with sounds debuts.
*1927: Philo T. Farnsworth debuts the first
electronic television system.
1928: The Teletype was introduced.
1933: Edward Armstrong invents FM Radio.
*1935: First telephone call made around the
1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-
coast fax service.
1939: Regular electronic television
broadcasts begin in the US.
1939: The wire recorder is invented in the
1940: The first commercial television station,
WNBT New York signs on the air.
1948: Cable television becomes available in
*1951: The first color televisions go on sale.
*1957: Sputnik is launched and sends back
signals from near earth orbit.
1959: Xerox makes the first copier.
1960: Echo I, a US balloon in orbit, reflects
radio signals to Earth.
1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image
across the Atlantic.
1963: Audio cassette is invented in the
Netherlands by Philips for use as a dictation
1965: Vietnam War becomes first war to
*1967: Newspapers, magazines start to
1968: The Philips C-Cassette is introduced
as a music recording cassette
*1969: Man's first landing on the moon is
broadcast to 600 million people around the
1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internet
*1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor.
*1972: Pong becomes the first video game to
win widespread popularity.
1973: The first home video cassette recorder
is introduced by Philips in Europe.
*1975: The MITS Altair 8800 becomes the
first pre-assembled desktop computer
available on the market.
1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape -
becomes the standard consumer format in
the 1980s & 1990s.
*1979: First mobile phone service is
commercially launched by NTT in Japan,
ESPN is launched in the USA.
1980: CNN launches in the USA.
1980: New York Times, Wall Street
Journal, Dow Jones put news database
*1981: The IBM PC is introduced on 12
August. MTV launches in the USA
1982: Philips and Sony put the Compact Disc
on the Japanese market.
*1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced.
1985: CD-ROMs begin to be sold.
*First laptop computer introduced by Toshiba
1987: Japanese Digital Audio Tape
technology arrives both in the United States
and in Western Europe.
*1991: World Wide Web (WWW) publicly
released by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.
1993: CERN announces that the WWW
will be free for anyone to use. First
advertisements appear on the internet
*1994: Mosaic became the first popular
World Wide Web browser because of the
1996: First DVD players and discs are
available in Japan. Twister is the first film
*1997: The Nokia Communicator
smartphone is launched in Finland, is
world's first fully internet capable mobile
phone and offers full email on a phone
1998: First downloadable content for
mobile phones appears in Finland with
advent of ringing tone.
*1999: Napster contributes to the
popularization of MP3.
First mobile internet service provider NTT
DoCoMo's i-Mode launches in Japan.
2000: First advertising appears on mobile
phones in Finland.
First cameraphones launched by J-Phone in
2001: First video content for mobile launches
with MainosTV3 news in Finland.
*2004: Howard Dean is the first Presidential
candidate to create a blog.
*Citizen Journalism invented in South Korea
by Ohmy News.
2005: Media forms begin to converge.
First mobile broadcast TV service goes live
on TU Media in South Korea.
First news ticker feed appears on mobile
phone idle screen in Japan.
36. PURPOSES OF MEDIA
Mass media can be used for various purposes:
Advocacy, both for business and social concerns.
This can include
advertising, marketing, propaganda, public
relations, and political communication.
Enrichment and education.
Entertainment, traditionally through performances
of acting, music, and sports, along with light reading;
since the late 20th century also through video and
Public service announcements.
37. MASS MEDIA ECONOMICS
*Mass media had the economics of linear
―a single work could make money
proportional to the number of copies sold,
and as volumes went up, units costs went
down, increasing profit margins further.‖
38. MEDIA INFLUENCE
*In a democratic society, independent media
serve to educate the public/electorate about
issues regarding government and corporate
entities. This is called Media influence.
Some consider the concentration of media
ownership to be a grave threat to democracy.
39. NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MASS MEDIA
Another description of Mass Media is central
media which implies:
*An ability to transmit implicit or hidden
*The manipulation of large groups of people
through media outlets, for the benefit of a
particular interest party and/or group of people.
*Bias, political or otherwise, towards favoring a
certain individual, outcome or resolution of an
40. MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION
Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio,
television, and the Internet.
Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20th
century, these were mainly used for music.
Video and computer uses followed.
41. MEDIA FORMS IN EDUCATION
Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for
radio, television, and the Internet.
Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20th
century, these were mainly used for music.
Video and computer uses followed.
42. PRINTED MASS MEDIA
# By the end of this lesson, students
should be able to:
Identify the different types of printed
mass media, and their application in
*Journalism is a discipline of collecting,
analyzing, verifying, and presenting
information regarding current events,
trends, issues and people.
Those who practice journalism are known
News-oriented journalism is sometimes
described as the "first rough draft of
history" (attributed to Phil Graham),
because journalists often record important
events, producing news articles on short
While under pressure to be first with their
stories, news media organizations usually
edit and proofread their reports prior to
publication, adhering to each
organization's standards of accuracy,
quality and style.
Many news organizations claim proud
traditions of holding government officials
and institutions accountable to the public,
while media critics have raised questions
46. PUBLIC RELATIONS
Public relations is the art and science of
managing communication between an
organization and its key publics to build,
manage and sustain its positive image.
47. PUBLIC RELATIONS
Corporations use marketing public
relations (MPR) to convey information
about the products they manufacture or
services they provide to potential
customers to support their direct sales
Typically, they support sales in the short
and long term, establishing and burnishing
the corporation's branding for a strong,
48. PUBLIC RELATIONS
Corporations also use public-relations as a
vehicle to reach decision makers, and they
may use public relations to portray
themselves as enlightened employers, in
support of human-resources recruiting
49. PUBLIC RELATIONS
Non-profit organizations, including schools
and universities, hospitals, and human and
social service agencies, use public
relations in support of awareness
programs, fund-raising programs, staff
recruiting, and to increase patronage of
Decision makers use public relations to
raise money, promote and defend their
service in office
A newspaper is a publication containing
news and information and advertising,
usually printed on low-cost paper called
It may be general or special interest, most
often published daily or weekly.
The first printed newspaper was published
in 1605, and the form has thrived even in
the face of competition from technologies
such as radio and television.
Recent developments on the Internet are
posing major threats to its business model.
Paid circulation is declining in most
countries, and advertising revenue, which
makes up the bulk of a newspaper's
income, is shifting from print to online.
Some commentators, nevertheless, point
out that historically new media such as
radio and television did not entirely
Publishing is the industry concerned with
the production of literature or information –
the activity of making information available
for public view.
In some cases, authors may be their own
*Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution
of printed works such as books and newspapers.
*With the advent of digital information systems
and the Internet, the scope of publishing has
expanded to include websites, blogs, and the
As a business, publishing includes the
development, marketing, production, and
distribution of newspapers, magazines, books,
literary works, musical works, software, other
works dealing with information.
*A book is a collection of sheets of paper,
parchment or other material with a piece of
text written on them, bound together along
one edge within covers.
A book is also a literary work or a main
division of such a work.
*A book produced in electronic format is
known as an e-book.
In library and information science, a book
is called a monograph to distinguish it from
serial publications such as magazines,
journals or newspapers.
Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-
proof editions known as galleys or 'bound
proofs' for promotional purposes, such as
generating reviews in advance of
*A magazine is a periodical publication
containing a variety of articles, generally
financed by advertising and/or purchase
Magazines are typically published weekly,
biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly,
with a date on the cover that is in advance
of the date it is actually published.
They are often printed in color on coated
paper, and are bound with a soft cover.
*Magazines fall into two broad categories:
consumer magazines and business
*In practice, magazines are a subset of
periodicals, distinct from those periodicals
produced by scientific, artistic, academic
or special interest publishers which are
subscription-only, more expensive,
narrowly limited in circulation, and often
have little or no advertising.
*Magazines can be classified as:
General interest magazines (e.g. Oman daily,
Al Watan, etc)
Special interest magazines (educational,
sports, business, diving, etc)
60. EDUCATION JOURNALISM
*Journalism that focuses on what goes on
inside classrooms requires that journalists
know something about education.
There’s much journalism about schools that
is important and compelling but that is not
precisely about education.
Covering the school board, for example, is
Education writers, however, need to also be
able to communicate clearly about the heart
of the matter—teaching and learning.
61. EDUCATION JOURNALISM
*what goes on inside classrooms is a
complicated interaction between and
among students, and with their teacher,
while wrestling with important content.
And all of those interactions are influenced
by what happens outside of class and
outside the school.