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Project / Program / Portfolio Management and Processes Groups

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Project / Program / Portfolio Management and Processes Groups

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What are the differences between project, program, and portfolio management?
how the organization structure can affect projects?
what are the project management processes groups?

What are the differences between project, program, and portfolio management?
how the organization structure can affect projects?
what are the project management processes groups?

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Project / Program / Portfolio Management and Processes Groups

  1. 1. PMP Preparation Course Project/ Program/ Portfolio Management and Project Process Groups
  2. 2. Project , Program, Portfolio and Operational management • Portfolio = Organizational / departmental • Program = Business Area and/ or related Projects • Project = Unique Initiative • Operational = Day to Day Execution
  3. 3. Portfolio Management • “ Large Focus” – Organizational / Department • Could be several Programs + projects • Typically has a long term focus • Focused on achieving specific objectives (Business Plan/ Org Objectives) • Typically has approval authority (start/ acceptance of projects/ programs)
  4. 4. Portfolio Project Program Project Project Other related Work Program Program
  5. 5. Program Management • Related Project with a common theme • May have a business unit focus • Medium term focus – often disbands when results are achieved • Co-ordinates resources and dependencies across projects • Should be done only when the program approach adds value
  6. 6. Program Project Project Project Other related work
  7. 7. Project Management • Temporary • Unique requirements • Beginning and End • Resources
  8. 8. Comparative Discussion Project Program Portfolio Scope Well defined More Volatile Strategic Change Fully Managed Tradeoffs Monitor Planning Fully Planned Program Plan Strategic Management Dedicated PM Vision Leader Cross-Funct. Success Time/ $/ S/ Q Overall Needs Bus. Plan Monitoring Work Package Projects Bus. Performance
  9. 9. PMO – Project Management Office • Centralized and standardized the management of Projects – Supportive ( provide Policies, Methodologies, templates and lessons learned) – Controlling (Provide support and guidance, train others in project management and ensure compliance to organizational practices) – Directive ( provide PMs to different projects, responsible for the result and have high level of control)
  10. 10. Description Type of PMO 1 Manages all projects throughout the organization Directive 2 Provides support and guidance, requires all projects within the organization to use designed project management software and templates, but doesn’t otherwise exert control over the project Controlling 3 Coordinate all projects within the organization Controlling or Directive 4 Recommends common terminology, templates, and reporting and other procedures to be used on projects throughout the organization to promote consistency and streamline effort supportive 5 Appoints project Manager Directive 6 Prioritizes projects Controlling or Directive 7 Has the highest level of control over projects Directive
  11. 11. Organizational Structure • Projects Cannot Be Run in Isolation • Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment • PM need to understand: – Organizational Environmental Factors – Organizational Structure
  12. 12. Organizational Environmental Factors • Culture (Risk Taking, Risk Averse) • Government Regulations • Geographic Distribution • Infrastructure • Human Resource • Market Condition • Political Climate ( Make Decission)
  13. 13. Organizational Structure • Functional • Matrix • Project
  14. 14. Functional Orgnization Chief Funct. Manager 1 Staff Staff Staff Funct. Manager 2 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 3 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 4 Staff Staff staff
  15. 15. Matrix Organization – Weak Matrix Chief Funct. Manager 1 Staff Staff Staff Funct. Manager 2 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 3 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 4 Staff Staff staff
  16. 16. Balanced Matrix Chief Funct. Manager 1 Staff Staff Staff PM Funct. Manager 2 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 3 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 4 Staff Staff staff
  17. 17. Strong Matrix Organization Chief Project Management (PMO) PM PM PM Funct. Manager 1 Staff Staff Staff Funct. Manager 2 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 3 Staff Staff staff Funct. Manager 4 Staff Staff staff
  18. 18. Project Orgnization Chief FM Staff Staff staff PM Proj. Proj. Bus PM Proj. Bus. Proj. PM Proj. Bus. Proj. PM Proj. Bus. Proj.
  19. 19. Organizational Influences
  20. 20. Org. Structure Advantages - Disadvantages
  21. 21. Organizational Process Assets • Processes, Procedures, and Policies ( Why reinvent the wheel) • Corporate Knowledge Base ( Historical Records) • Historical Information (record of past projects) • Lessons Learned (What Type of information should be included in)
  22. 22. Lessons Learned role
  23. 23. Process Groups • A process is a series of actions directed toward a particular result • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes • The project management process groups include: – Initiating processes – Planning processes – Executing processes – Monitoring and controlling processes – Closing processes
  24. 24. Level of Activity and Overlap of Process Groups Over Time
  25. 25. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 1 Use the project scope statement to gain approval of the final scope from stakeholder before further planning is done Planning 2 Determine high-level requirements, constraints, assumptions, and risks Initiating 3 Measure against the performance measurement baseline. Monitoring and controlling 4 Implement approved changes, including corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repair. Executing 5 Reanalyze existing risks Monitoring and controlling 6 Use the high-level planning and estimating data to determine whether the product can be achieved within the given constraints Initiating 7 Verify and document that the project, or project phase, meets completion or exit criteria set in place during project planning Closing 8 Hold team building activities Executing
  26. 26. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 9 Evaluate the effectiveness of risk responses in a risk audit Monitoring and controlling 10 Determine how you will plan the planning, executing, and controlling efforts for stakeholders, requirements, scope, schedule , cost , quality , process improvement, human resources, communications, risk, procurement, changes, and configuration, and put that information into the beginnings of management plan Planning 11 Obtain formal (legal) sign-off and final acceptance of the product of the project from the customer Closing 12 Increase the effectiveness of processes Executing 13 Recalculate how much the project will cost and how long it will take, and create forecasts. Monitoring and controlling 14 Plan what will be communicated on the project, to whom, by whom, when, and how Planning 15 Spend time trying to improve quality Executing 16 Make sure the business case and the analysis supporting the need for the project are documented and understood. Initiating
  27. 27. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 17 Evaluate how effectively the team members function as a team Executing 18 Determine how you will improve the processes in use on the project Planning 19 Determine measurable project and product objective Initiating 20 Manage the time and cost reserve Monitoring and controlling 21 Focus on looking for exceptions to the approves project management plan in team members’ performance, rather than checking up on every person’s work or babysitting Executing 22 Develop the final project management plan, project documents, and performance measurement baseline by performing schedule network analysis, looking for options, and confirming that project objectives can be met Planning 23 Gather final lessons learned Closing 24 Keep everyone focused on completing the project to the project charter and project management plan Executing 25 Calculate estimate to complete Monitoring and controlling
  28. 28. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 26 Understand how the project supports the organization’s strategic objectives. Initiating 27 Implement approved process improvements Executing 28 Identify stakeholders and determine their influences, expectations and impact. Initiating 29 Determine variances. Monitoring and controlling 30 Add new skills acquired to team members’ human resource records Closing 31 Meet with managers to gain resource commitments. Planning 32 Use and interpret earned value calculations Monitoring and controlling 33 Ensure the product scope is as final as practical ( this will most likely be documented in the project statement of work) Initiating 34 Create and distribute a final report of project (or phase) performance Closing
  29. 29. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 35 Exercise judgment to determine what variances are important and they warrant recommending a change or corrective action. Monitoring and controlling 36 Finalize the “execute” and “control” aspects of all management plans. Planning 37 Index and archive project records. Closing 38 Keep managers apprised of when their resources will be needed on the project. Executing 39 Evaluate customer satisfaction regarding the project and the deliverables. Closing 40 Determine who will be in the project team to help with project planning. Planning 41 Create recommendations for the performing organization that increase its effectiveness Executing 42 Perform procurement inspections. Monitoring and controlling 43 Turn high-level stakeholders needs, wants, and expectation into requirements. Initiating
  30. 30. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 44 Look for new arising risks. Monitoring and controlling 45 Determine what processes should be followed on the project to reduce the need to supervise work and to improve quality and make use of standards. Planning 46 Obtain formal acceptance of interim deliverables from the customer Monitoring and controlling 47 Identify the need for preplanning Monitoring and controlling 48 Determine what specifically will constitute project success Initiating 49 Assess individual team member performance. Executing 50 Make or obtain a decision in integrated change control about whether changes should be approved or rejected. Monitoring and controlling 51 Perform quality assurance to ensure the defined practices and procedures are being followed and are still appropriate for the project. Executing 52 Evaluate the effectiveness of implemented corrective actions Monitoring and controlling
  31. 31. Actions During Which Process Group this is done 53 Manage stakeholders engagement and expectations, increase project support, and prevent possible problems Executing 54 Plan ways to measure project performance, the measurement to be used, when they will be taken, and how they will be interpreted. Planning 55 Keep the project’s business case in focus while managing the project, especially when problems occur. Executing 56 Determine the process that will be used to request, approve, and manage changes on the project Planning 57 Obtain seller responses to procurement documents Executing

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