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lecture 5.pdf

  1. Lecture (5): Principles of Health education
  2. Learning Objectives 1. Discuss the basic principles of health education 2. Identify targets for health education 3. Determine levels of health education in disease prevention 4. Mention different settings for health education 5. State roles of health educator
  3. Principles of health education The practice of health education is based on the assumption “that • Combination of planned, consistent, integrated learning opportunities • In different settings • Beneficial health behavior will result
  4. The following are principles of health education Educational diagnosis Participation Multiple methods Planning and organizing Facts Segmentation Need-based Culture
  5. 1. Principle of educational diagnosis ▪ The first task in changing behaviors is to determine the causes of a health behaviour (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing). ▪ Just as physicians must diagnose an illness before it can be properly treated, so, too, must a behaviour be diagnosed before it can be properly changed. ▪ If the causes of the behaviors understood, health educator can intervene with the most appropriate and efficient combination of education, reinforcement and motivation
  6. 2. Principle of Participation • The view for success in any attempt to change behaviors will be greater if the individuals, families, community groups, as well as administrators and other community members at community level have been participated. • Personal involvement is more likely to lead to personal acceptance. Importance of Participation: • identifying their own needs for behaviour change • Selecting the educational methods that will enable them to change • The participation of all community members is essential to gain support and to use locally available resources.
  7. 3. Principle of multiple methods • Human behavior can be very complex with multiple causes. • So in the effort to influence behavior, the Health educator should use different educational methods and a variety of media to conduct health education sessions. • A mix of educational methods is important to hold the attention of your audiences and convey the messages to their best effect.
  8. 4. Principle of planning and organizing • Unplanned health education sessions may well be a waste of effort. • Planning and organizing are fundamentals for health education which distinguishes it from other incidental learning experiences. • It involves deciding in advance the when, who, what, how and why of health education. • It also requires the planning for resources, methods and materials to be used, identification of target groups etc. • It should be organized based on scientific findings and correct knowledge.
  9. 5. Facts •Health education is given based on scientific findings/facts and current knowledge. •It is unthinkable to provide health education without scientific knowledge related to the topic or issues to be addressed.
  10. 6. Audience Segmentation • Health education should be designed for the particular target group of people you are hoping to reach. • For example • If you need to create awareness on prevention of mother to child HIV/AIDS transmission (PMTCT) your specific audience should be as many as possible of the pregnant mothers. • If you want to create awareness on the role of males in family planning services your target audience could be married males and male adolescents. • Such segmentation of your audience makes your health education more effective.
  11. 7. Need- based assessment • Health education is best implemented after the real needs of the community have been assessed and identified. • Before involving any individual or group within your community in health education activities you should try and discover the felt needs of the community. • Health education activity will be wasted in your community if you have not found out about community needs.
  12. 8. Culture • Health education should not consider formal learning process. To offer new ideas with a natural ease and caution, one should become familiar with the local culture. • Health education should respect cultural norms and take account of the economic and environmental constraints faced by people • Therefore, Health education starts from where people are and slowly build up the talking point to avoid any clash of ideas to allow for people understanding, appreciation of new ideas.
  13. Targets of health education Every stage of life, every person or social group and all occupations are appropriate targets of health education programs. Depending on the type of the problem there are three broadly classified targets of health education programs. ▪ Individuals: this includes clients of services (contraceptive users), patients (E.g. diabetic or hypertensive patients) and healthy individuals. ▪ Groups: includes gatherings of two or more people who have a common interest. E.g. a family planning service for a couple a youth club about HIV/AIDS ▪ Community: include a collection of people who have a feeling of belongingness, and who usually share common values, culture, beliefs and interests. E.g. a village community about the dangers of FGM
  14. The levels of health education in disease prevention There are three distinct levels of disease prevention in health education: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary health education.
  15. Primary health education • Is includes of those health education activities that aimed specifically at prevent the onset of illness or injury before the disease process begins Examples: • Wearing safety belt • Immunization • Physical exercise • Brushing one’s teeth • Breast feeding
  16. 2. Secondary health education • Once the disease occurred, health education is important to slow down the disease progression to prevent the onset of disability. Examples: ▪ Providing HE on adherence to medical regimen ▪ Educating ill person to seek treatment ▪ Breast-cancer screening ▪ Blood pressure examination ▪ Cholesterol level examination ▪ Treating malaria patients
  17. Tertiary health education • Health education programs that specifically aimed at patients with irreversible, incurable, and chronic condition for social and psychological adjustment. It meant to avoid major disability, premature death. • Examples: • Educating after lung cancer surgery • Educating patients about the use of disability aids and rehabilitation services
  18. Health education settings
  19. ▪ School health education involves instructing school-age children about health and health-related behaviors. ▪ School children are groups of young people with similar background and environment (segmented group). ▪ School based health promotion is the most crucial approach needed to improve the wellbeing of the children and the adolescent.
  20. ▪ The work site health promotion programs are of recent origin when compared to other settings. ▪ Health promotion encourages worksites to offer programs in: ▪ worker safety and health ▪ alcohol and smoking reduction ▪ blood pressure and cholesterol education and control ▪ Majority of the activities reported at the worksites are injury prevention, job hazards, and smoking control. 2. Health education activities in worksites
  21. ▪ Health education for: ▪ high-risk individuals, patients, their families, and the surrounding community, as well as ▪ in-service training for health care providers, are all part of health care today. It focuses on ▪ Preventing and detecting disease ▪ Helping people make decisions about genetic testing ▪ Managing acute and chronic illnesses. 3.Health education activities in health care setting
  22. Health behaviour change interventions are delivered to people in their homes through: ▪ traditional public health means, like home visits ▪ a variety of communication channels and media such as Internet, telephone, and mail. 4.Health education activities in homes
  23. Role of health educator 1. Talking to the people and listening of their problems 2. Thinking of the behavior that could cause, cure and prevent these problems. 3. Finding reasons for people’s behaviors (behavioral and non-behavioral) 4. Addressing social and environmental factors that can impact health, such as poverty, access to healthcare, and environmental pollution. 5. Helping people to see the reasons for their actions and health problems. 6. Asking people to give their own ideas for solving the problems. 7. Helping people to look as their ideas so that they could see which were the most useful and the simplest to put into practice. 8. Encouraging people to choose the idea best suited to their circumstances.