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Disaster Management.pptx

  2.  Disaster is a sudden, calamitous and unfortunate event that brings with it great damage, loss, destruction, and devastation to human life as well as property and also hampers the ongoing developmental projects in a particular area being affected by the disaster.  A disaster has been defined in many ways;  World Health Organization has defined disaster as any sudden occurrence of the events that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.  Disaster management is very important to survive in the case of a natural or a major man-made disaster and can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular, preparedness, response, and recovery in order to lessen the impact of a sudden disaster.
  3.  The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree of vulnerability.  At times there can be disasters where there is no loss of human life and at times these can also cause a huge loss of life and property.  This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area. A disaster can be caused by human activities or due to some natural changes.  Disasters are events that are unpredictable most of the times. It is important for any government, state or community to manage disasters by being prepared for it in advance.  The government provides legislation, allocates resources and does the rational planning and sustainable development.  Disaster management and planning is a key part of government work and an issue to be taken up seriously by the concerned authorities.
  4.  A disaster is an event of sudden calamity causing disruption in normal routing and causing a lot of destruction depending upon the intensity of the disaster. Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas:  It completely disrupts the normal day to day life.  Causes a lot of loss in the terms of life and property.  Leads to a loss of agriculture and animal life as well.  Disasters hamper developmental projects in an adverse manner.  Disaster causes destruction to the state of art and infrastructure.  It negatively influences the emergency systems.  Normal needs and processes like flood, shelter, health, etc. are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of the disaster.
  5.  Disasters can be categorized in many different ways along many different dimensions. Some schemes contrast man-made disasters with natural disasters.  Other schemes distinguish between geophysical, hydrological, climatological, meteorological, and biological disasters.  Perhaps the most important dimension of a disaster is its geographic scale. As shown in the graphic below disasters can range in scope from a household disaster to a worldwide disaster. Media outlets today concentrate on regional disaster stories that affect large areas and many people.  These reports about regional disasters increase viewership and drive people to associated commercial links. Generally these large-scale regional disasters cause extensive damage or have high fatality rates.
  6.  The Disaster Event This refers to the real-time event of a hazard occurring and affecting the ‘elements at risk’.  The duration of the event will depend on the type of threat, for example, ground shaking may only occur for a few seconds during an earthquake while flooding may take place over a longer period of time.  The impact leads to loss of life and property in affected areas; losses being directly correlated to the vulnerability of the region, physical and socio-economic.  Vulnerability is also socio-economic. Weaker sections of society, viz. women, children, aged and handicapped, mentally infirm, etc., suffer a lot more than their stronger counterparts.
  7.  A Disaster is a cataclysmic event that has severe modifying impact.  Consequences are both physical and social/ human.  Disaster Response has to tackle all aforesaid challenges.  Disaster response entails restoring physical facilities, rehabilitation of affected populations, restoration of lost livelihoods and reconstruction efforts to restore the infrastructure lost or damaged.  There are inherent important lessons to be learnt from disaster response.
  8.  The recovery phase involves implementation of actions to promote sustainable redevelopment (reconstruction, rehabilitation) following a disaster.  It covers long-term measures like, rebuilding of houses, assets, infrastructure, school building, hospital buildings, and other public buildings.  It is a process undertaken by a disaster-affected community to fully restore itself to pre-disaster level.  Recovery is the activity that returns infrastructure systems to minimum operating standards and guides long-term efforts designed to return life to normal or improved levels after a disaster.  Recovery is also sometimes used to describe the activities that encompass the three overlapping phases of emergency relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  9.  Emergency relief refers to the period immediately following the disaster when steps are taken to meet the needs of survivors with regard to shelter, water, food and medical care.  Activities undertaken during and immediately following a disaster, include, immediate relief, rescue, damage and needs assessment and debris clearance.
  10.  Rehabilitation implies activities that are undertaken to support the victims’ return to of temporary housing and public utilities as interim measures to assist longer-term recovery through permanent housing and infrastructure.  Besides physical elements, rehabilitation programmes also include economic rehabilitation through livelihood recovery and support actions and finding alternate employment options for those who cannot get back to their original occupations due to irreparable damage.  Rehabilitation also includes psycho-social rehabilitation for those who are badly traumatized and need support in terms of psychosocial counseling or even medication in some cases. •
  11.  Reconstruction attempts to return communities to improved pre- disaster functioning.  It includes the replacement of buildings, infrastructure and lifeline facilities such as roads, bridges and communication links, so that longterm development prospects are enhanced rather than reproducing the same conditions which made an area or a population vulnerable in the first place.
  12.  The inclusion of development as a phase in the disaster cycle is intended to ensure the natural disaster, societies factor hazard and vulnerability considerations into their development policies and plans in the interest of overall progress.  The rationale behind the use of the expression ‘disaster management cycle’ is that disaster and its management is a continuum of inter-linked activities. It is sometimes also referred to as the ‘disaster development cycle’, implying that disasters are periodic phenomena and occur regularly in such a way that there is development, followed by a disaster, then back to development till the next disaster.  Sustainable development is another term that is useful in this context, implying development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.  It contains within it 2 key concepts of ‘needs’ in particular, to the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet the present and the future needs.
  13.  Mitigation activities actually eliminate or reduce the probability of disaster occurrence, or reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters. Mitigation measures include building codes; vulnerability analyses updates; zoning and land use management; building use regulations and safety codes; preventive health care; and public education.  Mitigation will depend on the incorporation of appropriate measures in national and regional development planning. Its effectiveness will also depend on the availability of information on hazards, emergency risks, and the countermeasures to be taken. The mitigation phase, and indeed the whole disaster management cycle, includes the shaping of public policies and plans that either modify the causes of disasters or mitigate their effects on people, property, and infrastructure.
  14.  The goal of emergency preparedness programs is to achieve a satisfactory level of readiness to respond to any emergency situation through programs that strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of governments, organizations, and communities.  These measures can be described as logistical readiness to deal with disasters and can be enhanced by having response mechanisms and procedures, rehearsals, developing long-term and short-term strategies, public education and building early warning systems.  Preparedness can also take the form of ensuring that strategic reserves of food, equipment, water, medicines and other essentials are maintained in cases of national or local catastrophes.  During the preparedness phase, governments, organizations, and individuals develop plans to save lives, minimize disaster damage, and enhance disaster response operations.  Preparedness measures include preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems; emergency communications systems; evacuations plans and training; resource inventories; emergency personnel/contact lists; mutual aid agreements; and public information/education.  As with mitigations efforts, preparedness actions depend on the incorporation of appropriate measures in national and regional development plans. In addition, their effectiveness depends on the availability of information on hazards, emergency risks and the countermeasures to be taken, and on the degree to which government agencies, non-governmental organizations and the general public are able to make use of this information.
  15.  The disaster risk management process is a process for good decision-making and for ensuring the best use of limited resources.  It applies standard principles, process and techniques of risk management to disaster management.  Risk reduction can take place in 2 ways i.e. Long-term Mitigation and Short-term Preparedness.  This protective process embraces measures, which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively
  16. 1. Legal and institutional framework - Creating appropriate legal and organizational framework is the first step towards Disaster Risk Reduction. 2. Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Awareness - Appraisal of likelihood and intensity of hazards and analysis of vulnerabilities thereto of the community with making government organizations, local bodies, communities/groups and individuals at all levels aware of the risk of potential natural and man- made hazards.
  17.  3. Planning - Building of institutional capabilities and meticulous long and short term planning with effective implementation of plans and enforcement measures.  4. Implementation of Plan and Community Resilience - Community preparedness is the next step. Building resilience of the communities to face crises and ensuring their full participation through inputs like education, training and urban planning, infrastructure building and logistics.  Crucial to all these efforts, however, is the existence of a ‘safety culture’ in societies.
  18.  Knowledge Creation and Dissemination - Knowledge plays an important role in disaster reduction.The traditional knowledge available with the community has to be used along with knowledge acquired through research and past experiences.  Research in the field of disaster management has contributed in predictions with a fair degree of accuracy (earthquakes are an exception), and this has led to establishment of efficient EarlyWarning Systems.  The information is growing at a rapid rate, which, calls for its processing and sharing.The challenge is to ensure that the community and the decision makers are empowered with this knowledge.  Therefore, disseminating it to the larger population is the final element in effective Disaster Risk Reduction efforts.
  19.  Mother Nature has always been at the giving end. However, she can be equally devastating, highly destructive, and unforgiving at the same time.  This catastrophic manifestation of Nature in the form of floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, forest fires, and tsunamis is referred to as a natural disaster.
  20.  A flood is a situation that typically occurs in the monsoon season.  Flooding is a temporary overflow of water on to the land, that is normally dry from water bodies such as rivers, lakes or ocean where the waters flow over top embankment, floods occur during heavy rain or when snow melt for fast or where a dam breaks, when the water moves beyond its normal boundries.  Flash of floods are the most dangerous sometimes due to heavy rain, the city’s drain fails to discharge storm water and it floods the city’s routes and even houses.  Due to the rise of sea tides into rivers and lakes the rainwater overflows on the land, submerging it completely. The concentration of rain increases on the ground due to the problem of sediment deposition, drainage congestion, and synchronization of rivers.  Floods can also be caused due to other natural disasters like thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Since floods cause massive damage to lives and the economic wellbeing of an area, it takes a lot of time for people to live a normal life again.  Usually, the weather department of a particular country is able to predict the occurrence of a flood. Though people are alerted ahead of time they face tough times during floods.  This is because most people do not know what’s to be done when hit by this natural calamity. The below-mentioned tips will help you stay safe in case a flood is predicted.
  21.  Hurricane is a high-intensity cyclone with a violent wind, occurring over the ocean and traveling towards the land. A cyclone is usually named depending upon the location of its occurrence.  For example,In the Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific, it’s referred to as the Hurricane.  In the Northwest Pacific, it’s known as theTyphoon.  In the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean, it’s called theTropical Cyclone.  According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – USA, the hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean may strike between June 1 to November 30, and in the Pacific Ocean, it may strike between May 15 to November 30.  All cyclones cause heavy loss of life and damage to the properties. Hence, it is better to be prepared in case of an impending cyclone.
  22.  The earth’s crust is made up of uneven layers of soil or rocks which consist of faults at many places.These geological faults appear as planar fractures or cracks on the earth’s crust.  The geological faults form a tectonic plate which moves over time. At times, these moving plates release higher energy in the form of the wave, causing the earth to shake. Simply put, this shaking of earth is known as an Earthquake.  The Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude of the earthquake.The severity of shaking at a particular location is said to be worst based upon the intensity of the earthquake.There’s a difference between the magnitude and intensity of the earthquake.
  23.  A volcano is the most explosive vent in the earth’s crust from which the molten rock in the form of lava, a cloud of ash, and gases are released into the atmosphere.  When the tectonic plates move, the magma (a molten and semi- molten rock mixture) present under the earth’s crust applies pressure at a particular location, causing the volcano to erupt.  The vent continuously discharges hot lava which floats out on the ground.
  24.  Landslides are defined as a downward movement of a solid mass like soil or rock under the effect of gravity.  The melting snow, heavy rainfall, stream erosion, earthquakes, volcanic activity, human-made disturbances, or a combination of these can cause an earthy solid mass to become unstable and slide down under the influence of gravity.  Landslides cause massive damage to property, injuries, and even death. It also destroys the water supply system and the sewer disposal system, and other utilities like power, gas etc. thereby disrupting normal life.
  25.  Fires can be human-made or occur naturally like a forest fire.  Natural fire is usually started by lightning or due to the combustion of dry leaves or hay.  A man-made fire is caused due to several reasons.  Regardless of its source, a fire can cause massive damage to humans within a short period.
  26.  A tsunami is a series of large tidal waves often caused by an earthquake or undersea volcanic eruption.  The huge tidal waves are the outcome of the displacement of a large volume of water in the ocean.  As they travel towards the coastal areas, the waves build up to dramatically-great heights, destroy everything that comes in its way.  The height of the tidal wave increases continuously as it travels to the shore due to the decreases in the depth of the ocean.
  27.  Drought is a deficiency in rainfall over a long period – a season, a year or several years. As a result, shortage in water causing adverse impacts on vegetation, animals and people.  It is a standard, recurrent feature of climate that occurs in virtually all climate zones from very wet to very dry.  Drought is a temporary aberration from normal climatic conditions; thus, it can vary significantly from one region to another.  Drought is different than aridity, which is a permanent feature of the climate in regions where low precipitation is the norm as in the desert.
  28.  The avalanche is a mass of snow under motion, sliding and rushing down a steep mountain slope.  Under natural conditions, they arise due to disruption of the snow stability on a slope which has been affected by meteorological phenomena.
  29. The factors taken into consideration while measuring the impact of any natural disaster are as follows:  Intensity of hazard  Duration  Spatial extent  The density of population and assets  Time and frequency of occurrence  Hazard +Vulnerability = Disaster
  30.  Disaster can interrupt the essential services, namely electricity, water, healthcare, sewage/ garbage removal, transportation, and communications.  The interruption can affect the social, health, and economic networks of local communities and countries.  The various kinds of natural disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on humans, long after the immediate effects have been mitigated.  Poorly-planned relief activities can have a specific and significant negative impact on the disaster victims, donors, and relief agencies.
  31. Here are a few key things to bear in mind when you face a natural disaster.  Stay informed about the different types of emergencies that could occur and their appropriate responses.  Make a family emergency plan.  Build an emergency supply kit.  Get involved in your community by taking action to prepare for emergencies.
  32.  Displaced Populations One of the most immediate effects of natural disasters is population displacement. When countries are ravaged by earthquakes or other powerful forces of nature, many people have to abandon their homes and seek shelter in other regions. A large influx of refugees can disrupt accessibility of health care and education, as well as food supplies and clean water.  Health Risks Aside from the obvious immediate danger that natural disasters present, the secondary effects can be just as damaging. Severe flooding can result in stagnant water that allows breeding of waterborne bacteria and malaria-carrying mosquitos.Without emergency relief from international aid organizations and others, death tolls can rise even after the immediate danger has passed.  Food Scarcity After natural disasters, food often becomes scarce.Thousands of people around the world go hungry as a result of destroyed crops and loss of agricultural supplies, whether it happens suddenly in a storm or gradually in a drought. As a result, food prices rise, reducing families’ purchasing power and increasing the risk of severe malnutrition or worse.The impacts of hunger following an earthquake, typhoon or hurricane can be tremendous, causing lifelong damage to children’s development.  Emotional Aftershocks Natural disasters can be particularly traumatic for young children. Confronted with scenes of destruction and the deaths of friends and loved ones, many children develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a serious psychological condition resulting from extreme trauma. Left untreated, children suffering from PTSD can be prone to lasting psychological damage and emotional distress.
  33.  Experts deem any violent or abnormal movement of water on land as a hydrological disaster.  This can include bodies of water that overflow, heavy precipitation, changes in water quality, or atypical behavior of water sources.  Flooding and events that cause flooding are often identified as hydrological disasters, although this also can include disasters of other classification such as meteorological disasters like hurricanes and storms.  A large storm can cause flash flooding when it causes excessive rainfall in a time frame of six hours or less.  Several days of heavy rainfall which bring enough water on normally dry land or overload bodies of water (e.g. rivers) can also cause a flood to develop, just not as fast as a flash flood.
  34.  Floods are, by far, the most common disaster on Earth.They can happen anywhere and with any level of severity, from a depth equal to a puddle to a raging destructive force. Many other disasters, hydrological or otherwise, can produce flooding in addition to the damage specific to the primary event.7 In some cases, flooding can occur by accident-e.g. broken piping, spills, etc. Some common causes of flooding include:  Heavy Rainfall-As mentioned, high levels of precipitation in a short amount of time can produce flood conditions. In those instances, the water literally has nowhere else to go and gathers where gravity and momentum directs it.This can be exacerbated by poor or inadequate drainage.  Ice/Snow Melt-Areas that had high levels of precipitation in the winter months often end up with a potential risk of flooding from snow and ice melt. Most winter melt produces a runoff that the excess water travels along to an appropriate place (e.g. natural bodies of water, storm drains), but it can build up if it melts too quickly. As with heavy rainfall, this can cause flooding when the melt has nowhere to go and is hindered by drainage issues.  Structural Failure-Most cases of accidental flooding is a result of some kind of structural failure. This can include piping, dams, embankments/levees, and dykes-anything that is designed to contain liquid. Structural failures can occur because of poor maintenance or construction. Flooding can also occur if such structures exceed their capacity and begin to overflow. It is possible for an instance of structural failure that leads to flooding could be a result of another disaster, including a previous flood.  Other Disasters-Flooding can develop in conjunction with the effects of another disaster. Nearly every hydrological disaster can produce flood conditions, as can climatological, meteorological, geophysical, and some man-made disasters.This often depends on the factors involved in the situation and the circumstances before, during, and after the event.