SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Diploma Engineering Sem I
I M KHAN
(Asst. Prof. in English)
What is Article?
Article can be taken as one of the ‘Determiners’ or
a subclass of the Determiners which determines
noun. They are also known as Demonstrative
It is often taken to be a separate part of speech also.
Kinds of Articles
In English language, there are total three articles. (A, An
and The). These three articles are divided into two
1. Definite: The (is used to refer any particular person,
place or thing.)
2. Indefinite: A & An (does not refer particular noun)
The Selection of Articles (a / an)
• Articles ‘a’ ‘an’ or ‘the’ are not used arbitrarily.
• There are definite rules to use these articles and
these rules are strictly followed while speaking
or writing English.
• It is important to note that if articles are not used
appropriately, the meaning may change or be
• Therefore, it is must to understand and follow
these rules to learn correct English.
Omission of Articles
There are certain situations when certain nouns do
not follow articles (whether definite the or indefinite
It is also called ‘zero article’ situation.
Indefinite articles (a/an)
are generally not used
with proper nouns.
He is Suresh
He is a Suresh
She is Sarita
She is a Sarita
But Indefinite ‘a’ or ‘an’
article is used to convert
proper noun into a
He is a Gandhi.
She is a P T Usha
Articles are not used with abstract nouns such as
honesty, love, hatred, beauty, sincerity, poverty,
wisdom, strength, sanitation, knowledge etc..
Honesty is the best policy. (The honesty )
The honesty which he showed was praiseworthy.
The names / nouns of
games do not follow any
I play cricket
I play the cricket
She plays tennis
She plays the tennis
We watch football
We watch the football
Amir plays chess
Amir plays the chess
Names of subjects and language do not follow
He teaches English (NOT the English )
They study History (NOT the History )
We like to study Biology (NOT the Biology )
With words such as school, college, university,
church, temple, mosque etc. when these places are
visited for the purpose for which they have been
made, no article is needed.
I go to school daily in the morning.
I go to the school to pick up my younger brother.
Rule 5 continues
1. We are going to
2. She goes to hospital to
get her reports checked.
3. I am going to college
4. They are going to
mosque for chatting
1. He goes to the
university to meet Mr.
2. He goes to the hospital
to make furniture.
3. I am going to the
college to pick up my
4. They are going to the
mosque to water the
Indefinite articles (a/an)
are not used with plural
These are chairs.
Here are leaves.
Those are students.
But definite article (the)
can be used with plural
nouns to indicate some
definiteness of the
The chairs which are
white are ours.
Names / nouns of meals do not follow definite
I feel sleepy after dinner. (NOT the dinner )
She takes lunch at 12:30 (NOT the lunch )
But definite article (the) is used with such nouns in
The lunch hosted by my friend was delicious.
Time of day and night do not follow articles
These birds are mostly active at dawn. (the dawn
We arrived late at night. (the night )
Also: after daybreak, by sunrise, before sunset, at
midnight, at twilight, at noon etc….
[BUT article after in and during: in the afternoon,
during the night etc…] (Page no 251) (2)
Parallel phrases never follow article
They walked arm in arm (the arm in arm )
We walked hand in hand (the hand in hand )
They are husband and wife (the husband and wife
We met face to face (the face to face )
Before proper, material and abstract nouns used in a
Ex. London, France, Tom, gold, rice, honesty, virtue
Paris is the capital of France. (NOT The Paris)
Gold is a precious metal. (NOT The gold)
Honesty is the best policy. (NOT The honesty)
But we say, the United States, the United Arab
We don’t use any article before names of continents
Asia, Norway, Sri Lanka etc…
Note : We use (the) before the names of countries or
States which include words like republic, union,
kingdom, states etc…
The United Kingdom, The United States of America
Articles are not used with nouns like Man and
Woman are used in general or widest sense.
Man is mortal. (NOT The Man )
Woman is cleverer than man. (NOT The Woman )
phrases made up
of a preposition
from top to
at worst etc.
Rule 13 continues
He is in debt. (NOT He is in the debt.)
He is at school. (NOT He is at the school.)
He spent the whole day in bed. (NOT in the bed)
In certain phrases consisting of a transitive verb and
its object, articles are not used.
Give ear, set sail, take heart, send word, catch fire,
take offence, leave office, leave home, leave office
He took offence at my words. (NOT the offence)
She left home in the morning. (NOT the home)
Before the names of continents, countries, cities,
towns, days, months, arts, sciences, some diseases
January, March, physics, English, Tokyo, Beijing,
Delhi, Tuesday, Friday, Asia, America etc.
December is a cold month. (The December )
Linguistics is tough. (The Linguistics )
Articles are not use before plural nouns when they
are used to denote whole class.
Apples are red. (NOT The apple)
Camels are useful animals. (NOT The camels)
Warm clothes are necessary during winter.
(NOT The warm clothes)
Names of festivals do not follow any articles
We celebrate holy in the month of March. (NOT
They celebrate Christmas. (NOT The Christmas)
Eid is a festival of joy. (NOT The Eid)
Before the words like father, mother, aunt or uncle,
no article is used….
Father is not at home. (NOT The father)
Aunt has come to see me. (NOT The aunt)
Mother is always carrying (NOT The mother)
Before a predictive noun denoting a position that is
normally held at one time by one person only.
He was elected Chairman of the committee.
Mrs. Tripti Datta became Principal of the college in
No article is used before a title used in apposition to
a proper name.
Shreemati Anandi Ben Patel, Chief Minister of
Gujarat, is very honest and polite.
No article is used before a common noun when it is
preceded by determiners like each, every, this, that ,
either, neither, some, any, many, much, one, another,
no, or, any other etc…
Each time (NOT Each the time )
Every Monday (NOT Each the Monday )
Some special points
Compare the pairs of sentences given below:
I have a black and white cow. (Only one cow)
I have a black and a white cow. (Two cows)
The secretary and accountant is present. (Here the
nouns secretary and accountant refer to the same
The secretary and the accountant were present.
(Here the repetition of the articles implies that the
secretary and the accountant are different persons.)
1. Almas Juneja, Vaseem Qureshi. Active English. New Delhi:
Macmillan Publishers India Ltd, 2013.
2. Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik. A Communicative Grammar of
English. South Asia: Pearson Education Ltd., 2009.
3. Gupta, Anjani A. English Grammar. New Delhi: O P Gupta ,
4. Murthy, Jayanthi Dakshina. Contemporay English Grammar.
New Delhi: Book Palace, 2013.
Imran Khan M.
still a learner