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Ommision of articles

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Ommision of articles

  1. 1. Active English Diploma Engineering Sem I English (3300002) GRAMMAR Prepared by I M KHAN (Asst. Prof. in English) 1
  2. 2. What is Article? Article can be taken as one of the ‘Determiners’ or a subclass of the Determiners which determines noun. They are also known as Demonstrative Adjectives. It is often taken to be a separate part of speech also. 2
  3. 3. Kinds of Articles In English language, there are total three articles. (A, An and The). These three articles are divided into two types. 1. Definite: The (is used to refer any particular person, place or thing.) 2. Indefinite: A & An (does not refer particular noun) 3
  4. 4. The Selection of Articles (a / an) • Articles ‘a’ ‘an’ or ‘the’ are not used arbitrarily. • There are definite rules to use these articles and these rules are strictly followed while speaking or writing English. • It is important to note that if articles are not used appropriately, the meaning may change or be misunderstood. • Therefore, it is must to understand and follow these rules to learn correct English. 4
  5. 5. Omission of Articles There are certain situations when certain nouns do not follow articles (whether definite the or indefinite a/an) It is also called ‘zero article’ situation. 5
  6. 6. Rule 1 Indefinite articles (a/an) are generally not used with proper nouns. Ex. He is Suresh  He is a Suresh  She is Sarita  She is a Sarita  But Indefinite ‘a’ or ‘an’ article is used to convert proper noun into a common noun. Ex. He is a Gandhi.  She is a P T Usha  6
  7. 7. Rule 2 Articles are not used with abstract nouns such as honesty, love, hatred, beauty, sincerity, poverty, wisdom, strength, sanitation, knowledge etc.. Ex. Honesty is the best policy. (The honesty ) BUT The honesty which he showed was praiseworthy. 7
  8. 8. Rule 3 The names / nouns of games do not follow any articles Ex. I play cricket  I play the cricket She plays tennis  She plays the tennis  We watch football  We watch the football  Amir plays chess  Amir plays the chess  8
  9. 9. Rule 4 Names of subjects and language do not follow article Ex. He teaches English  (NOT the English ) They study History  (NOT the History ) We like to study Biology  (NOT the Biology ) 9
  10. 10. Rule 5 With words such as school, college, university, church, temple, mosque etc. when these places are visited for the purpose for which they have been made, no article is needed. Ex. I go to school daily in the morning.  I go to the school to pick up my younger brother.  10
  11. 11. Rule 5 continues 1. We are going to university. 2. She goes to hospital to get her reports checked. 3. I am going to college everyday. 4. They are going to mosque for chatting prayer. 1. He goes to the university to meet Mr. Mehta. 2. He goes to the hospital to make furniture. 3. I am going to the college to pick up my younger brother. 4. They are going to the mosque to water the plants. 11
  12. 12. Rule 6 Indefinite articles (a/an) are not used with plural noun/s. Ex. These are chairs. Here are leaves. Those are students. But definite article (the) can be used with plural nouns to indicate some definiteness of the mentioned noun/s Ex. The chairs which are white are ours. 12
  13. 13. Rule 7 Names / nouns of meals do not follow definite articles. Ex. I feel sleepy after dinner. (NOT the dinner ) She takes lunch at 12:30 (NOT the lunch ) But definite article (the) is used with such nouns in certain cases Ex. The lunch hosted by my friend was delicious. 13
  14. 14. Rule 8 Time of day and night do not follow articles Ex. These birds are mostly active at dawn. (the dawn ) We arrived late at night. (the night ) Also: after daybreak, by sunrise, before sunset, at midnight, at twilight, at noon etc…. [BUT article after in and during: in the afternoon, during the night etc…] (Page no 251) (2) 14
  15. 15. Rule 9 Parallel phrases never follow article Ex. They walked arm in arm (the arm in arm ) We walked hand in hand (the hand in hand ) They are husband and wife (the husband and wife ) We met face to face (the face to face ) 15
  16. 16. Rule 10 Before proper, material and abstract nouns used in a general sense Ex. London, France, Tom, gold, rice, honesty, virtue Paris is the capital of France. (NOT The Paris) Gold is a precious metal. (NOT The gold) Honesty is the best policy. (NOT The honesty) But we say, the United States, the United Arab Emirates etc. 16
  17. 17. Rule 11 We don’t use any article before names of continents and countries. Ex. Asia, Norway, Sri Lanka etc… Note : We use (the) before the names of countries or States which include words like republic, union, kingdom, states etc… Ex. The United Kingdom, The United States of America 17
  18. 18. Rule 12 Articles are not used with nouns like Man and Woman are used in general or widest sense. Ex. Man is mortal. (NOT The Man ) Woman is cleverer than man. (NOT The Woman ) 18
  19. 19. Rule 13 In certain phrases made up of a preposition + noun. Ex. on foot at school at home in bed by train by car in debt in hand on earth at noon on board in jest at best from top to bottom at worst etc. 19
  20. 20. Rule 13 continues Ex. He is in debt. (NOT He is in the debt.) He is at school. (NOT He is at the school.) He spent the whole day in bed. (NOT in the bed) 20
  21. 21. Rule 14 In certain phrases consisting of a transitive verb and its object, articles are not used. Ex. Give ear, set sail, take heart, send word, catch fire, take offence, leave office, leave home, leave office etc. He took offence at my words. (NOT the offence) She left home in the morning. (NOT the home) 21
  22. 22. Rule 15 Before the names of continents, countries, cities, towns, days, months, arts, sciences, some diseases etc. Ex. January, March, physics, English, Tokyo, Beijing, Delhi, Tuesday, Friday, Asia, America etc. December is a cold month. (The December ) Linguistics is tough. (The Linguistics ) 22
  23. 23. Rule 16 Articles are not use before plural nouns when they are used to denote whole class. Ex. Apples are red. (NOT The apple) Camels are useful animals. (NOT The camels) Warm clothes are necessary during winter. (NOT The warm clothes) 23
  24. 24. Rule 17 Names of festivals do not follow any articles Ex. We celebrate holy in the month of March. (NOT The holy) They celebrate Christmas. (NOT The Christmas) Eid is a festival of joy. (NOT The Eid) 24
  25. 25. Rule 18 Before the words like father, mother, aunt or uncle, no article is used…. Ex. Father is not at home. (NOT The father) Aunt has come to see me. (NOT The aunt) Mother is always carrying (NOT The mother) 25
  26. 26. Rule 19 Before a predictive noun denoting a position that is normally held at one time by one person only. Ex. He was elected Chairman of the committee. Mrs. Tripti Datta became Principal of the college in 1988. 26
  27. 27. Rule 20 No article is used before a title used in apposition to a proper name. Ex. Shreemati Anandi Ben Patel, Chief Minister of Gujarat, is very honest and polite. 27 apposition
  28. 28. Rule 21 No article is used before a common noun when it is preceded by determiners like each, every, this, that , either, neither, some, any, many, much, one, another, no, or, any other etc… Ex. Each time (NOT Each the time ) Every Monday (NOT Each the Monday ) 28
  29. 29. Some special points Compare the pairs of sentences given below: I have a black and white cow. (Only one cow) I have a black and a white cow. (Two cows) The secretary and accountant is present. (Here the nouns secretary and accountant refer to the same person.) The secretary and the accountant were present. (Here the repetition of the articles implies that the secretary and the accountant are different persons.) 29
  30. 30. Works Cited 1. Almas Juneja, Vaseem Qureshi. Active English. New Delhi: Macmillan Publishers India Ltd, 2013. 2. Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik. A Communicative Grammar of English. South Asia: Pearson Education Ltd., 2009. 3. Gupta, Anjani A. English Grammar. New Delhi: O P Gupta , 2009. 4. Murthy, Jayanthi Dakshina. Contemporay English Grammar. New Delhi: Book Palace, 2013. 5. http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/omission-articles- cases-articles/ 30 Imran Khan M. still a learner