Different Approaches and
Teaching Approach, Strategy, Method and Technique
Teaching approach is a set of principles,
belief or ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the classroom. It
springs from a teacher’s own philosophy of
education, the nature of education, the role of
the teacher and that of the student.
Teaching strategy is a long term plan of action
designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to
many disparate fields such as military strategy, economic
strategy, teaching strategy and the like.
Teaching method is a systematic way of doing
something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of
steps. It is more procedural.
Teaching technique is a well-defined procedure
used to accomplish a specific activity or task. It is a
teacher’s particular style or trick used to accomplish an
Techniques are consistent with a given
approach, strategy and methods.
The relationship among the three is shown below:
Approach Strategy Method Technique
An approach gives rise to a strategy which
may use more than one method of teaching. One
teaching method may be employed differently by two
different techniques. Technique has something to do
with teacher’s personal style of teaching.
Example of Teaching Approaches
Subject matter-centered Learner-centered
“Banking” approach Constructivist
Indirect, guided Direct
In the teacher-centered approach, the
teacher is perceived to be the only reliable source
of information in contrast to the learner-centered
approach which is premised on the belief that the
learner is also an important resource.
In the subject matter-centered approach,
subject-matter gains primacy over that of the
The subject matter-centered approach is
In the constructivist approach, students are
expected to construct knowledge and meaning out of
what they are taught by connecting them to prior
In the “banking” approach. Teacher deposits
knowledge into the “empty” minds of students for
students to commit memory.
The use of an integrated teaching approach
makes the teacher connects what he/she teaches to the
other lessons of the same subject (interdisciplinary) or
connect his/her lessons with other subjects thus making
his/her approach interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary.
Other teaching approaches cited in education
literature are :
1. research-based approach – As the name implies
teaching and learning are anchored on research
2. whole child approach – The learning process
itself takes into account not only the academic
needs of the learners, but also their emotional,
creative, psychological, spiritual and
developmental needs. A Highly cerebral
approach is far from wholistic, neither than
approach which emphasizes only the physical
development of the child.
3. metacognitive approach – The teaching
process brings the learner to the process of
thinking about thinking. The learner reflects
on what he learned and on his/her ways of
learning. He reflects on why he/she
succeeded one time but failed the other time.
4. problem-based approach – As the name implies,
the teaching-learning process is focused on
problems. Time is spent on analyzing and solving
In summary, approach are very in the degree of
teacher and learning engagement, focus, number of
learners involved in the teaching-learning process as
shown in the diagram below :
Subject matter Learner
On the Basis of student and teacher involvement,
there are categorized as direct/expository and
1. Direct instruction /Lecture Method
Direct instruction is aimed at helping students
acquire procedural knowledge which is knowledge
exercised in the performance of some task.
Direct instruction is also used for lessons that
are factual and non-controversial.
Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Method
To employ this methodology in teaching skills,
following these steps :
a. Provide the rationale,
b. Demonstrate the skill,
c. Provide guided practice until mastery,
d. Check for understanding and provide feedback,
e. Provide extended practice and transfer,
f. Assess learning at the end.
Such a technique requires careful structuring
of the entire procedure. Attention is focused on
every detail of the procedure.
1. The strategy is teacher-directed.
2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Each
step must be mastered, hence the students gain “how”
rather that “what”. It is termed procedural knowledge.
3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the
learning of the entire procedure with no step missed.
4. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors
that can be measured accurately.s
5. This is a form of learning through imitation, sometimes
termed “behavioral modeling”.
6. This can also be used to teach facts, principles and
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1. The students must be given ample time for
2. The lesson objectives are student-based.
3. Describe the testing situation and specify the
level of performance expected.
4. Divide complex skills and understanding into
subskills or into its component steps so they can
be taught easily and with precision.
5. Design own strategy in teaching each skill which
will eventually contribute to the learning of the
Teaching and declarative knowledge –
facts, principles and laws
1. Be sure the facts, principle and laws are
correctly, clearly and adequately
2. Use visual aids to concretize abstract
principles and laws.
3. illustrate laws and principles with
4. Present facts meaningfully by citing their
significance and by connecting them with
2. Demonstration Method
In the demonstration method the teacher
or an assigned student or group shows
This approach is employed in presenting
lessons that use sophisticated equipment and
technical know-how. Materials that are not
easily available or expensive are used
sparingly in a demonstration.
Guidelines for Effective Use
1. The demonstrator must be well-selected.
He/she/they must be skilled in operating
modern equipment and proficient in
undertaking scientific investigations.
2. When planning the activities make sure that
the materials are easily available. Likewise get
prepared with possible substitute.
3. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be
used. Demonstration should be scheduled as
to day and class period.
1. The place must be quiet in order to sustain
the observers’ attention and interest during
2. Extreme care must be taken in performing
some delicate steps. Precision, timing for
every step, and measuring accurately using
the standard instrument must be observed.
3. The activity must not be interrupted by
unnecessary announcements or noise in the
4. They are allowed to take down short notes
or record some data which may be analyzed after.
1. Allow some question which bothered them
during the demonstration. The post-demo
discussion may necessitate clarifying a step
that was not performed well or a set of data
2. An examination of the observed data and all
information recorded follows.
3. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or
uniform occurrences that can help in arriving
at a conclusion.
1. The demonstration method follows a
systematic procedure, hence students will
be able to learn from a well-tried procedure
since the demonstrators are selected and
adjudge to be skilled.
2. The use of expensive equipment and
machines will be maximized.
3. Possible wastage of time, effort and sources
will be avoided since the demonstration is
supposed to be well-planning in advance.
Indirect/Guided / Exploratory Approach
Indirect instruction method is best used when
the learning process is inquiry-based; the result is
discovery and the learning context is a problem.
The inquiry approach, sometimes termed
“discovery,” “heuristic” and “problem solving” is
defined simply as a teaching method which is
“modeled after the investigative processes of
What are the steps in the inquiry
1. Define the topic or introduce the
2. Guide students plan where and how
to gather data, information
3. Students present findings through
graphs. Charts, powerpoint
presentation, models, and writing.
The following are commonly observed
characteristics of the discovery/inquiry method:
1. Investigate processes such as inferring,
hypothesizing, measuring, predicting,
classifying, analyzing and experiment,
formulating conclusions and generalizations
2. The procedure in gathering information is
not prescribed by the teachers. The
students are treated as independent
learners. The formulate their own hypothesis
and suggest ways of testing them.
Outcomes of Inquiry Teaching
1. Its emphasis is on the processes of
gathering and processing of information.
2. Its dependence on first-hand experience
with objects and phenomena occurring in
the environment is certainly in agreement
with the most often cited theory of Piaget
on intellectual development.
3. The inquiry approach which predominantly
allows some degree of freedom develops
and initiative and divergent thinking.
How to Facilitate Inquiry Teaching
1. Arranged for an ideal room setting. After planning the
learning activity for the day, structure the room in such a
way that will allow freedom of movement.
2. Choose tools and equipment that can easily be
3. The materials to be used are examined must lend
themselves easily to the processes to be employed and
the end product desired.
2. Problem Solving Method
Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs
the scientific method in searching for information.
The five basic steps of the scientific method or
investigatory process are :
1. Sensing and defining the problem
2. Formulating hypothesis
3. Testing the likely hypothesis (by observing,
conducting an experiment, collecting and
organizing data trough normative surveys).
4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of
5. Formulating conclusion
1. This method is most effective in developing
skill in employing the science processes.
2. The scientific method can likewise be used
effectively in other non-science subject.
3. Problem solving develops higher level thinking
4. The students become appreciative and grateful
for the achievement of scientists.
5. The students learn to accept the opinions and
evidence shared by others.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1. Provide sufficient training in defining and stating the
problem in a clear and concise manner.
2. Make sure that the problem to be solved fits the
age, interest and skills of the students.
3. Group the students and allow each one to share in
the tasks to be performed. In this way the
cooperative learning strategy would work well.
4. The development of skills and attitudes takes
priority over knowledge.
5. Involve the students in determining the criteria with
which they will be evaluated.
3. Project Method
The project method is a teaching
method that requires the students to
present in concrete form the results of
information gathered about a concept,
principle or innovation.
1. It is a teaching method that emphasizes “learning by
2. Constructing projects develops the students’
3. The planned design of the project tests the student’s
originality in choosing the materials to be used.
4. It can be employed among students who are weak in
5. It instills the values of initiative, industry and
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1. Assign the project to a student/group of students
who is capable and interested.
2. The student/group must be clear about the
objectives of the project including the criteria that
must be used in evaluating the finished project.
3. The design of the project must be carefully checked
before the student/group starts.
4. The materials must be carefully selected as to
suitability and durability to avoid wastage.
5. There should be minimal supervision as soon as the
construction is going on.
1. It has two important components, namely:
a cooperative incentives structure - one
where two or more individuals are interdependent
for a reward. They will share if they are successful
as a group and,
a cooperative task structure – a situation in
which two or more individuals are allowed,
encouraged or required to work together on some
task, coordinating their efforts to complete the task.
Guidelines for its Effective Use
In order to implement cooperative learning
successfully, here are some general guidelines to
1. Heterogeneous grouping wherein high, average and
low achievers are mixed in a group.
2. Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary
social skills to work cooperatively in group situations.
3. Arrange the furniture so that groups of students can sit
facing each other during sessions.
4. Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make
others wait at a time they are needed.
5. Make sure each group understand the goals,
procedures, task and methods of evaluation.
Overview of Selected Structures in Cooperative
Structure Brief Description Academic & Social
Round robin Teambuilding
Each student in turn shares
something with his or her
Expressing ideas and
opinions, creation of
stories. Equal participation,
getting acquainted with
Corners Class building
Each students moves to a
corner of the room
representing a teacher-
Students discuss within
corners, then listen to and
paraphrase ideas from
approaches. Knowing and
respecting different points
of view, meeting
Numbered Head Together
1. Interdependent relationship is strengthened and
reinforced when group cooperation is rewarded.
2. Group work develops friendliness, willingness to
assist and the more worthwhile value of caring and
3. Cooperation in groups promotes maximum
generation and exchange of ideas, tolerance and
respect for other people’s points of view.
4. Cooperative learning groups exhibit less competitive
behavior compared to whole-class teaching
5. The group members gain skills of cooperation and
collaboration through experience.
Peer tutoring / Peer teaching
It is said that “The best way to learn something is to
Tutoring arrangement may be in any of the following :
a. Instructional tutoring. Older students help younger ones
on a one-on-one or one-to-a group basis. They choose the
way the lessons are presented. This is practiced when
there is a big difference between tutor and tutee.
b. Same age tutoring. This arrangement works well with
children who can act as interactive pairs, i.e., More able
ones to assist the less able. They can read to each other
c. Monitorial tutoring . The class may be divided
into groups and monitors are assigned to lead
d. Structural tutoring. Here a definite procedure is
followed. Highly structured tutoring is
administered by trained tutors.
e. Semi-structured tutoring. This is a combination of
unstructured and structured where the tutor
guides his/her tutee through a carefully-planned
learning guide but is free to modify it according
to the tutee’s own interests and skills.
1. The tutees receive individual instruction. The tutees are
provided with their own teacher.
2. The tutees receive more instruction. They are afforded more
contact hours by a tutor.
3. Rapport between tutor and tutee may be readily established
considering that they belong more or less to the same age
4. The teacher is free at the same time to do other classroom
chores while the members are being handled by the tutors.
5. This kind of arrangement reduces a large into smaller working
6. Discipline problem are lessened there are more assistants
looking after small group.
7. The spirit of cooperation, camaraderie and reciprocity are