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Instructress
Mrs. Noli P.
Matias
Different Approaches and
Methods
Introduction
Teaching Approach, Strategy, Method and Technique
Teaching approach is a set of principles,
belief or ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the classroom. It
springs from a teacher’s own philosophy of
education, the nature of education, the role of
the teacher and that of the student.
Teaching strategy is a long term plan of action
designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to
many disparate fields such as military strategy, economic
strategy, teaching strategy and the like.
Teaching method is a systematic way of doing
something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of
steps. It is more procedural.
Teaching technique is a well-defined procedure
used to accomplish a specific activity or task. It is a
teacher’s particular style or trick used to accomplish an
immediate objective.
Techniques are consistent with a given
approach, strategy and methods.
The relationship among the three is shown below:
Approach Strategy Method Technique
An approach gives rise to a strategy which
may use more than one method of teaching. One
teaching method may be employed differently by two
different techniques. Technique has something to do
with teacher’s personal style of teaching.
Example of Teaching Approaches
Teacher-centered Learner-centered
Subject matter-centered Learner-centered
Teacher-dominated Interactive
“Banking” approach Constructivist
Disciplinal Integrated
Individualistic Collaborative
Indirect, guided Direct
In the teacher-centered approach, the
teacher is perceived to be the only reliable source
of information in contrast to the learner-centered
approach which is premised on the belief that the
learner is also an important resource.
In the subject matter-centered approach,
subject-matter gains primacy over that of the
learner.
The subject matter-centered approach is
also teacher-dominated.
In the constructivist approach, students are
expected to construct knowledge and meaning out of
what they are taught by connecting them to prior
experience.
In the “banking” approach. Teacher deposits
knowledge into the “empty” minds of students for
students to commit memory.
The use of an integrated teaching approach
makes the teacher connects what he/she teaches to the
other lessons of the same subject (interdisciplinary) or
connect his/her lessons with other subjects thus making
his/her approach interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary.
Other teaching approaches cited in education
literature are :
1. research-based approach – As the name implies
teaching and learning are anchored on research
findings.
2. whole child approach – The learning process
itself takes into account not only the academic
needs of the learners, but also their emotional,
creative, psychological, spiritual and
developmental needs. A Highly cerebral
approach is far from wholistic, neither than
approach which emphasizes only the physical
development of the child.
3. metacognitive approach – The teaching
process brings the learner to the process of
thinking about thinking. The learner reflects
on what he learned and on his/her ways of
learning. He reflects on why he/she
succeeded one time but failed the other time.
4. problem-based approach – As the name implies,
the teaching-learning process is focused on
problems. Time is spent on analyzing and solving
problems.
In summary, approach are very in the degree of
teacher and learning engagement, focus, number of
learners involved in the teaching-learning process as
shown in the diagram below :
Engagement
Teacher Learner
Focus
Number
Subject matter Learner
Individual Group
On the Basis of student and teacher involvement,
there are categorized as direct/expository and
guided/exploratory.
Direct/Expository Approach
1. Direct instruction /Lecture Method
Direct instruction is aimed at helping students
acquire procedural knowledge which is knowledge
exercised in the performance of some task.
Direct instruction is also used for lessons that
are factual and non-controversial.
Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Method
To employ this methodology in teaching skills,
following these steps :
a. Provide the rationale,
b. Demonstrate the skill,
c. Provide guided practice until mastery,
d. Check for understanding and provide feedback,
e. Provide extended practice and transfer,
f. Assess learning at the end.
Such a technique requires careful structuring
of the entire procedure. Attention is focused on
every detail of the procedure.
Instructional Characteristics
1. The strategy is teacher-directed.
2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Each
step must be mastered, hence the students gain “how”
rather that “what”. It is termed procedural knowledge.
3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the
learning of the entire procedure with no step missed.
4. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors
that can be measured accurately.s
5. This is a form of learning through imitation, sometimes
termed “behavioral modeling”.
6. This can also be used to teach facts, principles and
laws.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
Teaching skill
1. The students must be given ample time for
practice.
2. The lesson objectives are student-based.
3. Describe the testing situation and specify the
level of performance expected.
4. Divide complex skills and understanding into
subskills or into its component steps so they can
be taught easily and with precision.
5. Design own strategy in teaching each skill which
will eventually contribute to the learning of the
entire skill.
Teaching and declarative knowledge –
facts, principles and laws
1. Be sure the facts, principle and laws are
correctly, clearly and adequately
explained.
2. Use visual aids to concretize abstract
principles and laws.
3. illustrate laws and principles with
concrete examples.
4. Present facts meaningfully by citing their
significance and by connecting them with
everyday life.
2. Demonstration Method
In the demonstration method the teacher
or an assigned student or group shows
observers.
This approach is employed in presenting
lessons that use sophisticated equipment and
technical know-how. Materials that are not
easily available or expensive are used
sparingly in a demonstration.
Guidelines for Effective Use
Before :
1. The demonstrator must be well-selected.
He/she/they must be skilled in operating
modern equipment and proficient in
undertaking scientific investigations.
2. When planning the activities make sure that
the materials are easily available. Likewise get
prepared with possible substitute.
3. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be
used. Demonstration should be scheduled as
to day and class period.
During :
1. The place must be quiet in order to sustain
the observers’ attention and interest during
the activity.
2. Extreme care must be taken in performing
some delicate steps. Precision, timing for
every step, and measuring accurately using
the standard instrument must be observed.
3. The activity must not be interrupted by
unnecessary announcements or noise in the
surroundings.
4. They are allowed to take down short notes
or record some data which may be analyzed after.
After :
1. Allow some question which bothered them
during the demonstration. The post-demo
discussion may necessitate clarifying a step
that was not performed well or a set of data
missed.
2. An examination of the observed data and all
information recorded follows.
3. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or
uniform occurrences that can help in arriving
at a conclusion.
Advantages
1. The demonstration method follows a
systematic procedure, hence students will
be able to learn from a well-tried procedure
since the demonstrators are selected and
adjudge to be skilled.
2. The use of expensive equipment and
machines will be maximized.
3. Possible wastage of time, effort and sources
will be avoided since the demonstration is
supposed to be well-planning in advance.
Indirect/Guided / Exploratory Approach
Indirect instruction method is best used when
the learning process is inquiry-based; the result is
discovery and the learning context is a problem.
The inquiry approach, sometimes termed
“discovery,” “heuristic” and “problem solving” is
defined simply as a teaching method which is
“modeled after the investigative processes of
scientist.”
What are the steps in the inquiry
method?
1. Define the topic or introduce the
question.
2. Guide students plan where and how
to gather data, information
3. Students present findings through
graphs. Charts, powerpoint
presentation, models, and writing.
Instructional Characteristics
The following are commonly observed
characteristics of the discovery/inquiry method:
.
1. Investigate processes such as inferring,
hypothesizing, measuring, predicting,
classifying, analyzing and experiment,
formulating conclusions and generalizations
are employed.
2. The procedure in gathering information is
not prescribed by the teachers. The
students are treated as independent
learners. The formulate their own hypothesis
and suggest ways of testing them.
Outcomes of Inquiry Teaching
1. Its emphasis is on the processes of
gathering and processing of information.
2. Its dependence on first-hand experience
with objects and phenomena occurring in
the environment is certainly in agreement
with the most often cited theory of Piaget
on intellectual development.
3. The inquiry approach which predominantly
allows some degree of freedom develops
and initiative and divergent thinking.
How to Facilitate Inquiry Teaching
1. Arranged for an ideal room setting. After planning the
learning activity for the day, structure the room in such a
way that will allow freedom of movement.
2. Choose tools and equipment that can easily be
manipulated.
3. The materials to be used are examined must lend
themselves easily to the processes to be employed and
the end product desired.
2. Problem Solving Method
.
Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs
the scientific method in searching for information.
The five basic steps of the scientific method or
investigatory process are :
1. Sensing and defining the problem
2. Formulating hypothesis
3. Testing the likely hypothesis (by observing,
conducting an experiment, collecting and
organizing data trough normative surveys).
4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of
evidence
5. Formulating conclusion
Advantages
1. This method is most effective in developing
skill in employing the science processes.
2. The scientific method can likewise be used
effectively in other non-science subject.
3. Problem solving develops higher level thinking
skills.
4. The students become appreciative and grateful
for the achievement of scientists.
5. The students learn to accept the opinions and
evidence shared by others.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1. Provide sufficient training in defining and stating the
problem in a clear and concise manner.
2. Make sure that the problem to be solved fits the
age, interest and skills of the students.
3. Group the students and allow each one to share in
the tasks to be performed. In this way the
cooperative learning strategy would work well.
4. The development of skills and attitudes takes
priority over knowledge.
5. Involve the students in determining the criteria with
which they will be evaluated.
3. Project Method
The project method is a teaching
method that requires the students to
present in concrete form the results of
information gathered about a concept,
principle or innovation.
Advantages
1. It is a teaching method that emphasizes “learning by
doing”.
2. Constructing projects develops the students’
manipulative skill.
3. The planned design of the project tests the student’s
originality in choosing the materials to be used.
4. It can be employed among students who are weak in
oral communications.
5. It instills the values of initiative, industry and
creativity.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1. Assign the project to a student/group of students
who is capable and interested.
2. The student/group must be clear about the
objectives of the project including the criteria that
must be used in evaluating the finished project.
3. The design of the project must be carefully checked
before the student/group starts.
4. The materials must be carefully selected as to
suitability and durability to avoid wastage.
5. There should be minimal supervision as soon as the
construction is going on.
Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning makes
use of a classroom organization
where students work in groups
or teams to help each other
learn.
Characteristic Features
1. It has two important components, namely:
a cooperative incentives structure - one
where two or more individuals are interdependent
for a reward. They will share if they are successful
as a group and,
a cooperative task structure – a situation in
which two or more individuals are allowed,
encouraged or required to work together on some
task, coordinating their efforts to complete the task.
Guidelines for its Effective Use
In order to implement cooperative learning
successfully, here are some general guidelines to
follow :
1. Heterogeneous grouping wherein high, average and
low achievers are mixed in a group.
2. Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary
social skills to work cooperatively in group situations.
3. Arrange the furniture so that groups of students can sit
facing each other during sessions.
4. Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make
others wait at a time they are needed.
5. Make sure each group understand the goals,
procedures, task and methods of evaluation.
Overview of Selected Structures in Cooperative
Learning
Structure Brief Description Academic & Social
Functions
Round robin Teambuilding
Each student in turn shares
something with his or her
teammates
Expressing ideas and
opinions, creation of
stories. Equal participation,
getting acquainted with
teammates.
Corners Class building
Each students moves to a
corner of the room
representing a teacher-
determined alternative.
Students discuss within
corners, then listen to and
paraphrase ideas from
other corners
Seeing alternative
hypothesis, values,
problem-solving,
approaches. Knowing and
respecting different points
of view, meeting
classmates.
Structure
Match Mine
Numbered Head Together
Color-coded Co-op-Cards
Praise Check
Three-Step interview
Think-Pair Share
Team Word-Webbing
Roundtable
Inside-Outside Circle
Partners
Jigsaw
Co-op Co-op
Advantages
1. Interdependent relationship is strengthened and
reinforced when group cooperation is rewarded.
2. Group work develops friendliness, willingness to
assist and the more worthwhile value of caring and
sharing.
3. Cooperation in groups promotes maximum
generation and exchange of ideas, tolerance and
respect for other people’s points of view.
4. Cooperative learning groups exhibit less competitive
behavior compared to whole-class teaching
classrooms.
5. The group members gain skills of cooperation and
collaboration through experience.
Peer tutoring / Peer teaching
.
It is said that “The best way to learn something is to
teach it.”
Tutoring arrangement may be in any of the following :
a. Instructional tutoring. Older students help younger ones
on a one-on-one or one-to-a group basis. They choose the
way the lessons are presented. This is practiced when
there is a big difference between tutor and tutee.
b. Same age tutoring. This arrangement works well with
children who can act as interactive pairs, i.e., More able
ones to assist the less able. They can read to each other
and discuss.
c. Monitorial tutoring . The class may be divided
into groups and monitors are assigned to lead
each group.
d. Structural tutoring. Here a definite procedure is
followed. Highly structured tutoring is
administered by trained tutors.
e. Semi-structured tutoring. This is a combination of
unstructured and structured where the tutor
guides his/her tutee through a carefully-planned
learning guide but is free to modify it according
to the tutee’s own interests and skills.
Instructional Characteristics
1. The tutees receive individual instruction. The tutees are
provided with their own teacher.
2. The tutees receive more instruction. They are afforded more
contact hours by a tutor.
3. Rapport between tutor and tutee may be readily established
considering that they belong more or less to the same age
group.
4. The teacher is free at the same time to do other classroom
chores while the members are being handled by the tutors.
5. This kind of arrangement reduces a large into smaller working
groups.
6. Discipline problem are lessened there are more assistants
looking after small group.
7. The spirit of cooperation, camaraderie and reciprocity are
highlighted.
Guidelines for Its Effective Use
1.
Thank you for watching !!!
Godbless us !!! 

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Principles of teaching i different aproaches and methods

  • 2. Different Approaches and Methods Introduction Teaching Approach, Strategy, Method and Technique Teaching approach is a set of principles, belief or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom. It springs from a teacher’s own philosophy of education, the nature of education, the role of the teacher and that of the student.
  • 3. Teaching strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to many disparate fields such as military strategy, economic strategy, teaching strategy and the like. Teaching method is a systematic way of doing something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of steps. It is more procedural. Teaching technique is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or task. It is a teacher’s particular style or trick used to accomplish an immediate objective.
  • 4. Techniques are consistent with a given approach, strategy and methods. The relationship among the three is shown below: Approach Strategy Method Technique An approach gives rise to a strategy which may use more than one method of teaching. One teaching method may be employed differently by two different techniques. Technique has something to do with teacher’s personal style of teaching.
  • 5. Example of Teaching Approaches Teacher-centered Learner-centered Subject matter-centered Learner-centered Teacher-dominated Interactive “Banking” approach Constructivist Disciplinal Integrated Individualistic Collaborative Indirect, guided Direct
  • 6. In the teacher-centered approach, the teacher is perceived to be the only reliable source of information in contrast to the learner-centered approach which is premised on the belief that the learner is also an important resource. In the subject matter-centered approach, subject-matter gains primacy over that of the learner. The subject matter-centered approach is also teacher-dominated.
  • 7. In the constructivist approach, students are expected to construct knowledge and meaning out of what they are taught by connecting them to prior experience. In the “banking” approach. Teacher deposits knowledge into the “empty” minds of students for students to commit memory. The use of an integrated teaching approach makes the teacher connects what he/she teaches to the other lessons of the same subject (interdisciplinary) or connect his/her lessons with other subjects thus making his/her approach interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary.
  • 8. Other teaching approaches cited in education literature are : 1. research-based approach – As the name implies teaching and learning are anchored on research findings. 2. whole child approach – The learning process itself takes into account not only the academic needs of the learners, but also their emotional, creative, psychological, spiritual and developmental needs. A Highly cerebral approach is far from wholistic, neither than approach which emphasizes only the physical development of the child.
  • 9. 3. metacognitive approach – The teaching process brings the learner to the process of thinking about thinking. The learner reflects on what he learned and on his/her ways of learning. He reflects on why he/she succeeded one time but failed the other time. 4. problem-based approach – As the name implies, the teaching-learning process is focused on problems. Time is spent on analyzing and solving problems.
  • 10. In summary, approach are very in the degree of teacher and learning engagement, focus, number of learners involved in the teaching-learning process as shown in the diagram below : Engagement Teacher Learner Focus Number Subject matter Learner Individual Group
  • 11. On the Basis of student and teacher involvement, there are categorized as direct/expository and guided/exploratory. Direct/Expository Approach 1. Direct instruction /Lecture Method Direct instruction is aimed at helping students acquire procedural knowledge which is knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Direct instruction is also used for lessons that are factual and non-controversial.
  • 12. Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Method To employ this methodology in teaching skills, following these steps : a. Provide the rationale, b. Demonstrate the skill, c. Provide guided practice until mastery, d. Check for understanding and provide feedback, e. Provide extended practice and transfer, f. Assess learning at the end. Such a technique requires careful structuring of the entire procedure. Attention is focused on every detail of the procedure.
  • 13. Instructional Characteristics 1. The strategy is teacher-directed. 2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Each step must be mastered, hence the students gain “how” rather that “what”. It is termed procedural knowledge. 3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire procedure with no step missed. 4. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors that can be measured accurately.s 5. This is a form of learning through imitation, sometimes termed “behavioral modeling”. 6. This can also be used to teach facts, principles and laws.
  • 14. Guidelines for Its Effective Use Teaching skill 1. The students must be given ample time for practice. 2. The lesson objectives are student-based. 3. Describe the testing situation and specify the level of performance expected. 4. Divide complex skills and understanding into subskills or into its component steps so they can be taught easily and with precision. 5. Design own strategy in teaching each skill which will eventually contribute to the learning of the entire skill.
  • 15. Teaching and declarative knowledge – facts, principles and laws 1. Be sure the facts, principle and laws are correctly, clearly and adequately explained. 2. Use visual aids to concretize abstract principles and laws. 3. illustrate laws and principles with concrete examples. 4. Present facts meaningfully by citing their significance and by connecting them with everyday life.
  • 16. 2. Demonstration Method In the demonstration method the teacher or an assigned student or group shows observers. This approach is employed in presenting lessons that use sophisticated equipment and technical know-how. Materials that are not easily available or expensive are used sparingly in a demonstration.
  • 17. Guidelines for Effective Use Before : 1. The demonstrator must be well-selected. He/she/they must be skilled in operating modern equipment and proficient in undertaking scientific investigations. 2. When planning the activities make sure that the materials are easily available. Likewise get prepared with possible substitute. 3. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be used. Demonstration should be scheduled as to day and class period.
  • 18. During : 1. The place must be quiet in order to sustain the observers’ attention and interest during the activity. 2. Extreme care must be taken in performing some delicate steps. Precision, timing for every step, and measuring accurately using the standard instrument must be observed. 3. The activity must not be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings. 4. They are allowed to take down short notes or record some data which may be analyzed after.
  • 19. After : 1. Allow some question which bothered them during the demonstration. The post-demo discussion may necessitate clarifying a step that was not performed well or a set of data missed. 2. An examination of the observed data and all information recorded follows. 3. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or uniform occurrences that can help in arriving at a conclusion.
  • 20. Advantages 1. The demonstration method follows a systematic procedure, hence students will be able to learn from a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudge to be skilled. 2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized. 3. Possible wastage of time, effort and sources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well-planning in advance.
  • 21. Indirect/Guided / Exploratory Approach Indirect instruction method is best used when the learning process is inquiry-based; the result is discovery and the learning context is a problem. The inquiry approach, sometimes termed “discovery,” “heuristic” and “problem solving” is defined simply as a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientist.”
  • 22. What are the steps in the inquiry method? 1. Define the topic or introduce the question. 2. Guide students plan where and how to gather data, information 3. Students present findings through graphs. Charts, powerpoint presentation, models, and writing.
  • 23. Instructional Characteristics The following are commonly observed characteristics of the discovery/inquiry method: . 1. Investigate processes such as inferring, hypothesizing, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing and experiment, formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. 2. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. The students are treated as independent learners. The formulate their own hypothesis and suggest ways of testing them.
  • 24. Outcomes of Inquiry Teaching 1. Its emphasis is on the processes of gathering and processing of information. 2. Its dependence on first-hand experience with objects and phenomena occurring in the environment is certainly in agreement with the most often cited theory of Piaget on intellectual development. 3. The inquiry approach which predominantly allows some degree of freedom develops and initiative and divergent thinking.
  • 25. How to Facilitate Inquiry Teaching 1. Arranged for an ideal room setting. After planning the learning activity for the day, structure the room in such a way that will allow freedom of movement. 2. Choose tools and equipment that can easily be manipulated. 3. The materials to be used are examined must lend themselves easily to the processes to be employed and the end product desired.
  • 26. 2. Problem Solving Method . Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information. The five basic steps of the scientific method or investigatory process are : 1. Sensing and defining the problem 2. Formulating hypothesis 3. Testing the likely hypothesis (by observing, conducting an experiment, collecting and organizing data trough normative surveys). 4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5. Formulating conclusion
  • 27. Advantages 1. This method is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. 2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subject. 3. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills. 4. The students become appreciative and grateful for the achievement of scientists. 5. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.
  • 28. Guidelines for Its Effective Use 1. Provide sufficient training in defining and stating the problem in a clear and concise manner. 2. Make sure that the problem to be solved fits the age, interest and skills of the students. 3. Group the students and allow each one to share in the tasks to be performed. In this way the cooperative learning strategy would work well. 4. The development of skills and attitudes takes priority over knowledge. 5. Involve the students in determining the criteria with which they will be evaluated.
  • 29. 3. Project Method The project method is a teaching method that requires the students to present in concrete form the results of information gathered about a concept, principle or innovation.
  • 30. Advantages 1. It is a teaching method that emphasizes “learning by doing”. 2. Constructing projects develops the students’ manipulative skill. 3. The planned design of the project tests the student’s originality in choosing the materials to be used. 4. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communications. 5. It instills the values of initiative, industry and creativity.
  • 31. Guidelines for Its Effective Use 1. Assign the project to a student/group of students who is capable and interested. 2. The student/group must be clear about the objectives of the project including the criteria that must be used in evaluating the finished project. 3. The design of the project must be carefully checked before the student/group starts. 4. The materials must be carefully selected as to suitability and durability to avoid wastage. 5. There should be minimal supervision as soon as the construction is going on.
  • 32. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning makes use of a classroom organization where students work in groups or teams to help each other learn.
  • 33. Characteristic Features 1. It has two important components, namely: a cooperative incentives structure - one where two or more individuals are interdependent for a reward. They will share if they are successful as a group and, a cooperative task structure – a situation in which two or more individuals are allowed, encouraged or required to work together on some task, coordinating their efforts to complete the task.
  • 34. Guidelines for its Effective Use In order to implement cooperative learning successfully, here are some general guidelines to follow : 1. Heterogeneous grouping wherein high, average and low achievers are mixed in a group. 2. Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary social skills to work cooperatively in group situations. 3. Arrange the furniture so that groups of students can sit facing each other during sessions. 4. Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make others wait at a time they are needed. 5. Make sure each group understand the goals, procedures, task and methods of evaluation.
  • 35. Overview of Selected Structures in Cooperative Learning Structure Brief Description Academic & Social Functions Round robin Teambuilding Each student in turn shares something with his or her teammates Expressing ideas and opinions, creation of stories. Equal participation, getting acquainted with teammates. Corners Class building Each students moves to a corner of the room representing a teacher- determined alternative. Students discuss within corners, then listen to and paraphrase ideas from other corners Seeing alternative hypothesis, values, problem-solving, approaches. Knowing and respecting different points of view, meeting classmates.
  • 36. Structure Match Mine Numbered Head Together Color-coded Co-op-Cards Praise Check Three-Step interview Think-Pair Share Team Word-Webbing Roundtable Inside-Outside Circle Partners Jigsaw Co-op Co-op
  • 37. Advantages 1. Interdependent relationship is strengthened and reinforced when group cooperation is rewarded. 2. Group work develops friendliness, willingness to assist and the more worthwhile value of caring and sharing. 3. Cooperation in groups promotes maximum generation and exchange of ideas, tolerance and respect for other people’s points of view. 4. Cooperative learning groups exhibit less competitive behavior compared to whole-class teaching classrooms. 5. The group members gain skills of cooperation and collaboration through experience.
  • 38. Peer tutoring / Peer teaching . It is said that “The best way to learn something is to teach it.” Tutoring arrangement may be in any of the following : a. Instructional tutoring. Older students help younger ones on a one-on-one or one-to-a group basis. They choose the way the lessons are presented. This is practiced when there is a big difference between tutor and tutee. b. Same age tutoring. This arrangement works well with children who can act as interactive pairs, i.e., More able ones to assist the less able. They can read to each other and discuss.
  • 39. c. Monitorial tutoring . The class may be divided into groups and monitors are assigned to lead each group. d. Structural tutoring. Here a definite procedure is followed. Highly structured tutoring is administered by trained tutors. e. Semi-structured tutoring. This is a combination of unstructured and structured where the tutor guides his/her tutee through a carefully-planned learning guide but is free to modify it according to the tutee’s own interests and skills.
  • 40. Instructional Characteristics 1. The tutees receive individual instruction. The tutees are provided with their own teacher. 2. The tutees receive more instruction. They are afforded more contact hours by a tutor. 3. Rapport between tutor and tutee may be readily established considering that they belong more or less to the same age group. 4. The teacher is free at the same time to do other classroom chores while the members are being handled by the tutors. 5. This kind of arrangement reduces a large into smaller working groups. 6. Discipline problem are lessened there are more assistants looking after small group. 7. The spirit of cooperation, camaraderie and reciprocity are highlighted.
  • 41. Guidelines for Its Effective Use 1.
  • 42. Thank you for watching !!! Godbless us !!! 