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Remember!
• No measurement – no management
• Good management decisions require good data
For what purpose we measure tree?
 Research works - dia/girth are being measured to the
nearest mm or cm and measurement ...
Diameter and girth measurements
• to estimate stem cross-sectional area;
• done at breast height because:
can not be done...
• DBH at 4’6” or 1.37 m in India, Mynmar, South Africa,
Malaya and some other former British Colonies
• DBH at 4’3” or 1.3...
Description of Diameter and Girth measurements
DBH : Diameter at breast height
GBH : Girth at breast height
O.B. : Over ba...
Standard Rules in Diameter /
Girth measurement
Loose bark/ creepers if found on the tree especially near
breast height sho...
• Mark BH by means of measuring stick or any standard…
• Mark the BH point
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
co...
+ B.H.
1.37m
Ground is flat and the tree is straight
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
B.H.
1.37m
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Measure DBH along the tree
stem and not vertically, on the
...
B.H.
1.37m
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Measure DBH on the up hill
side on sloping ground
Sloping g...
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Measure DBH along the tree
stem and not vertically, on the
side of the...
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Measure DBH along the tree
stem and not vertically, on the
side of the...
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Tree stem is abnormal at breast height level
1.37m
B.H.
DBH measured n...
BH
1.37m
BH
1.37m 1.37m
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Counted as one or two
depending on the place o...
Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement
contd…
Tree stem has buttress at breast height level
DBH measured at the lowe...
How to measure diameter or girth of this Sygizium cuminii tree
which is on the Trevor Road?
How to measure diameter or girth of this Cupressus cashmeriana
tree which is in front of the New Hostel?
Some points to be taken care of
while taking measurement of trees
• Remove moss, creepers, lichens and also loose bark
bef...
For routine forest works
Rules are either not followed or modified in carrying out
routine forest works
• Measuring stick ...
Instruments used in diameter and girth measurements
Common ones
• Wooden scale
• Tape
• Callipers
Uncommon ones
• Wedge pr...
Choice of instrument depends upon
 Whether tree is standing or felled
 Degree of accuracy required
 Availability
 Ease...
Instruments used in measurements contd…
Wooden scale
 Flat wooden piece marked
in cm & mm
 Available in various sizes
vi...
Rules for measurement
– Dia measured along the line
passing through the pith
–Two diameters, one each
along major axis & o...
• Generally made of wood or Al
• Used for measuring diameter of
standing trees
• A graduated rule & 2 arms
• One arm is fi...
• Depending upon the desired degree of accuracy rule is
divided into units
• For routine forest works callipers marked in ...
ColourDiameter
0-10 cm
10-20 cm
20-30 cm
30-40 cm
40-50 cm
50-60 cm
60-70 cm
White
Red
Yellow
Black
Pink
Blue
Black
• Hold the handles of the arms in both the hands
• Tilt the movable arm inwards to make it free to move
• Make a wide gap ...
How are measurements taken?
How is dbh measured for an elliptical
stem? (using callipers)
–If cross section is elliptical,...
1
2
How are measurements taken?
Dbh at 1 or 2?
• Callipers must be placed at right angle to axis of tree
• Movable arms sh...
Precaution in use of Callipers
– Movable arms should be well opened before placing the
calliper
– Reading must be taken be...
Advantages and disadvantages of Callipers
Advantages
– Dia can be read directly and thus instrument can be
applicable for ...
Tape – used for trees & logs
• Made up of cloth, reinforced cloth,
plastic or steel
• Of varying length
• End of tape is g...
– Old tapes should not be used
– Take care not to twist at the time of use
– Must lie in a plane perpendicular to the axis...
Advantages
– Convenient
– Only one measurement needed
Disadvantages
– If tree has rough bark, the tape exaggerates the dia...
Tape and callipers - comparison
• Practicability – tape is small & light whereas callipers are
heavier
• Price – tape is m...
Tape and callipers - comparison
• Use – use is faster and more accurate
- both are easy to use in accessible locations
- f...
Where to measure?
Relation between diameter and girth of trees
• For a circle the ration between the diameter (d) & girth (g)
is 1/π or 0.31...
f = d/gSpecies
Acacia catechu
Bombax ceiba
Cedrus deodara
Pinus roxburghii
Dalbergia sissoo
Shorea robusta
Tectona grandis...
Diameter and Girth Class
• Measurement of trees are done and then recorded in suitable
dia/ girth classes
Practice in Indi...
• Standard colour code
for dia/ girth classes
• Facilitates easy and
fast recording
• Measurement can be
taken by illitera...
Recording of data
• Systematic recording of data is essential for speed,
accuracy and understanding
• Measurement to be ta...
Common errors in dbh measurement leading to
wrong calculation of area/volume
a
b
a
Area for circle = (π a2
)/4
Area for el...
Better way of measurement leading to less error
in area/volume calculation
Two diameters d1 & d2 for ellipse
One way – ave...
Forest mensuratiion slide 2
Forest mensuratiion slide 2
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Forest mensuratiion slide 2

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Forest Mensuration
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Forest mensuratiion slide 2

  1. 1. Remember! • No measurement – no management • Good management decisions require good data
  2. 2. For what purpose we measure tree?  Research works - dia/girth are being measured to the nearest mm or cm and measurement of two diameters are required to taken  Routine forestry works viz. timber or fuel wood estimation or NTFP production etc. - exact dia or girth of each tree is not required because the ultimate object is to estimate volume of large number of trees approximately
  3. 3. Diameter and girth measurements • to estimate stem cross-sectional area; • done at breast height because: can not be done at bases, which may be covered with grasses/shrubs/ thorns and have root swell etc. can not be done at stumps which are not cut at same heights it is a convenient height conventionally being used, and extensive database exist it is a uniform point of measurement which helps in standardizing diameter/girth measurement
  4. 4. • DBH at 4’6” or 1.37 m in India, Mynmar, South Africa, Malaya and some other former British Colonies • DBH at 4’3” or 1.3 m in USA, Canada, Europe including UK and most other countries of Commonwealth (recommended by FAO as a standard for international adherence) • International symbol for diameter at breast height is d
  5. 5. Description of Diameter and Girth measurements DBH : Diameter at breast height GBH : Girth at breast height O.B. : Over bark U.B. : Under bark Basal Area: Sectional area at breast height (elsewhere Sectional Area)
  6. 6. Standard Rules in Diameter / Girth measurement Loose bark/ creepers if found on the tree especially near breast height should be removed before measuring the diameter B.H. 1.37m
  7. 7. • Mark BH by means of measuring stick or any standard… • Mark the BH point Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… + B.H. 1.37m
  8. 8. + B.H. 1.37m Ground is flat and the tree is straight Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd…
  9. 9. B.H. 1.37m Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Measure DBH along the tree stem and not vertically, on the side of the lean in case the tree is leaning and the ground is flat Ground is flat but the tree is leaning
  10. 10. B.H. 1.37m Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Measure DBH on the up hill side on sloping ground Sloping ground but the tree is straight
  11. 11. Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Measure DBH along the tree stem and not vertically, on the side of the lean B.H. 1.37m Sloping ground and the tree is leaning
  12. 12. Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Measure DBH along the tree stem and not vertically, on the side of the lean B.H. 1.37m Sloping ground and the tree is leaning
  13. 13. Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Tree stem is abnormal at breast height level 1.37m B.H. DBH measured not at 1.37 m but mark shifted up or down (as little as possible) to a more normal position of the stem
  14. 14. BH 1.37m BH 1.37m 1.37m Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Counted as one or two depending on the place of measurements Each fork treated as a separate tree Tree stem is forked BH Counted as one tree
  15. 15. Standard Rules in Diameter/Girth measurement contd… Tree stem has buttress at breast height level DBH measured at the lowest point above which the abnormal formation is not likely to extend B.H.
  16. 16. How to measure diameter or girth of this Sygizium cuminii tree which is on the Trevor Road?
  17. 17. How to measure diameter or girth of this Cupressus cashmeriana tree which is in front of the New Hostel?
  18. 18. Some points to be taken care of while taking measurement of trees • Remove moss, creepers, lichens and also loose bark before taking measurements • Record DBH in cm and to the multiple of 2 mm • Record GBH in m and to the nearest cm
  19. 19. For routine forest works Rules are either not followed or modified in carrying out routine forest works • Measuring stick not used • No paint mark at BH • Instead of individual tree measurement, trees are grouped in dia or girth classes
  20. 20. Instruments used in diameter and girth measurements Common ones • Wooden scale • Tape • Callipers Uncommon ones • Wedge prism • Relaskop • Dendrometer • Altimeter Contd…
  21. 21. Choice of instrument depends upon  Whether tree is standing or felled  Degree of accuracy required  Availability  Ease in working Instruments used in diameter and girth measurements
  22. 22. Instruments used in measurements contd… Wooden scale  Flat wooden piece marked in cm & mm  Available in various sizes viz. 30cm, 60cm  Folding depend on length  Used for measurement of diameter of stump or end section of logs  Mainly used for stem/ stump analysis
  23. 23. Rules for measurement – Dia measured along the line passing through the pith –Two diameters, one each along major axis & one ⊥ to it are measured in case of eccentric stump/log – Reading to be taken just above the mark i.e. vertically Wooden scale
  24. 24. • Generally made of wood or Al • Used for measuring diameter of standing trees • A graduated rule & 2 arms • One arm is fixed & at right angle to the rule; other arm is movable along the rule • Normally arm length is half the length of rule • Calipers up to 120cm length are used in practice Callipers Instruments used in measurements contd…
  25. 25. • Depending upon the desired degree of accuracy rule is divided into units • For routine forest works callipers marked in cm and showing Diameter classes painted in different colours are used Callipers
  26. 26. ColourDiameter 0-10 cm 10-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40-50 cm 50-60 cm 60-70 cm White Red Yellow Black Pink Blue Black
  27. 27. • Hold the handles of the arms in both the hands • Tilt the movable arm inwards to make it free to move • Make a wide gap between the arms so that it fit into the stem • Graduated rule made to touch the tree • Movable arm shifted inwards in the tilted position till the tree touches both the fixed and the movable arms • Movable arm is then slowly brought in ⊥ position to the graduated scale • Pressed so as to squeeze out any loose bark as well as ensure that there is no gap between the arms and use tree • Note the diameter reading on the rule Method of Use
  28. 28. How are measurements taken? How is dbh measured for an elliptical stem? (using callipers) –If cross section is elliptical, two readings should be taken after properly locating major axis and measuring it first, then take reading at ⊥ to it
  29. 29. 1 2 How are measurements taken? Dbh at 1 or 2? • Callipers must be placed at right angle to axis of tree • Movable arms should be well opened before placing the calliper • Two arm and scale arm must be in contact with tree and movable arm should be at right angles to the scale arm Reading must be taken before removal
  30. 30. Precaution in use of Callipers – Movable arms should be well opened before placing the calliper – Reading must be taken before removal – Callipers must be placed at right angle to axis of tree – Two arm and scale arm must be in contact with tree and movable arm should be at right angles to the scale arm – If cross section is elliptical, two readings should be taken after properly locating major axis and measuring it first, then take reading at ⊥ to it
  31. 31. Advantages and disadvantages of Callipers Advantages – Dia can be read directly and thus instrument can be applicable for precise scientific work. – Can be used by unskilled labour – Errors are + and - and neutralizes each other Disadvantages – Awkward to carry – Two measurement difficult to take in hilly area – Wooden ones absorb moisture in humid conditions
  32. 32. Tape – used for trees & logs • Made up of cloth, reinforced cloth, plastic or steel • Of varying length • End of tape is generally of some metal • For tree measurement tape are generally 3 & 5 meter long • Usually calibrated in metric system on one side and British system on another side Instruments used in diameter and girth measurements
  33. 33. – Old tapes should not be used – Take care not to twist at the time of use – Must lie in a plane perpendicular to the axis of tree – Remove climber or branches of nearby shrub if it comes in between the girth of tree Precaution in use of Tape
  34. 34. Advantages – Convenient – Only one measurement needed Disadvantages – If tree has rough bark, the tape exaggerates the diameter – Slower in dense shrub growth – Knots swellings affects girth measurement Advantages and disadvantages of Tape
  35. 35. Tape and callipers - comparison • Practicability – tape is small & light whereas callipers are heavier • Price – tape is much cheaper that callipers • History – tapes are most commonly used – For large trees tapes are used contd…
  36. 36. Tape and callipers - comparison • Use – use is faster and more accurate - both are easy to use in accessible locations - for inaccessible locations callipers are less useful because of its weight & measurement with a tape is faster that two measurements with callipers tapes are more accurate than callipers - tape negotiates whole circumference of the tree  gives better measurement - for non-circular trees tape overestimates girth, callipers are better
  37. 37. Where to measure?
  38. 38. Relation between diameter and girth of trees • For a circle the ration between the diameter (d) & girth (g) is 1/π or 0.3182 • Trees have irregular cross-sections so this ratio (d/g) is not equal to 0.3182 • This ratio varies from species to species
  39. 39. f = d/gSpecies Acacia catechu Bombax ceiba Cedrus deodara Pinus roxburghii Dalbergia sissoo Shorea robusta Tectona grandis 0.3104 0.3135 0.3136 0.3093 0.3098 0.3119 0.3160
  40. 40. Diameter and Girth Class • Measurement of trees are done and then recorded in suitable dia/ girth classes Practice in India Type of tree Tree maturity dia (dbh) Dia class interval Girth class interval Small sized 30 cm 2 cm 5 cm Medium sized 30 to 50 cm 5 cm 15 cm Large Sized 50 cm & above 10 cm 30 cm
  41. 41. • Standard colour code for dia/ girth classes • Facilitates easy and fast recording • Measurement can be taken by illiterate labourers Diameter and Girth Class ColourDia class 0-20 cm 20-30 cm 30-40 cm 40-50 cm 50-60 cm 60-70 cm 70cm & above Blank Green Red Yellow Black White Blue
  42. 42. Recording of data • Systematic recording of data is essential for speed, accuracy and understanding • Measurement to be tallied using convenient form e.g. dot-dash system • Measurements arranged in this fashion gives added impression from the appearance of the data
  43. 43. Common errors in dbh measurement leading to wrong calculation of area/volume a b a Area for circle = (π a2 )/4 Area for ellipse = (π a b)/4 In case of noncircular tree If only a is measured  over estimation of area If only b is measured  under estimation of area Therefore two dia are measured
  44. 44. Better way of measurement leading to less error in area/volume calculation Two diameters d1 & d2 for ellipse One way – average the two dia and then calculate area Another way – calculate areas separately and then average Which will be better & why? First is better as less error involved in area calculation

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