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  2. 2. 2 Presentation Outline Chapter-1:  Introduction Chapter-2:  Literature review and hypotheses formulation Chapter-3: Research methodology Chapter-4:  Results Chapter-5:  Discussion Chapter-6:  Implications of study, future scope, and limitations of the study
  3. 3. 3  Aim of the Publication  Statement of the Problem  Overview of Literature  Conceptual Framework  Research Methodology  Schedule  Approach and Deliverables Contents
  4. 4. 4  To understand the factors that contribute for the research  To investigate the role of Independent and dependent variables  To explore the books and concepts Aim
  5. 5. 5 Dimensions of Employee Commitment A a b c
  6. 6. 6 Statement of the Problem  Thus, the main purpose of the researcher in this study has to examine the structural relationship between variables . The specific objectives are to:  Determine relationship of variables  Identify the reasons ,moderate any such impact on dependent variable
  7. 7. 7 Major research gap • Lack of studies • Commitment issues in manufacturing sector employees need to be explored more • Need of understanding employment relationship in developing nations like India • Lack of studies on factor affecting in Indian context • How different in Indian organizations?
  8. 8. 8 Research Objectives 1) To study in selected manufacturing organizations in India. 2) To study the a in selected manufacturing organizations in India. 3) To study the b in selected manufacturing organizations in India. 4) To study the effect of the dimensions of a on c in selected manufacturing organizations in India. 5) To study the effect of the dimensions of b on employee commitment in selected manufacturing organizations in India. 6) To examine the mediating role of the b between the relationship of a and c
  9. 9. 9 Research Questions RQ 1: Does the a vary with the demographic profile (age, gender, and hierarchical level) of respondents? RQ 2: Does the employees’ perception towards the dimensions of b vary with the demographic profile (age, gender, and hierarchical level) of respondents? RQ 3: Do the dimensions of b (Affective, Normative, Continuance) vary with the changing demographic profile (age, gender, and hierarchical level)?
  10. 10. 10 Statement of the Problem  Thus, the main purpose of the researcher in this study has to examine the structural relationship between variables . The specific objectives are to:  Determine relationship of variables  Identify the reasons ,moderate any such impact on dependent variable
  11. 11. 11 Literature Review Articles identified through electronic database by searching for keywords in either of ‘Title’, ‘Abstract’ or ‘Keywords’fields of Scopus database (N1=161) Removal of studies published in conferences, books and publications other than Journals (N2=59) Review of title and abstract to remove the articles that are not relevant to this research (N3=37) Reference check of articles to add other articles that are relevant to this study (N4=51) Final list of articles selected for literature review (N1 – N2- N3 + N4=116) Keywords used for article search: • “Workplace spirituality” • “Spirituality at workplace” • “Workplace spirituality” and “Commitment” • “Psychological contract” and “Commitment” • “Employee Commitment” • “Organization commitment” • “Compassion” and “Commitment” • “Mindfulness” and “Commitment” • “Meaningful work" and " Commitment " • “Transcendence" and "Commitment" • “Transactional contract" and "Commitment" • “Relational contract" and “Commitment“ • “Balanced contract" and “Commitment" • Link -
  12. 12. 12 Proposed Conceptual Framework Locus of Control Personal Effectiveness Emotional Maturity Emotional Stability Emotional Progression Social Adjustment Personality Integration Independence Internal Locus of Control External Locus of Control Perceptiveness Self-disclosure Openness to feedback
  13. 13. 13 How have the contents of psychological contracts been categorized? Transactional contract Relational contract Balanced contract Time frame Short-term, time-bounded promises Long-term, open-ended promises open ended Degree of specificity Highly specified Loosely specified specified Resources exchanged Tangible, having a monetary value Intangible, likely to be socio- emotional tangible and intangible Explicitness of promise Explicit Implicit explicit & implicit Negotiation Likely to be explicit and require formal agreement by both parties Implicit and unlikely to involve actual agreement by both parties explicit and implicit ,require formal agreement by both parties Example Pay in exchange for number of hours worked Job security in exchange for employee commitment Rewards are based upon performance and company performance
  14. 14. 14 Theories used • Sense making Theory • Job Characteristics Model • Social exchange theory • Signaling Theory • Socialization theory
  15. 15. 15 Hypotheses and Model • Link - Hypotheses.pdf a c b
  16. 16. 16 Chapter - 3 Research Methodology
  17. 17. 17 Research Methodology Coverage: The study should clearly emphasize on probability sampling method. The samples covers all 38 numbers of government hospitals in Delhi. In this research, the population is known and hence the formula has been used for calculating the sample size from known population (Barlett et al., 2001).The samples will be chosen through random sampling method. Data Collection: Then, the researcher were make contact with Administration department of hospitals listed as approved government hospitals under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of NCT of Delhi. The data was collect by using survey method, wherein, questionnaires were distributed amongst all the employees of selected government hospitals in New Delhi. Data Analysis: Appropriate technique will be used (Such as: Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling etc.)
  18. 18. 18 Research design • Descriptive study. • Quantitative techniques • Cross-sectional design • Cross-sectional design better than the longitudinal research design when the respondents are highly educated and the research uses the array of measurement scales (Rindfleisch et al., 2008).
  19. 19. 19 Instruments • Workplace spirituality (WPS) - WPS was measured through the scale of Petchsawang and Duchon (2009). The scale includes twenty two items with four dimensions. • Psychological contract - The perception of psychological contract is measured by the scale adopted from Rousseau (2000). This scale has 28 items including three dimensions such as transaction, relational and balanced contract. • Employee Commitment - Employee commitment is measured by the three dimensions given by Meyer et al. (1993). The adopted scale of employee commitment is comprised of 18 items including three dimensions.
  20. 20. 20 Description of the sample and procedure • Respondents - lower, middle and higher levels employees from the Indian manufacturing sector. • Minimum criterion - INR 10,000 crore market capitalization (Arora and Rangnekar, 2016 ; Bamel et al., 2013) • 754 (421 with 55.84%) 66 • Total 68 items in the questionnaire. Hence the final sample size should lie between 340 to 680 (Hair et al., 2010). • Mixed-mode method was utilized for the data collection. • This method combines the two or more modes of data collection by using one survey instrument (Arora and Rangnekar, 2016).
  21. 21. 21 Respondents’ profile
  22. 22. 22 Preparing for Data Analysis • One way ANOVA • t- test • Multiple hierarchical regression • PROCESS Macro
  23. 23. 23 Chapter 4 Results
  24. 24. 24 Hypotheses 4 (a), 4 (b), 4 (c) and 4 (d) • The dimensions of WPS collaboratively explained 31.40 percent variance in employee commitment (F = 28.463, p < .05). • Out of four dimensions of WPS only three dimensions such as mindfulness (β = 0.231, t = 2.763, p < .05), MFW (β = 0.124, t = 3.264, p < .05) and transcendence (β = 0.312, t = 3.095, p < .05) are found significantly predictors of employee commitment. While, the other dimension of WPS i.e., compassion (β = 0.083, t = 1.267, p > .05) is found to be insignificant predictor of employee commitment. • Therefore, the hypothesis 4 (b), 4 (c) and 4 (d) are supported in the study but hypothesis 4 (a) is not supported in the present study.
  25. 25. 25 Chapter - 5 Discussion
  26. 26. 26 Chapter 6 Implications of study, limitations, future scope and Conclusion
  27. 27. 27 Theoretical Implications • The findings of the study provide the empirical support to the theories namely sense making theory, social exchange theory and job characteristics model. • This study fills the void as highlighted by Singh and Gupta (2015) in the area of positive employees’ attitude by discussing commitment issues in the Indian manufacturing sector. • The present study enhances the literature related to WPS in the Indian context and is one of the novel effort to discuss the role of WPS in determining the employer and employee relationship as form of psychological contract.
  28. 28. 28 Managerial Implications • The current study suggests strategies to promote WPS in the form of improving compassion, mindfulness, meaningful work and transcendence in the Indian manufacturing sector. • Managers should conduct some mindful practices like yoga and meditation on a frequent basis. • The dataset of this study are the employees of the Indian manufacturing sector, which represents the collectivist culture. Managers of the same sector working in other countries, resembling the collectivist approach, can take cue from this study. • The results report that balanced contract is the most important factor to influence employment relationship. HR practitioners can devise their policies to focus on the balanced contract so that the employment relationship between employee and employer can be improved effectively.
  29. 29. 29 Limitations and Scope of the Future Research • Data collected from the same industry may limit the generalizability of the findings. In future, we can increase the sample size to collect the data from the different sectors for testing and generalizing the results of this study. • Second, researchers can conduct comparative research for investigating the gap between the levels of mindfulness and transcendence among employees. • The collected data from the manufacturing sector holds the maximum frequency of male respondents (87.04%). • The replication of the current study model can be tested in different developing and developed countries.
  30. 30. 30 Conclusion • Employee commitment can be enhanced with the help of implementation of different workplace spirituality practices. • The relationship between workplace spirituality and employee commitment is partially mediated by the perceived psychological contract that talks about the relationship between employer and employees. • Mindfulness and meaningful work are the most important factors to promote workplace spirituality in the Indian manufacturing sector. • Balanced contract and relational contract are to be focused on more.
  31. 31. 31 References • Agarwal, U. A., & Bhargava, S. (2014). The role of social exchange on work outcomes: a study of Indian managers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(10), 1484-1504. • Aggarwal, U., & Bhargava, S. (2009). Reviewing the relationship between human resource practices and psychological contract and their impact on employee attitude and behaviours: A conceptual model. Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(1), 4-31. • Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Organizational commitment: evidence of career stage effects? Journal of Business Research, 26(1), 49-61. • Arora, R., & Rangnekar, S. (2016a). Perceived mentoring relationships and career outcomes—Results from the Indian power sector. Global Business Review, 17(3_suppl), 133S-146S. • Arora, R., & Rangnekar, S. (2016b). Towards understanding the two way interaction effects of extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 16(2), 213-232. • Ashmos, D. P. and Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134-145. • Aurobindo, S. (1978). Glossary of terms in Sri Aurobndo’s writings, Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publication Department • Bamel, U. K., Rangnekar, S., Stokes, P., & Rastogi, R. (2013). Organizational climate and managerial effectiveness: an Indian perspective. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21(2), 198-218. • Barnard, C. I. (1938). The Function of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. • Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66(1), 32-40.
  32. 32. 32 International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies Title: Quality of Work Life, Organizational Commitment, and Psychological Well-Being: A study of the Indian Employees Evaluation Check Sheet Check Comments 1. Abstract and Keywords √ Good 2. Introduction √ Very Good 3. Social Benefits √ Useful 4. Research Motivation √ In line with research discipline 5. Literature Review √ Very Good 6. Research Argument √ Good 7. Concept and Relevance √ Good 8. Methodology and Approach √ Good 9. Evidence and Data Gathering √ Significant 10. Finding & Analysis √ Significant 11. Quantitative & Qualitative Limitations √ Good 12. Regional & Global impact √ High impact 13. Conclusion & Summary √ Very Good 14. Reference Quality √ Good 15. Rigor & Coherence √ Good 16. Academic Quality √ Extension 17. Originality & Contribution √ In line 18. Clarity, Grammar & Spell-check √ Good 19. Weakness of study √ Minor 20. Research in Progress √ Future areas not been identified Additional Comments: 1. Author(s) may consider stating research constraints or biases (e.g. sample size, research design), state of the research (e.g. S.No 1, 2, 3 etc.). 2. This paper has been recommended to the Senior Advisory and Editorial Board (SAEB) to be considered for publication in International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies. Decision: Accepted for publication and it will get publish in May 2011 edition of Ijcbs. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  33. 33. 33 I am writing regarding your manuscript which you submitted to the International Journal of Organizational Analysis for publication consideration. We have completed our review. The comments from our reviewers, along with comments from the Associate Editor responsible for the review, are included at the bottom of this letter. Both reviewers and the Associate Editor feel that the manuscript is not yet ready for publication in the journal, but with further revision the manuscript may be suitable for publication. Therefore, I invite you to submit a revision of the manuscript for our further review. Please carefully consider the criticisms of the reviewers in your revision and prepare a point-by-point response to each reviewer along with your revision. Resubmitting your manuscript does not guarantee eventual acceptance. Your resubmission will be subject to re-review before a decision is rendered. You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally submitted version of the manuscript. Instead, revise your manuscript using a word processing program and save it on your computer.
  34. 34. 34 Questions ? …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………………………… ……………………………………. Thanks