2. Introduction :-
⦿ The term ‘ Defense Mechanism’
was first used by Sir Sigmund
Freud in his paper “The Neuro-
Psychoses of defense” (1894).
⦿ Anna (1937) developed the ideas
given by Freud and elaborated
them, adding 5 other own .
⦿ In his psychoanalytical theory,
Freud explained a defense
mechanism is a tactic developed
by ego to protect against anxiety .
3. A defence
mechanism is the
act or technique of
The process is
4. ⦿ For example :- If you are faced with a
particularly unpleasant task our mind may
choose to forget your responsibility in order to
avoid the dreaded assignment . In addition to
forgetting, other defense mechanism include
rationalization, denial, repression, rejection etc .
⦿ In Freudian Psychoanalytical theory,
Defence Mechanism are psychological
strategies brought into play by the
unconscious mind to manipulate , deny or
distort reality in order to defend against
feelings of anxiety & unacceptable
impulses to maintain one’s self schema .
9. Is the substitution of a
safe & reasonable
explanation for the true
cause of behaviour .
It occurs when we tell an
element of truth but deny
the larger truth of the
Example:- a student who
cheats on a test may say :
“I only cheated on a few
question , i know most of
11. Ex:- a lady regressed into adolescent starts to walk
, talk or dress like as her younger self .
When a person is confronted to some loss may be
back journey to a stage which had been more
pleasant & successful in his lifetime .
12. 3)Sublimation :-
⦿ Satisfying an impulse ( Ex- aggression) with a
substitute object in a socially acceptable way .
⦿ This is similar to displacement but occurs when
we manage to displace our emotions into a
constructive rather than destructive manner .
⦿ Refocusing such unacceptable or harmful
impulses into productive use helps a person to
channel the energy that otherwise would be
lost or used in a manner might cause a person
more anxiety .
16. Denial involves blocking
external events from
awareness . If some
situation is too much to
handle , the person refuses
to experience it .
Most people use denial in
their everyday lives to avoid
dealing with painful feelings
or areas of their life they
don’t wish to admit .
17. 7) Identification mechanism:-
⦿ A focus on negative or feared traits i.e. if you are
afraid of someone , you can practically conquer
that fear by becoming more like them .
⦿ It can be identified as a mental mechanism
beyond conscious awareness through which an
individual tries to make himself like someone else
19. 8)Fantasy :-
Is a sort of
can provide an
frustration by giving
Fantasy is a
mechanism of wishful
thinking & important
for creative thinking
20. 9) Compensation:-
⦿ It is a process of psychologically
counterbalancing perceived weakness by
emphasizing strength in other areas .
⦿ It may be positive or negative .
⦿ Ex:- when a person says, “I may not know
how to cook but i can sure do the dishes”.
“A student who fails in his studies may
compensate by becoming the college
champion in athletics”
21. 10) Repression :-
⦿ This was the first defence mechanism that
Freud discovered & the most important one.
⦿ It is an unconscious mechanism employed by
the ego to keep disturbing or threatening
thoughts becoming conscious .
⦿ It is the withdrawal from consciousness of an
unwanted idea, affect or desire by pushing it
down or repressing it , into the unconscious
part of the mind .
⦿ It can be defined as Motivated Forgetting.
22. Example:- Forgetting: A loved one’s
birthday after a fight.
Repression is caused due to
forces active within ourselves .
We try to forget what makes us
feel inferior , ashamed , guilty &
23. 11) Reaction formation :-
Expressing emotions that are the exactly
opposite of what you feel.
⚫Conceal anger/hate with kindness.
⚫Teasing/bothering someone you like.
⦿ It is converting the dangerous or
unacceptable thoughts , feelings or impulses
into their opposites.
⦿ This is a point where a person goes beyond
denial & behaves in the opposite way to which
he or she thinks or feel .
⦿ It is also called Reversal Formation.
24. Example:- a woman , who is very angry with her boss and
want to quit instead may be overly kind and generous
towards her boss .
25. 12) Projection:-
⦿ Unconsciously (or consciously) blaming
someone else for one’s difficulties.
⦿ Projection occurs when an individual
threatened by his own angry feelings
accuses another of harbouring hostile
⦿ People deal with unacceptable impulses by
acting as if other people have them .
26. Example:- 1. Spouse cheats on wife and says that she is also
2. A surgeon whose patient does not respond as he
anticipated, may tend to blame the theatre nurse who
helped that surgeon at the time of operation.
27. 13)Negativism :-
⦿ Is a mechanism by which an individual
draws the attention of other persons . The
person develops strong and irrational
resistance in accepting the suggestions of
⦿ The foundation of this mechanism is laid
down in childhood . Most of the adults use
negativism in milder forms in special
situations . They don’t oppose but they do
resist suggestion given by other .
⦿ Defence mechanism helps to reduce the
anxiety & help an individual to adjust
better. But too much of everything is bad.
Same is true with defense mechanism.
Children should be guarded against too
much use of defense mechanism.
Because once they start using them it will
became a habit with them & later on they
will be using it unconsciously.