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Akash gidwani BSc-Interior Design (Lighting Project )

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Dezyne E'cole College Interior Design Student Work

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Akash gidwani BSc-Interior Design (Lighting Project )

  1. 1. Lighting Design COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL
  2. 2. Submitted To: Dezyne E’cole College, Ajmer www.dezyneecole.com Submitted By: Akash Gidwani B.Sc. ID –3rdSEM.
  3. 3. Lighting?
  4. 4. “LightingorIlluminationisthedeliberateapplicationoflighttoachievesomeaestheticsorpracticaleffect.Lightingincludesuseofbothartificiallightsourcessuchaslampsandnaturalilluminationofinteriorsfromdaylight.Indoorlightingisakeypartofinteriordesign. Lightingcanalsobeanintrinsiccomponentoflandscaping.”
  5. 5. Lighting Principles & Terms
  6. 6. Illumination Thedistributionoflightonahorizontalsurface. Thepurposeofalllightingistoproduceillumination. Orinotherwords,itistheluminousfluxperunitareaonaninterceptingsurfaceatanygivenpoint.
  7. 7. Lumen Ameasurementoflightemittedbyalamp.Asreference,a100-wattincandescentlampemitsabout1600lumens. We used to look for Now we look for
  8. 8. Footcandle Ameasurementoftheintensityofillumination.Afootcandleistheilluminationproducedbyonelumendistributedovera1-square-footarea. fordifferenttypesofworkingthevariedamountoffootcandlesofillumination.(canbeseenonnextpage).
  9. 9. Footcandle Activity Foot Candles Lux Hallways 5–7 55 –75 Entertaining 10-20 110 –215 Dining 10 –20 110 –215 Easy Reading 20 -50 215 –540 Bathroom 20 –50 215 –540 Kitchen–Basic Lighting 20 –50 215 –540 Kitchen–Food Preparation 50 –100 540 –1075 Difficultreading or writing 50 –100 540 –1075 General workshop lighting 50–100 540 –1075 Fine ordetailed work 100–200 1075 –2150
  10. 10. Lux It is the amount of illumination created by a light source of 1 candela which is one metre (1m) away from the surface. One LUX is equal to ONE LUMEN/ SQYARE metre. 1 Lux = 1 lumen / sq. m.
  11. 11. Efficacy Theratiooflightproducedtoenergyconsumed.It’smeasuredasthenumberoflumensproduceddividedbytherateofelectricityconsumption(lumensperwatt).
  12. 12. Colour TemperatureOutdoor / Indoor Definedasthetoneoflightorhowthelightlooksintermsofwhiteness. Higherthecolourtemperature=whiter/coolerthelightsource. Unitmeasurement=Kelvin(K)
  13. 13. Colour TemperatureOutdoor / Indoor Colourtemperatureisacharacteristicsofvisiblelight.Inpractice, colourtemperatureisonlymeaningfulforlightsourcesthatdoinfactcorrespondsomewhatcloselytotheradiationofsomeblackbody. ThecolourtemperatureoftheelectromagneticradiationemittedfromanidealblackbodyisdefinedasitssurfacetemperaturesinKELVINS. Colourtemperaturesover5,000Karecalledcoolcolours(blueishwhite),whilelowercolourtemperatures(2,700-3,000K)arecalledWarmcolours(yellowishwhitethroughred).
  14. 14. Colour Temperatures
  15. 15. CRI (Colour Rendering Index) Thecolourrenderingindex(CRI),sometimescalledcolourrenditionindex,isaquantitativemeasureoftheabilityofalightsourcetoreproducethecoloursofvariousobjectsfaithfullyincomparisonwithanidealornaturallightsource. ColourRendering:Effectofanilluminanceonthecolourappearanceofobjectsbyconsciousorsubconsciouswiththeircolourappearanceunderareferenceilluminant. Finishesshouldbeevaluatedunderthetypeoflamp(lampand/ordaylight)whichwillactuallybeusedininteriors. Colourrenditiondependsonlampcolourspectrum,reflectivepropertyofsurfacesandcontextandconditioninroom. Judgementofapparentsurfacecolourdependsalsoontheexperienceandexpectationsofanindividualwithnormalcolourvision.
  16. 16. CRI (Colour Rendering Index)
  17. 17. Glare Theexcessivebrightnessfromadirectlightsourcethatmakesitdifficulttoseewhatonewishestosee.Abrightobjectinfrontofadarkbackgroundusuallywillcauseglare. Brightlightsreflectingoffatelevisionorcomputerscreenorevenaprintedpageproductsglare.Intenselightsources– suchasbrightincandescentlamps–arelikelytoproducemoredirectglarethanlargefluorescentlamps.
  18. 18. Beam Angle of Lights
  19. 19. Types of Lighting
  20. 20. General Lighting
  21. 21. Task Lighting
  22. 22. Accent Lighting
  23. 23. Decorative Lighting
  24. 24. Kinetic Lighting
  25. 25. Luminaires
  26. 26. Lighting Fixtures LightFixtureisintegralpartofbuildingelectricalsystem,transformingenergyintousableillumination. Lightfixturerequires:electricalconnection(powersupply),lampholder,lamp(designtodiffuse,reflect, focuslight). Formoflightingfixture,lightingsource,lightillumination:pointsources,linearsources,planarsources,volumetricsources.
  27. 27. Lighting Luminaire An assembly used to house one or more light sources. Also called lighting fixture. 1.Luminaries 2.Light Lamp 3.Light socket 4.Light Switch
  28. 28. Classification of Luminaires Recessed Ceiling Mounted Track Mounted Wall Mounted Suspended Architectural Portable Pole mounted Bollard Uplights Downlights Floor washers Ceiling washers Wall washers Spotlights Louvered
  29. 29. Classification of Luminaires
  30. 30. Classification of Luminaires Pole Mounted Luminaire Wall Luminaire Track Mounted Luminaire Portable Luminaire Bollard Luminaire Suspended Luminaire Recessed Luminaire
  31. 31. Categories of Luminaires Direct:90 -100% downward. Semi direct: 60 –90% downward. General diffuse:40 –60% both downward and upward. Direct -Indirect:little light is emitted in the horizontal plane. Semi –Indirect:providing60 –90% of its output upward. Indirect: providing 90 –100% of its luminous output upward.
  32. 32. Point Light Source FocusonobjectorareaGreatBrightness,Contrast,Highlight,SparkleorRhythm.
  33. 33. Linear Light Source GiveDirection,OutlineShapes,EmphasizetheEdges.
  34. 34. Planar Light Source SurfaceRepeatedLinearDiffusedilluminationofarea.
  35. 35. Volumetric Light Source LightasVolumetricIlluminationExpandedthrough3-DimensionalFormsoflamps. DesignofLamp Lamp Holder connect to supply LightSource
  36. 36. Uplights
  37. 37. Downlights
  38. 38. Spotlights
  39. 39. Floor Washlights
  40. 40. Ceiling Washlights
  41. 41. Wall Washing
  42. 42. Wall Grazing
  43. 43. Artificial Light Sources Incandescent lamps Fluorescent Lamps High –Intensity Discharge Lamps Mercury Lamps Metal halide Lamps High Pressure Sodium Lamps Low Pressure Sodium Lamps Electrode less Lamps Compact arc xenon & Mercury Lamps Electroluminescent Lamps Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Carbon arc lamps Gaslights
  44. 44. Incandescent Lamp What is Incandescent Lamp? Hot wire –Filament sealed in a Glass Jar (Bulb). How it Works? ElectricCurrentpassthroughthewirenmakeitheatittoincandescence,andthewireemitslight.UseStandardVoltageCircuit.
  45. 45. Incandescent Lamp Incandescence? Insidetheglassisagassuchasargonand/ornitrogen.Atthecenterofthelampisatungstenfilament.Electricityheatsthisfilamentuptoabout2,500degreeCelsius.Justlikeanyhotmetal,thetungstengets“whitehot”atthatheatandemitsagreatdealofvisiblelightinaprocesscalledincandescence.
  46. 46. Incandescent Lamp Components of Incandescent Lamp 1.Glass Bulb (a) 2.Vacuum or Gas Filled (b) 3.Wire / Filament (c) 4.Lead -in Wires (d-e) 5.Support Wires (f) 6.Neck (g) 7.Electric Fuse (h-i-j) 8.Base (k) d j g e b c f k a h i
  47. 47. Incandescent Lamp Its Advantages: 1.Less Expensive 2.Easier to dim with Rheostats 3.Warmer colour than Fluorescent and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps 4.Light output is relatively high 5.Excellent colour rendering 6.Can be Dimmed Its Dis-advantages: 1.Energy Inefficient 2.Short lamp Life Time 3.Warm source
  48. 48. Incandescent Lamp Shape of Lamps: Around 100 combinations of Glass and Quartz bulb shapes and sizes. Symbols: 1stPart = One or more letters indicates the shape of bulb. 2ndPart = Number, indicates diameter of the bulb in eights of an inch Example: A19 = Arbitrary Shaped, 19/8 inch diameter.
  49. 49. Incandescent Lamp
  50. 50. Incandescent Lamp General Lighting Service (GLS) Parabolic Aluminum Reflector(PAR) Metal Reflector(MR)
  51. 51. Incandescent Lamp Base Identification: 1.Small Base: Bayonet, Bipin, Candelabra, Intermediate, Miniature, Mini- Candelabra, Twist-and-Lock, Two-Pin 2.Medium Base 3.Large Base: Mogul Screw, Mogul Bipost
  52. 52. Incandescent Lamp
  53. 53. Incandescent Lamp
  54. 54. Incandescent Lamp
  55. 55. Incandescent Lamp Lamp LifeTime: 1.Standard-Life Lamp: high temperature for the filament to operates, emits more light, shorter life time –“burns out”. 2.Long-Life Lamp: given wattage produces less light, designed for longer life. Lamp Efficiency = Light Produced (Lumens, lm) Electricity Consumed (Watts W) Light Output: Insert Gas (Argon, Nitrogen, Krypton) slows bulb bickering caused by condensation on the bulb wall.
  56. 56. Incandescent Lamp Bulbs are sold by Watts –Measure of Power Consumed. Lumen tells how much light lamp emits. Hours of Operation is produced life-time (750 –1000H, up to 2500H for extended service lamps). Energy Saving Lamps –Reduced wattage, Reduced light output.
  57. 57. Incandescent Lamp Types
  58. 58. Non Directional Non Directional (emits light in all directions –A, C, G, P, PS, S and T shapes, requires additional external elements for brightness, glare and distribution control)
  59. 59. Semi -Directional Semi Directional (silver bowl or white bowl lamps, coating on inner side of bulb, reduce filament glare)
  60. 60. Directional Directional (complete optical systems: source, reflector, lens or filament shield, R, AR, MR, PAR built-in beam control) R reflector lamp with soft glass bulb and ellipsoid reflector with moderate focusing power. PAR reflector lamp with pressed glass bulb and powerful parabolic reflector.
  61. 61. Directional
  62. 62. Tungsten -Halogen What is Tungsten -Halogen? Selected gas of Halogen Family. How it Works? Halogen gas combines with Tungsten molecules that sputter of the filament deposits Tungsten back on the Filament and Emits constant level of light.
  63. 63. Tungsten -Halogen HowHalogenbulbemitslight? AhalogenbulbhasafilamentmadeofTungsten, whichglowswhenelectricityisapplied,sameasregularincandescentbulb. Thehalogengasremovesthecarbondepositsontheinsideofthebulb,causedbytheburningofthetungstenfilament,andredeposititbackontothefilament,resultinginalightbulbwhichcanbeburnthigher.
  64. 64. Tungsten -Halogen HighOperatingTemperature(500C),HighColourTemperature. QuartzinsteadofGlass. Equippedwithouterbulb, GlassCover,MeshScreen.
  65. 65. Tungsten -Halogen ItsAdvantages: 1.Highcolourtemperaturemakethem“WHITER”thanStandardIncandescentlamps. 2.LongerLifetime 3.GreatEfficiency. 4.CompactinShapeandSize. TheycomeinmanyShapesandSizes,somedirectionalothersnot, somequitesmallothersthesizeofregularbulb,somefitintonormalsocketsotherrequirespecialsocketsandvoltagestowork.
  66. 66. Tungsten -Halogen Therearemanydifferenttypesof(singleended)THlamp,themostcommononesaretheG9capsulelamp,GU10spotlampandlinearhalogenlampswhicharealldomesticmainsvoltage,andG4capsulelamp,(integralreflector)MR16,MR11spotlampswhicharelowvoltagelamps. Linear G 4 G 6.35 GU 9 GU 10 MR 11
  67. 67. Tungsten -Halogen
  68. 68. Types of Tungsten -Halogen
  69. 69. Types of Tungsten -Halogen
  70. 70. Low-Voltage Lamps Low-VoltageLamps–incandescentandtungsten-halogenlampsthatoperatebetween6Vand75V. Standardbuildingcurrentof115V–125Vmustbesteppeddownbytheuseoftransformer. Low-Voltageluminaireswithintegratedtransformersarelargerinsizesandbulkier. Practicalsystemisline-voltageequipment.
  71. 71. Low-Voltage LampsLow Voltage Multifaceted Mirror Reflector(halogen lamp)
  72. 72. Low-Voltage LampsLow Voltage PAR 56(halogen lamp)
  73. 73. Coloured Light Bulbs(Coloured Ceramic Enamel)
  74. 74. Coloured Filters HUE (quality in red or green), SATURATION (strength or depth of colour) BRIGHTNESS (quantity of light)
  75. 75. Gelatine Filters (“Gels”) Thintransparentcolouredplasticsheetsinwidevarietyofcolours,aswellasmulti-colouredanddiffusedsheets. Shortservicelife–colourfadesrapidly.
  76. 76. Interference Filters One or more layers of ultrathin film coating on clear glass that reflects rather than absorb unwanted wavelength. They transmit one colour, and reflect the complementary colour.
  77. 77. Discharge Lamps WhatisdischargeLampcontains? Gas,phosphor,cathode,discharge. HowitWorks? Lightisproducedbypassageofanelectriccurrentthroughavapourorgas,ratherthanthroughatungstenwireasinincandescentlamp.
  78. 78. Fluorescent Lamp
  79. 79. Fluorescent Lamp Theclassicfluorescentlampdesign,whichhasfallenmostlybythewayside,usedaspecialstarterswitchmechanismtolightupthetube. Theconventionalstarterswitchisasmalldischargebulb,containingneonorsomeothergas.Thebulbhastwoelectrodespositionedrightnexttoeachother.Whenelectricityisinitiallypassedthroughthebypasscircuit,anelectricalarcjumpsbetweentheseelectrodestomakeaconnection.Thisarclightsthebulbinthesamewayalargerarclightsaflorescentbulb.
  80. 80. Fluorescent Lamp
  81. 81. Fluorescent Lamp Its Advantages: 1.Heat is relatively low. 2.Energy efficient. 3.Range from low grade to high grade. 4.Long lamp life. 5.Usually Cool source. 6.Control gears. Its Dis-advantages: 1.Colour temperature. 2.Require ballast: preheat, instant-start, rapid-start. 3.Requires controlling elements for glare control.
  82. 82. Fluorescent Lamp Types: 1.Cold Cathode 2.Hot Cathode Shape: 1.U-Bent Shape 2.CirculineShape 3.Compact Fluo-Lamps
  83. 83. Fluorescent Lamp (Shape)
  84. 84. Ballast/Driver Equipment required to control the starting and operating voltages of electrical gas discharge lights. Magnetic Ballast (Traditional) Electronic Ballast Integrated Ballast (CFL)
  85. 85. High Intensity Discharge Lamps(HID Lamps) Typeofelectricalgas-dischargelampwhichproduceslightbymeansofanelectricarebetweentungstenelectrodeshousedinsideatranslucentortransparentfusedquartzorfusedaluminaarctube. Thistubeisfilledwithbothgasesandmetalsalts.Thegasfacilitatesthearc’sinitialstrike.Oncethearcisstarted,itheatsandevaporatesthemetalslatsformingaplasma,whichgreatlyincreasestheintensityoflightproducedbythearcandreducesitspowerconsumption.Highintensitydischargelampsareatypeofarclamp.
  86. 86. High Intensity Discharge Lamps(HID Lamps)
  87. 87. HID Lamps (used in retail design)
  88. 88. HID Lamps (used in retail design)
  89. 89. HID Lamps (used in retail design)
  90. 90. HID Lamps (used in retail design)
  91. 91. High Intensity Discharge Lamps(HID Lamps) Whenenergyefficiencyand/orlightintensityaredesired.Theseareasincludegymnasiums,largepublicareaswarehouses,movietheatres,footballstadiums,outdooractivityareas,roadways, parkinglots,andpathways. Ultra-highPerformance(UHP)HIDlampsareusedinLCDorDLPprojectionTVsetsorprojectiondisplaysaswell.
  92. 92. Various Types of HID Lamps
  93. 93. Various Types of HID Lamps
  94. 94. LED & OLED Alight–emittingdiodeorLED,isasemiconductorlightsource.LEDsareusedasindicatorlampsinmanydevicesandareincreasinglyusedforotherlighting.Introducedasapracticalelectroniccomponentin1962,earlyLEDsemittedlow-intensityredlight,butmodernversionsareavailableacrossthevisible,ultravioletandinfraredwavelengths,withveryhighbrightness. White Light Therearetwoprimarywaysofproducinghighintensitywhite-lightusingLEDs. 1.OneistouseindividualLEDsthatemitthreeprimarycolours–red, green,andblue-andthenmixallthecolourstoformwhitelight. 2.TheotheristouseaphosphormaterialtoconvertmonochromaticlightfromablueorUVLEDtobroad-spectrumwhitelight,muchinthesamewayafluorescentlightbulbworks.
  95. 95. LED Light Redand Infrared LEDs are made with gallium arsenide. Bright Blue is made with Gan –gallium nitride. White LEDs are made with yttrium aluminium garnet There are also orange, green, blue, violet, purple, ultraviolet LEDs.
  96. 96. LED Light
  97. 97. Benefits of LED Lighting
  98. 98. Benefits of LED Lighting LEDlightsareusuallyaround3mm–8mmlong. ThesmallsizeandprofileoftheLEDlightsallowthemtobeusedwhereotherlightbulbsmaynotfit. Size 1
  99. 99. Benefits of LED Lighting
  100. 100. Benefits of LED Lighting Whereotherlightsgiveoffmoreenergybyshiningindifferentareas,LEDlightsonlyshineinaspecificdirectionbecomingmoreefficient. Efficiency 2
  101. 101. Benefits of LED Lighting 35,000to50.000hours,comparedto750to2,000hoursforanincandescentbulb,8,000to10,000hoursforacompactfluorescentand20,000to30,000hoursforalinearfluorescentbulb. Life 3
  102. 102. Benefits of LED Lighting LEDsremaincool.Inaddition,sincetheycontainnoglasscomponents,theyarenotvulnerabletovibrationorbreakagelikeconventionalbulbs.LEDsarethusbettersuitedforuseinareaslikesportsfacilitiesandhigh-crimelocations. Temperature 4
  103. 103. Benefits of LED Lighting
  104. 104. Benefits of LED Lighting LEDlightareavailableindifferentcolour.WecanenhancetheaestheticlookofourHouseandBuildingbyuseofthesecolourfulLEDs.Thesecanalsochangecolouraspertheaestheticsrequirements. Colourful 5
  105. 105. Benefits of LED Lighting LEDlightaregoodasperaccordingtothebeamangleasithasgreaterangleofspreadinglight.Itusesmaximumefficiencyandhencehasaupperhandoverotherlights. Wide Beam Angle 6
  106. 106. Benefits of LED Lighting
  107. 107. LED Lighting LEDsarejusttinylightbulbsthatfiteasilyintoanelectricalcircuit.Butunlikeordinaryincandescentbulbs, thedon’thaveafilamentsthatwillburnout,andtheydon’tgetespeciallyhot.Theyareilluminatedsolelybythemovementofelectronsinasemiconductormaterial,andtheylastjustaslongasastandardtransistor.ThelifespanofanLEDsurpassestheshortlifeofanincandescentbulbbythousandsofhours.
  108. 108. LED Reflectors
  109. 109. Uses of LED Lights
  110. 110. For Commercial Field
  111. 111. For Commercial Field
  112. 112. For Retail Field
  113. 113. For Retail Field
  114. 114. For Restaurants
  115. 115. For Restaurants
  116. 116. For Offices
  117. 117. For Residential Area
  118. 118. For Residential Area
  119. 119. For Automobile Field
  120. 120. LED Lights VS Other Lights
  121. 121. Comparison of LED Tubes with Fluorescent Tubes
  122. 122. Comparison of LED bulb with CFL bulb
  123. 123. Comparison of LED bulb with Incandescent bulb
  124. 124. Different Lamps
  125. 125. Lamps Halogen MR16 GU 5-3 Incandescent Stand. E27 Halogen OR111 G53 Halogen PAR E27
  126. 126. Lamps PLC compact fluorescent lamp CFL compact fluorescent lamp E27 Fluorescent CFL spiral E27 Fluorescent megamun liliput E27
  127. 127. Lamps Fluorescent TL T5 LED MR16 GU5-3 LED Tubular Lamp Fluorescent TL T8
  128. 128. Lamps LED Strip LED Flexi Light LED Strips (Plat) LED Strip
  129. 129. Lamps LED Linesta LED Tape
  130. 130. Fibre Optics
  131. 131. Fibre Optics
  132. 132. Cold Cathode
  133. 133. Thank you Any Questions?

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