Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Staircase of Complexity

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 128 Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Ähnlich wie Staircase of Complexity (20)

Anzeige

Staircase of Complexity

  1. 1. Selecting Complex Texts for the Common Core Standards Addressing the Staircase of Complexity Before we get started . . . Look through the books on the table and use a self- stick note to assign a grade level to each book.
  2. 2. Introductions On an index card write one thing you already know about complex texts and one thing you want to know. Introduce yourself to someone new by exchanging index cards. Then move on, with your new acquaintance’s card, and exchange cards once more. 2
  3. 3. By the end of today you should be able to . . . explain the importance of using complex text. define the term “complex text” and identify elements of text complexity. evaluate and select appropriate complex texts for your classroom. present complex texts to your students effectively. DEFINE EXPLAIN SELECT PRESENTEVALUATE
  4. 4. Today’s Schedule The Need for Complex Texts Defining a Complex Text Evaluating Text Complexity Selecting Appropriate Complex Texts LUNCH Presenting Complex Texts Creating a Meaningful Lesson Using a Complex Text (Work Time)
  5. 5. The Need for Complex Texts
  6. 6. Beyond the Rhetoric: Improving College Readiness Through Coherent State Policy (2010) http://www.highereducation.org/reports/college_readiness/gap.shtml College Remediation Rates for Students Attending Public Colleges and Universities
  7. 7. http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf A 2006 report from The Conference Board: “Are They Really Ready to Work?”
  8. 8. Student Achievement: An old worry with new data. Do the math: If 31.8 % of students met or exceeded the proficiency standards, how many did not meet the proficiency standards?
  9. 9. Instruction must match assessment.
  10. 10. What do we know about the Common Core Assessments?
  11. 11. Next year? This year. Last year.
  12. 12. •PARCC is a consortium of states committed to implementing the Common Core State Standards. •States in PARCC work collaboratively to develop computer-based K-12 assessments. •Governing states (including New York) have strongest commitment and most decision-making authority. •Governing states participate exclusively in PARCC.
  13. 13. How does PARCC assess the common core standards? Questions Worth Answering: Sequences of questions that draw students into deeper encounters with texts are the norm (as in an excellent classroom), rather than sets of random questions of varying quality. Texts Worth Reading: The assessments use authentic texts worthy of study instead of artificially produced or commissioned passages. Better Standards Demanding Better Questions: Instead of reusing existing items, PARCC is developing custom items to the Standards. Fidelity to the Standards: PARCC evidence statements are rooted in the language of the Standards so that expectations remain the same in both instructional and assessment settings. According to its website, the PARCC assessments feature the following:
  14. 14. a)Complexity: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language. b)Evidence: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text, literary and informational. c)Knowledge: Building knowledge through content- rich nonfiction. What Are Some of the Shifts at the Heart of PARCC’s Design (and the Standards)?
  15. 15. The CCSS Shifts Build Toward College and Career Readiness for All Students
  16. 16. a)PARCC builds a staircase of text complexity to ensure students are on track each year for college and career reading. b)PARCC rewards careful, close reading rather than racing through passages. c)PARCC systematically focuses on the words that matter most—not obscure vocabulary, but the academic language that pervades complex texts.
  17. 17. Turn and Talk: Are you concerned that teaching complex texts might be developmentally inappropriate? Why or why not? . . . A recent survey . . . shows that 85% of the public school pre-K to third grade teachers who responded believes that they’re being required to engage students in developmentally inappropriate activities. Vinton, V. Rethinking Readiness. Posted August 19, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://tomakeaprairie.wordpress.com/tag/complex-texts/http://www.blog.com
  18. 18. Defining a COMPLEX TEXT DEFINE
  19. 19. LIST, GROUP, LABEL: COMPLEX TEXT LIST all the words and phrases you can think of that are related to the term “complex text.” GROUP the words and phrases you listed according to category. LABEL each group of words and phrases with a clear, descriptive title.
  20. 20. Look over the categories you have created and the contents of those categories. Write a short definition of the term complex text. Complete the graphic organizer.and
  21. 21. Complex texts . . . “ . . .offer [students] new language, new knowledge, and new modes of thought.” Marilyn Jager Adams. “Advancing our Students’ Language and Literacy : The Challenge of Complex Texts.” American Educator. Winter 2011.
  22. 22. Text Complexity: “The inherent difficulty of reading and comprehending a text combined with consideration of reader and task variables; in the Standards, a three-part assessment of text difficulty that pairs qualitative and quantitative measures with reader-task considerations.” -- CCSS Appendix A
  23. 23. Discussing The Staircase of Complexity
  24. 24. Turn to a new partner and discuss: • How did this discussion change or confirm the ideas you shared during the last “Turn and Talk Time” exercise? • What new questions do you have?
  25. 25. How do we evaluate text complexity?
  26. 26. A formula or computer program can assess a texts for quantitative complexity. •average word length •average sentence length •frequency of “rare” words •frequency of words signaling relationships between ideas Some of the features that are considered for quantitative analysis:
  27. 27. Quantitative Analysis Tools • Flesch Reading Test • Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Formula • AR BookFinder (Accelerated Reader) • DRP (Degrees of Reading) • Pearson Reading Maturity • Cohmetrix • Lexile Text Analyzer
  28. 28. The Flesch Reading Test • Developed in the 1940s by Rudolph Flesch (1911-1986), author of Why Johnny Can’t Read (1955) The Flesch Reading Ease Readability Formula: RE = 206.835 – (1.015 x ASL) – (84.6 x ASW) • RE=Reading Ease • ASL = Average Sentence Length (number of words divided by number of sentences) • ASW = Average Number of Syllables per Word (i.e., the number of syllables divided by the number of words) The output, i.e., RE, is a number ranging from 0 to 100. The higher the number, the easier the text is to read. Scores between 90.0 and 100.0 are considered easily understandable by an average 5th grader. Scores between 60.0 and 70.0 are considered easily understood by 8th and 9th graders. Scores between 0.0 and 30.0 are considered easily understood by college graduates. Source: http://www.readabilityformulas.com/flesch-reading-ease-readability-formula.php
  29. 29. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level Formula • Flesch Readability Formula revised in 1970s with J. Peter Kincaid for U.S. Navy • Used to evaluate army manuals, insurance contracts, legal materials, school materials, etc. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Formula: • ASL = Average Sentence Length number of words divided by number of sentences) • ASW = Average Number of Syllables per Word (number of syllables divided by number of words) The output, indicates the approximate grade level for which the text is suited. Source: htthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flesch-Kincaid_readability_test
  30. 30. Does anybody really care?
  31. 31. AR B00kFinder
  32. 32. AR B00kFinder
  33. 33. AR B00kFinder
  34. 34. AR B00kFinder
  35. 35. AR B00kFinder
  36. 36. DRP
  37. 37. DRP
  38. 38. DRP
  39. 39. Pearson Reading Maturity
  40. 40. Pearson Reading Maturity
  41. 41. Coh-Metrix
  42. 42. Coh-Metrix
  43. 43. ETS TextEvaluator (Formerly known as SourceRater)
  44. 44. Lexile Text Analyzer http://www.lexile.com/tools/lexile-analyzer/lexile=analyzer-video-tutorial/
  45. 45. Lexile Text Analyzer
  46. 46. Lexile Text Analyzer
  47. 47. Scholastic Book Wizard
  48. 48. Scholastic Book Wizard Lexile
  49. 49. Updated Text Complexity Grade Bands http://www.corestandards.org/assets/E0813_Appendix_A_New_Research_on_Text_Complexity.pdf
  50. 50. Comparing Old and New Lexile Ranges for Grade Bands Source: Common Core State Standards, Appendix A (2010b), p. 8
  51. 51. Quantitative analysis can be misleading.
  52. 52. Areas of Difficulty for Quantitative Analysis •Poetry •Narratives with complex themes but simple language •Distinguishing between simple sentences and short sentences •Distinguishing between “rare” words and difficult words
  53. 53. Lexile Text Analyzer
  54. 54. •Choose a text and use two different quantitative analysis tools to find its level of complexity. (You may need to create an account first.) •Compare the results. •Discuss with a partner how the results fit with your own assessment of the text; explain any discrepancies. Online Quantitative Analysis Tools: AR Book Finder (http://www.arbookfind.com/) Reading Maturity Metric (http://www.readingmaturity.com/rmm-web/#/) Coh-Metrix (http://tool.cohmetrix.com/) Lexile Analyzer (http://www.lexile.com/analyzer/)
  55. 55. Rubrics and checklists assess texts for qualitative complexity. •Levels of meaning •Structure •Language conventions •Figurative language •Knowledge demands Some of the features that are considered for qualitative analysis:
  56. 56. © 2012 Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell © 2012 Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/pdfs/WhitePaperTextGrad.pdf
  57. 57. www.achievethecore.org 61 Features of Complex Text Subtle and/or frequent transitions Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Less common settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences, or paragraphs that review or synthesize material for the student Longer paragraphs Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures Passive voice
  58. 58. Knowledge Demands Technical background Historical context Textual knowledge Academic vocabulary Life experiences
  59. 59. Levels of Meaning Simple texts are straight-forward narratives or explanations. Complex texts can be read at a literal level and on another level -- allegorical, satirical, etc. Complex texts use symbolism and allusions to create rich layers of meaning.
  60. 60. Text Structure Fiction: Plot sequence Perspective Single or multiple story lines Dialogue Non Fiction: Text features “Signal Words” indicating structure Point of view
  61. 61. Language Conventions Vocabulary Syntax Use of “signal” words Dialect Style
  62. 62. Figurative Language Idioms Similes and Metaphors Personification Exaggeration Irony
  63. 63. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/E0813_Appendix_A_New_Research_on_Text_Complexit Qualitative Dimensions of Text Complexity
  64. 64. The Common Core State Standards: Supporting Districts and Teachers with Text Complexity Susan Pimentel, Co-Lead Author of Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Matt Copeland, Kris Shaw, and Jackie Lakin, Kansas Department of Education Whitney Whealdon, Louisiana Department of Education
  65. 65. Pimental et. al
  66. 66. Pimental et. al
  67. 67. http://www.starkcountyesc.org/Downloads/ELA%20Literary%20Complexity%20Analysis(4).pdf
  68. 68. http://www.starkcountyesc.org/Downloads/ELA%20Information%20Complexity%20Ana lysis-1(2).pdf
  69. 69. Use a rubric to assess the qualitative elements of the text you analyzed quantitatively. •Decide whether the qualitative and quantitative assessments result in similar or different decisions about grade levels. How? •Discuss your findings with a partner.
  70. 70. Reader and Task Considerations
  71. 71. Reader Considerations WHO are your students? Motivation: WHY are your students reading this text? Knowledge: WHAT do your students already know about this topic? Experience: HOW have your students gained their knowledge of the topic?
  72. 72. Reader Considerations: Ability http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/guidedreading/leveling_chart.htm
  73. 73. What is the purpose of the assigned task? In what way will the task help students meet the standards? How complex is the assignment? (Consider Bloom’s Taxonomy and/or Depth of Knowledge.) Task Considerations
  74. 74. Task Considerations http://programs.ccsso.org/projects/common%20core%20resources/documents/Reader%20and%20Task%20Considerations.pdf
  75. 75. Other Considerations When Selecting Complex Texts Genre Content Gender
  76. 76. Balance of Fiction/Nonfiction (By Grade) Recommended by the National Assessment of Educational Progress Percentage 50% 50% 55% 45% 70% 30% Fiction Nonfiction
  77. 77. Are All Nonfiction Texts Equal? IF students are reading nonfiction to Broaden background knowledge, Provide exposure to a variety of text structures, and Enrich Tier 2 and Tier 3 vocabulary THEN Consider using nonfiction texts OTHER than biographies and autobiographies. These genres typically follow a narrative structure similar to the structure of many fictional pieces, so they will not necessarily help students achieve goals stated above.
  78. 78. Choosing Informational Texts Expository text has five text structures–description, problem/solution, cause/effect, compare/contrast, and sequence–the last of which actually has two different types, procedural and chronological. . . [T]he CCSS specification of both procedural and chronological structures, actually gives us six, distinct text structures to teach. [S]ince biography and autobiography are generally presented in chronological order and chronology is only one of six informational text structures–that is, ⅙ of 50%–then narrative nonfiction should only represent one-twelfth of instructional texts. http://www.burkinsandyaris.com/do-the-math-three-reasons-biography-and-autobiography-should-be-minimized-in-your-informational-text- instruction-part-1
  79. 79. Reader Considerations: Finding Books for Boys • Plot-driven texts • Purpose-driven texts (informational rather than fictional) • Visually appealing (including graphic novels) • Humorous • Shorter texts • Reduce after-reading activities • Encourage social aspects of reading
  80. 80. 88 Finding Complex Texts For Your Classroom Ask a Colleague Ask a Librarian Ask a Bookseller Join an Online Discussion Check Bibliographies Subscribe to Related Publications Take a MOOC
  81. 81. • With a grade-level partner select a complex text to present to students. Questions to Consider: How does this text support your curriculum and the standards? In what ways is this a complex text? In what ways will this text challenge readers and prepare them for the next level? What scaffolding will students need? (Consider both the needs of struggling students and students on or above grade level.)
  82. 82. Putting it All Together: A Rubric
  83. 83. 91 Presenting Complex Texts in the Classroom
  84. 84. 92 Close Reading is one of many strategies needed to teach reading effectively.
  85. 85. 93 What IS Close Reading?
  86. 86. 94 1940 2013
  87. 87. 95 “Close reading is an instructional routine in which students critically examine a text, especially through repeated readings.” Fisher, Douglas, and Nancy Frey. "Close Reading in Elementary Schools." The Reading Teacher 66.3 (2012): 179. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://www.americanreading.com/documents/close-reading-in-elementary-schools.pdf>.
  88. 88. 96 Close reading has two main purposes: (1). . . examine the deep structures of a piece of text . . . [including] the way the text is organized, the preccision of its vocabulary to advance concepts, and its key details, arguments, and inferential meanings. (2) . . . Build the necessary habits of readers when they engage with a complex piece of text. These [habits] include building stamina and persistence when confronted by a reading that isn’t easily consumed . . . Fisher, Douglas, and Nancy Frey. "Close Reading in Elementary Schools." The Reading Teacher 66.3 (2012): 179. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://www.americanreading.com/documents/close-reading-in-elementary-schools.pdf
  89. 89. 97 Close Reading Jigsaw Group A: Read from “Short Passages” to “Limited Frontloading” Group B: Read from “Repeated Readings” to “Annotation” Group A: “Frontloading” (pp. 182-184) Group B: “Develop Text-Dependent Questions” (pp. 184-186) Group C: “Teaching Annotation” (pp. 186-187)
  90. 90. 98 What does close reading look like in an elementary classroom classroom?
  91. 91. 99 Have a silent conversation with the people at your table: On a sheet of paper, write down one thing you noticed that you would like to try, one thing you noticed that you wondered about, and one thing you noticed that troubles you. Pass your sheet of paper to the right and take the paper from the person on your left. Respond to that person’s comments. Continue passing papers, reading and responding to comments, until you get your own sheet back. Read over the conversation and make a final statement.
  92. 92. 100 What does close reading look like in a high school classroom classroom?
  93. 93. 101 Have a silent conversation with the people at your table: On a sheet of paper, write down one thing you noticed that you would like to try, one thing you noticed that you wondered about, and one thing you noticed that troubles you. Pass your sheet of paper to the right and take the paper from the person on your left. Respond to that person’s comments. Continue passing papers, reading and responding to comments, until you get your own sheet back. Read over the conversation and make a final statement.
  94. 94. 102
  95. 95. 103 http://www.engageny.org/sites/default/files/resource/attachments/common-core-shifts.pdf Choosing and Teaching Vocabulary
  96. 96. Choosing words Jose avoided playing the ukulele. Which word would you choose teach? Which word? www.isbe.net/common_core/pls/level2/ppt/vocab-instruction.pptx
  97. 97. avoided Why avoid?  Verbs are where the action is  Teach avoid, avoided, avoids  Likely to see it again in grade-level text  Likely to see it on assessments  We are going to start calling these useful words “Tier 2 words” Why not ukulele?  Rarely seen in print  Rarely used in stories or conversation or content-area information www.isbe.net/common_core/pls/level2/ppt/vocab-instruction.pptx
  98. 98. How do I determine that a word is TIER 2? Is this a generally useful word? Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning? Is the word useful in helping students understand text? If you answer “yes” to all three questions, it is a Tier 2 word. If not, it is probably a Tier 3 word. avoid Yes Yes: avoidance, avoiding, etc. Yes Tier 2 ukelele No No Yes Tier 3 www.isbe.net/common_core/pls/level2/ppt/vocab-instruction.pptx
  99. 99. 107 How do students develop Tier 2 vocabularies? Through context. Through explicit instruction. Through close reading.
  100. 100. 108 Vocabulary Jigsaw
  101. 101. 109 Try It Out: Tadpoles in Space: Exotic galaxies provide snapshots of the Milky Way
  102. 102. 110 Why read this text? • “Tadpoles in Space” is a short, complex nonfiction text on a topic related to 9th grade science curriculum (Earth Science, which includes astronomy). • Text demonstrates that astronomy is an evolving, not static, field that still has many questions to ask and answer. • Text demonstrates how real scientists work. • Text might motivate students to delve deeper into the topic. • Text uses interesting word choices, syntax, and figurative language.
  103. 103. 111 Group Reasons for Selecting Text CONTENT CRAFT Topic related to 9th grade science curriculum Rich vocabulary Demonstrates how scientists work Complex syntax Reveals that astronomy is an evolving, not static field, with many questions remaining Figurative language Might motivate students to learn more
  104. 104. 112 Analyzing “Tadpoles in Space,” by Ken Croswell Crosell, K. (2013, May). Tadpoles in space. Scientific American, 308(5), 19. Quantitative Analysis Qualitative Analysis
  105. 105. 113 Review 9/10 Standards (since topic matches 9th grade curriculum) STANDARD HOW TEXT SUPPORTS STANDARD TEACHING POINTS RI1 Analyze what text says explicitly as well as inferences Article explicitly describes research about evolution of galaxies; implicitly communicates that the field is changing What does the article say about tadpole galaxies? Explicitly Implicitlly RI2 Central idea (development) Discovery of data explaining evolution of galaxies Summarize the article and identify a central idea. Explain how this idea develops in the article. RI3 Explain how ideas interact and develop in text Descriptive; Chronological; cause/effect How does Croswell organize information? What text structures support his ideas? RI4 Meanings of words & phrases Galactic; luminous; component; spawn; scrutinized; abounds; forge; expel; pristine; intergalactic; altered; primordial; inferno; scenario; nasecent; harbor; celestial; terrestrial; primitive; ultimately Personification ([galaxies] grew so large both by swallowing lesser galaxies and by grabbing gas from space around them. Metaphor: [T]adpole galaxies sport bright heads, which spawn brilliant new stars, and long, faint tails . . . [T]hey are primitive creatures that are growing larger. RI5 Development of ideas in sentences, paragraphs, chapters, etc. Use of transition words – Thus .. . however . . .Yet . . . Study links RI6 Point of View ? Does Croswell have one? (Of course, but do we see it? Where?) RI7 Multi. Sources X N/A RI8 Analyze argument/reasoning ? Not really presenting an “argument” here . RI9 Seminal US texts (literary/historical significance) X N/A RI10 Increasing complexity 12th grade Lexile
  106. 106. 114
  107. 107. 115 Use Backward Design to ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned and focused on standards. 1. Choose one reading standard per lesson that students must master in order to make sense of this text. 2. What formative assessment can you use to measure student success? 3. What will students need to be able to do in order to complete the formative assessment successfully? 4. How can close reading help students access the text?
  108. 108. 116 Select most important standards supported by text: RI1 – First close read focuses on what information is in the text RI2 – Second close read focuses on how information links to support a central idea RI4 – Third close read focuses on how language supports text
  109. 109. 117
  110. 110. 118 Try It Out: A. INTRODUCING THE TEXT 1. Read the title and the subtitle of the article. a. With a partner share one question you have based on the title and subtitle and one idea you have based on the title, the subtitle, and the accompanying image. b. Share your ideas with a nearby partnership.
  111. 111. 119 Try It Out: B. STANDARD RI.1 –Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Read with a partner to find the “gist,” annotating new words or phrases and/or areas of confusion. 2. Whole class: Determine gist; note areas of difficulty; gloss necessary words. 3. Reread with a partner to answer the following questions: a. What are two pieces of information the text provides about tadpole galaxies? b. Why are scientists interested in tadpole galaxies? c. What do tadpole galaxies look like? d. How are tadpole galaxies similar to and different from spiral galaxies? e. How do scientists know this? f. How do scientists explain differences between tadpole and spiral galaxies? 4. Write a one-sentence summary of the article explaining what the article is mostly about. Notice that answering these questions is a relatively low-level task, requiring few demands of the reader other than persistence. The questions are very literal and answers are “right there” in the text
  112. 112. 120 Try It Out: C. STANDARD RI.2 –Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide and objective summary of the text. 1. What word does Ken Croswell first use to describe tadpole galaxies? What impact does this have on the text? 2. What is the relationship between the 3rd sentence in Paragraph 1 and the 2nd sentence in Paragraph 6? 3. What does Croswell suggest is important about tadpole galaxies? What evidence supports this? 4. Why does Croswell review the history of the discovery of tadpole galaxies? These questions are somewhat more demanding. As students become more familiar and comfortable with the text, the difficulty of the task can increase.
  113. 113. 121 Try It Out: D. STANDARD RI.4—Determine the words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). Focus on : galactic and intergalactic 1. Locate where these words are used in the text. 2. How are these words similar? How are they different? 3. What do you know about the suffix –ic? (What other words have this suffix and how are they used in sentences? 4. Given what you know about the –ic suffix, what type of words are galactic and intergalactic? 5. Return to the text. If Andromeda and the Milky Way are galaxies, what are their pees? Knowing this, and using what you know about word parts, what could galactic mean? 6. What do you know about the prefix inter--? (What other words have this prefix and what is similar about the meanings of these words?) 7. Given what you know about the prefix inter– and the meaning of the word galactic, what does intergalactic mean? 8. Complete a graphic organizer to explain the meaning of the word galactic.
  114. 114. 122 To prepare for a close reading . . . 1. Choose a short, complex text. 2. Limit pre-reading activities that limit actual reading time. 3. Plan for repeated readings with varied areas of focus. a. Teach annotating skills b. Prepare text-dependent questions
  115. 115. 123 Choose a short, complex text. Identify a worthwhile complex text that supports both the curriculum and the standards. Choose either a short, complete text OR an excerpt from a longer passage. Remember to consider quantitative and qualitative features as well as reader and task considerations.
  116. 116. 124 Limit pre-reading activities that limit actual reading time. Is background knowledge ABSOLUTELY essential to understand this text? Can students infer critical information from the text itself? Gloss only essential Tier 3 words or Tier 2 words that cannot be determined from context.
  117. 117. 125 Pose text-dependent questions that anticipate areas of difficulty and build comprehension. Pose questions that clarify basic comprehension. Flag vocabulary – Tier 2 and 3 words, words with multiple meanings, figurative language, etc. Design questions to help students handle text features that might hinder student comprehension, such as complex structures (e.g., flashbacks), dialogue, dialect, visual lay-outs, etc. Structure questions to focus students on central ideas in the text.
  118. 118. 126 Text: ______________________________________ Author: ___________________________________ • In what ways is this text complex? •How will this text enhance student learning? •What vocabulary might be difficult? Sort Tier 2 and Tier 3 words and circle words you would either gloss or teach through TDQs. •What text-dependent questions will help students understand the vocabulary? •What structural features might help students better comprehend the text? •What questions will focus students’ attention on these features? •What central ideas might students notice while reading? •What questions will focus students’ attention on these ideas? Ask . . .Don’t lead!
  119. 119. 127 DIY Complex Texts Choose a grade-appropriate complex text and design a lesson to introduce this text to your class.
  120. 120. 128 Share! Share your work with another group and explain how your text selection and instruction supports students as they read a complex text.
  121. 121. 129 Look at the grade levels you assigned to the books on the table at the beginning of the day. Use what you have learned today to explain why you would keep the original grade levels you assigned to the books or how you might change the assignments.
  122. 122. 130 Questions? Concerns? Comments? Let’s talk! Please complete a survey to provide constructive feedback.

×