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Logistique : Le transport dans le commerce

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Logistique : Le transport dans le commerce.

L'évolution du transport dans le commerce international.
Comparaison des différents moyens de transport internationaux.
L'utilisation des transports dans les échanges commerciaux.
Etudes de cas : Kiala, TNT Express, DPD, DHL, FNAC

Veröffentlicht in: Einzelhandel
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Logistique : Le transport dans le commerce

  1. 1. Logistique Appliquée Le transport dans le commerce
  2. 2. Sommaire  L’évolution du transport dans le commerce international  Comparaison des différents moyens de transports internationaux  L’utilisation des transports dans les échanges commerciaux  Etudes de cas  Conclusion
  3. 3. L’évolution du transport dans le commerce international
  4. 4. Un peu d’Histoire …  L’Homme a toujours voulu commercer avec ses voisins Créa des moyens de transport
  5. 5. Un peu d’Histoire …  Dès l’Antiquité Commerce indispensable Réseau routier des Romains
  6. 6. Un peu d’Histoire …  Au Moyen-Âge Route de la soie Commerce maritime Proche-Orient et la Chine  Renaissance Beaucoup de commerce maritime Découverte de l’Amérique  Avant le 19ème siècle Evolution du transport et du commerce Grâce aux développements des techniques de navigation
  7. 7. Un peu d’Histoire …  Au 19ème siècle Révolution industrielle Apparition de la machine à vapeur Apparition du chemin de fer Ouverture des pays Japon Australie Canada
  8. 8. Un peu d’Histoire …  Au 20ème siècle Moteur à explosion Voiture Apparition des transports aériens Standardisation par la containérisation  Fin du 20ème siècle Commerce des matières premières et du pétrole Dépendance économique des pays envers les autres
  9. 9. Importance du transport  Les évolutions ont mené à la mondialisation  Quel type de transport ? Question importante ! La marchandise doit arriver en bon état
  10. 10. Importance du transport  Lien physique entre entreprise et client  La marchandise  Secteurs essentiels  Logistique  Transport
  11. 11. Comparaison des différents moyens de transports internationaux
  12. 12. Transport maritime : Avantages Peu couteux Grande capacité de chargement Longues distances Peu polluant Inconvénients Délais longs Nécessite un deuxième transport
  13. 13. Transport aérien : Avantages Délais courts Capacité moyenne de chargement Longues distances Inconvénients Couteux Moyenne capacité de chargement Nécessite un deuxième transport
  14. 14. Transport ferroviaire : Avantages Bon rapport coût/rapidité Grande capacité de chargement Longues distances Délais courts Peu polluant Inconvénients Nécessite un deuxième transport
  15. 15. Transport routier : Avantages Coût raisonnable Ne nécessite pas de deuxième transport Door-to-door Inconvénients Capacité de chargement réduite Courtes distances Risque accrus de retard Polluant
  16. 16. L’utilisation des transports dans les échanges commerciaux
  17. 17. Evolution du transport de 2000 à 2009 en %  Transport de marchandises en Europe +/- 2200 milliards de tonnes-kilomètres en 2009  Plus des ¾ par la route  Augmentation du transport routier
  18. 18. Evolution du transport de 2000 à 2009 en %  Volume de fret intérieur pour le transport ferroviaire 4x inférieur au transport routier  Plus grandes quantités de marchandises Voie maritime Voie aérienne
  19. 19. Fret routier  Fret routier le + important : Luxembourg  Slovénie 2ème avec un rapport 2,2x moins
  20. 20. Fret routier  Principalement transport international  Pour les autres pays, le transport national prime
  21. 21. Fret aérien  14,2 millions de tonnes par les aéroports d’Europe en 2010
  22. 22. Fret aérien  Les aéroports allemands sont premiers avec 4,1 millions de tonnes
  23. 23. Fret aérien  Certains petits Etats membres se sont spécialisés  Benelux
  24. 24. Fret maritime  3445 millions de tonnes traités par les ports européens (2009)
  25. 25. Fret maritime  Royaume-Uni a traité 501 millions de tonnes
  26. 26. Fret maritime  Quantité importante transitant par différents pays  Pays-Bas  Belgique  Pays nordiques
  27. 27. Etudes de cas
  28. 28. Kiala  Une société européenne de logistique  Responsable du colis À partir du moment où celui-ci lui est remis Jusqu’à l’enlèvement du colis par le client  Via signature Sur le terminal Kiala Au point de réception Kiala
  29. 29. Kiala  Client passe sa commande auprès du vendeur  Vendeur réceptionne la commande  Envoi celle-ci au centre de tri  Commande est envoyée vers un relais  Le client vient chercher sa commande
  30. 30. TNT Express TNT Express est une des plus importantes entreprises de transport express à travers le monde
  31. 31. TNT Express 3 étapes  Ramassage  Acheminement  Livraison
  32. 32. DPD DPD est une entreprise postale européenne basée à Aschaffenburg et s'occupant de la livraison de paquets.
  33. 33. DPD Responsabilité de l’expéditeur et du destinataire Incoterms utilisés selon la destination DAP : Delivered At Place DDP : Delivered, Duty Paid
  34. 34. DHL  Une entreprise de livraison à travers le monde entier  Experts dans plusieurs domaines :  Entreposage, gestion des frais de douanes, analyses de chaine logistique  Transport de fret avec tous les moyens possibles  Transport intermodal  Mettre des remoques sur des trains  Faible coût du train + rapidité du camion  Large gamme de contrat  Gère à peu près tous les incoterms
  35. 35. FNAC  Chaine de magasin spécialisée dans les produits techonologiques et culturels  Frais de livraison gratuits  Sous conditions  Prend en charge le transport du colis  Offre les frais de retour  Equivaut à l’incoterm, DDP : Delivered Duty Paid
  36. 36. Conclusion
  37. 37. Conclusion  Logistique et transport Secteurs primordiaux  A chaque évolution Nouvelles perspectives  Choisir les moyens de transport Atouts Faiblesses
  38. 38. Conclusion  Les réseaux routiers sont fortement sollicités  Pollution  Promouvoir des moyens de transport:  Economique  Ecologique  Etudes de cas  Suivent souvent le même schéma pour livrer  Mais doivent gérer des problèmes distincts
  39. 39. Merci ;-)

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