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Trends in mbt holycross

Marine Biotechnology

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Trends in mbt holycross

  1. 1. CENTRE FOR MARINE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCENTRE FOR MARINE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RAJAKKAMANGALAMRAJAKKAMANGALAM MANONMANIAM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITYMANONMANIAM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY Dr. T. CitarasuDr. T. Citarasu Assistant ProfessorAssistant Professor Tele-fax: + 91-4652-253078Tele-fax: + 91-4652-253078 Mobile: +91-9994273822Mobile: +91-9994273822 Email:Email: citarasu@gmail.comcitarasu@gmail.com citarasu@msuniv.ac.incitarasu@msuniv.ac.in Website:Website: www.msuniv.ac.inwww.msuniv.ac.in
  2. 2. Our Institute……… BeachBeach M S UniversityM S University Fin fish FarmFin fish Farm CMSTCMST Planktonology DivisionPlanktonology DivisionMangrovesMangroves
  3. 3. Bird BiodiversityBird Biodiversity Photo Courtesy : Muthamil IniyanPhoto Courtesy : Muthamil Iniyan
  4. 4. My Lab……… Herbal Drug developmentHerbal Drug development Growth Promoters, Immunostimulants, Anti stress, Appetizers, Antibacterial & Antiviral Vaccine DevelopmentVaccine Development Inactivated WSSV Vaccine , WSSV Subunit Vaccine, Bio film & OMP Vaccine, Edible antibody & phage display Drug DiscoveryDrug Discovery Antibacterials, Antivirals, Anticancers and pharamacological important biosurfactants from Actinomycetes & Antagonistic microbes from higher saline regions
  5. 5. TRENDS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLGYTRENDS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLGY
  6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGYIMPORTANCE OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY Defined as “ Application of scientific & engineering principles to the processing of materials by marine biological agents to prove goods and services”. Ocean covers 70% of the earths’ surface & 80% of the organisms living in aquatic ecosystem Biochemical characteristics were identified
  7. 7. 7516.6 km7516.6 km News Courtesy :News Courtesy : Daily Thanthi 23.02.2014Daily Thanthi 23.02.2014 Strengthen our marine biotechnology research……..Strengthen our marine biotechnology research……..
  8. 8. Marine Biotechnology Explores………………Marine Biotechnology Explores……………… Novel Pharmaceutical drugsNovel Pharmaceutical drugs CosmeticsCosmetics EnzymesEnzymes Industrial ProductsIndustrial Products Bio fuelsBio fuels Processes & BioremediationsProcesses & Bioremediations Aquaculture & sea food safetyAquaculture & sea food safety GMOGMO
  9. 9. Untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which leads to theUntapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which leads to the development ofdevelopment of new functional foodsnew functional foods with vast diverse ofwith vast diverse of novelnovel chemicals.chemicals.
  10. 10. Processes and extraction techniques for Marine value added productsProcesses and extraction techniques for Marine value added products
  11. 11. Marine Bio prospectingMarine Bio prospecting Marine Pharmaceuticals & NutraceuticalsMarine Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals ExtremophilesExtremophiles Aquaculture BiotechnologyAquaculture Biotechnology Marine Environmental BiotechnologyMarine Environmental Biotechnology Algal BiotechnologyAlgal Biotechnology Marine GenomicsMarine Genomics The Lecture Focused on…………….The Lecture Focused on…………….
  12. 12. MARINE BIO PROSPECTINGMARINE BIO PROSPECTING
  13. 13. MARINE BIO PROSPECTINGMARINE BIO PROSPECTING Defined as “Searching for bio molecules from marine sources and the search for new and unique bioactive components with potential commercial applications” Also include bioprocessing, bio harvesting, bioremediation using bioreactors. Technical details of Bio prospecting & drug development includes…Technical details of Bio prospecting & drug development includes… Identification Screening Efficacy Safety testing Large scale commercial production
  14. 14. Secondary metabolitesSecondary metabolites Compounds that are produced after active growth has takenCompounds that are produced after active growth has taken place & which perform no vital function for the producingplace & which perform no vital function for the producing organismsorganisms Interesting array of diverse and novel chemical structures withInteresting array of diverse and novel chemical structures with High bioactivity potentialHigh bioactivity potential Heart of commercial venture & turn over isHeart of commercial venture & turn over is more than billionmore than billion 100 $ / yr100 $ / yr Non Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) & PolyketidesNon Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) & Polyketides (PKS)(PKS) Peptide secondary metabolites produced by bacteria,Peptide secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, Actinomycetes & FungiActinomycetes & Fungi NRPS / PKS system involved diverse of bimolecular secretionNRPS / PKS system involved diverse of bimolecular secretion Independent of mRNAIndependent of mRNA Broad biological activitiesBroad biological activities
  15. 15. Isolation of Marine organism for Bio ProspectingIsolation of Marine organism for Bio Prospecting Collection techniquesCollection techniques Traditional snorkel Scuba divingTraditional snorkel Scuba diving Self contained underwater breathing apparatusSelf contained underwater breathing apparatus Ship-based collectionShip-based collection benthic Organisms & sedimentsbenthic Organisms & sediments Sediment CorersSediment Corers Sediment sampling for microbesSediment sampling for microbes
  16. 16. Remotely operated Vehicles (ROVs)Remotely operated Vehicles (ROVs) Deepwater industries for hydrocarbon extractionDeepwater industries for hydrocarbon extraction Autonomous Under Water Vehicles (AUVs)Autonomous Under Water Vehicles (AUVs) A unmanned vessels going to deeper for longer & less costA unmanned vessels going to deeper for longer & less cost Submersible based CollectionsSubmersible based Collections Act as big vacuum suckersAct as big vacuum suckers Burrowing organisms in the benthic sedimentsBurrowing organisms in the benthic sediments
  17. 17. MARINE PHARMACOLOGYMARINE PHARMACOLOGY
  18. 18. Importance of Marine PharmacologyImportance of Marine Pharmacology A branch of pharmacology concerned with pharmacologically active substancesA branch of pharmacology concerned with pharmacologically active substances present in marine aquatic present in marine aquatic  flora and faunaflora and fauna; its objective is to find and develop; its objective is to find and develop new therapeutic agentsnew therapeutic agents.
  19. 19. Pharmacologically Important compoundsPharmacologically Important compounds Molluscan derived CompoundsMolluscan derived Compounds 1. Dolastin1. Dolastin (Sea slug)(Sea slug) Dolastin 10 &15Dolastin 10 &15 Dollabella auriculariaDollabella auricularia Anticancer activityAnticancer activity 2. Kahalaide F2. Kahalaide F Sea slugSea slug Elysia rufescensElysia rufescens Induce apoptosisInduce apoptosis 3. Spisulosine3. Spisulosine Arctic surf clamArctic surf clam Spisula polynymaSpisula polynyma Anti proliferative & Anti cancerAnti proliferative & Anti cancer 4. Cadalmin Green mussel extract4. Cadalmin Green mussel extract Perna viridisPerna viridis Arthritis; Anti-inflamatory Known wt of tissue + water orKnown wt of tissue + water or methanolmethanol Chop & homoginize/ sonicateChop & homoginize/ sonicate CentrifugeCentrifuge Collect supernatantCollect supernatant Further purification needFurther purification need AssayAssay
  20. 20. Sponge derived CompoundsSponge derived Compounds 1. Bengamides & Derivatives1. Bengamides & Derivatives Fijian Sponge JaspidaeFijian Sponge Jaspidae Antibiotic , anticancer &Antibiotic , anticancer & AntihelminticAntihelmintic 2. Contigna sterol2. Contigna sterol Petrosia contianataPetrosia contianata Curing AsthmaCuring Asthma 3.3. DBHDBH (Debromohymenialdisine) Stylotella aurantiumStylotella aurantium Antibiotic , anticancerAntibiotic , anticancer
  21. 21. Compounds from other AnimalsCompounds from other Animals Cnidarians derived CompoundsCnidarians derived Compounds 1. Pseudo pterosins1. Pseudo pterosins Pseudopterogorgia elisabethaePseudopterogorgia elisabethae Anti-inflamatoryAnti-inflamatory 2. Eleutherobin2. Eleutherobin OctocoralOctocoral Eleutherobia spEleutherobia sp Anti cancerAnti cancer Ascidians derived CompoundsAscidians derived Compounds 1. Apilidine1. Apilidine Mediterranian tunicateMediterranian tunicate Aplidium albicansAplidium albicans anticanceranticancer 4. Ectein ascidin 7434. Ectein ascidin 743 Ecteinascidia turbinateEcteinascidia turbinate Anti cancerAnti cancer
  22. 22. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) Crystal jelly fishCrystal jelly fish Aequorea victoriaAequorea victoria 238 amino acid (26.9 kDa)238 amino acid (26.9 kDa) Molecular biology- Reporter geneMolecular biology- Reporter gene expressionexpression BiosensorsBiosensors Clone in viral vectorClone in viral vector protein localization in living organisms Bacteria, Yeast and other Fungi, fish plant, fly, and mammalian cells etc
  23. 23. Krill Oil and EnzymeKrill Oil and Enzyme ((Euphausia superba)) Tiny shrimp @ Whale foodTiny shrimp @ Whale food Omega 3s, especially EPA and DHAOmega 3s, especially EPA and DHA Heart disease, reduce high cholesterol, highHeart disease, reduce high cholesterol, high blood pressure, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis,blood pressure, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis, depressiondepression
  24. 24. Marine NutraceuticalsMarine Nutraceuticals Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoicOmega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoicacid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)acid (DHA) Safety and potential nutritional andSafety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects.therapeutic effects. Heart health, Liver tonic, antioxidant &Heart health, Liver tonic, antioxidant & cure cancerscure cancers Good for health, Good for EyeGood for health, Good for Eye Anti stressAnti stress Rich VitaminsRich Vitamins Fish Oil (Cod Liver oil)Fish Oil (Cod Liver oil) Fresh Livers without Gall bladderFresh Livers without Gall bladder and veinsand veins Wash & ChopWash & Chop Steam cooking (70° C – 20 min)Steam cooking (70° C – 20 min) Remove the floating oilRemove the floating oil Filter & CentrifugeFilter & Centrifuge Keep overnight with NaSoKeep overnight with NaSo44 Filter & storeFilter & store Thermal rupture to release oilsThermal rupture to release oils
  25. 25. Shark Fin Cartilages and RaysShark Fin Cartilages and Rays Caudal, Dorsal & pectoral finsCaudal, Dorsal & pectoral fins Known wt of dried finsKnown wt of dried fins WashWash cooking with acidified watercooking with acidified water until hydrolyze to gelatinuntil hydrolyze to gelatin Remove adhering muscleRemove adhering muscle Dry in artificial dryerDry in artificial dryer Grade and packGrade and pack Shark Fin soupShark Fin soup Boost sexual potencyBoost sexual potency Enhance skin qualityEnhance skin quality Prevent heart disease, lowerPrevent heart disease, lower cholesterolcholesterol Beneficial to lung & kidneyBeneficial to lung & kidney Shark Bone cartilageShark Bone cartilage Prevent variety of illnessPrevent variety of illness AngiogenesisAngiogenesis Prevent CancerPrevent Cancer
  26. 26. Fish GelatinFish Gelatin Epinephelus sp, Rastrelliger sp etc Elasticity, consistency & stability ofElasticity, consistency & stability of the productsthe products Acid extractionAcid extraction Washed skin soaked with 0.2 %Washed skin soaked with 0.2 % NaOHNaOH WashWash 0.2 % H0.2 % H22SoSo44 + 1% citric acid+ 1% citric acid Coldwater washColdwater wash DHDH22o incubation @ 45° C-18hro incubation @ 45° C-18hr FilterFilter DryDry
  27. 27. Fish BoneFish Bone 60-70 % of inorganic substances & rich in60-70 % of inorganic substances & rich in calciumcalcium Essential elements for human healthEssential elements for human health Solve the problems related to boneSolve the problems related to bone CollagenCollagen Structural protein in connective tissueStructural protein in connective tissue Cosmetic, biomedical, pharmaceutical,Cosmetic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, leather and film industriesleather and film industries Alkaline and acid extractionAlkaline and acid extraction Fish Bone and CollagenFish Bone and Collagen
  28. 28. Chitin, Chitoson & OilgomersChitin, Chitoson & Oilgomers Shell waste with biomedicalShell waste with biomedical applicationsapplications Chitin a high molecular wt polymerChitin a high molecular wt polymer N-acetyl-D-glucosamineN-acetyl-D-glucosamine Chitoson-heteropolymerChitoson-heteropolymer Reducing LDLReducing LDL Antioxidants & anticancerAntioxidants & anticancer ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants Shell wasteShell waste WashWash deprotenize- 3 % NaoHdeprotenize- 3 % NaoH Alkali removal by water washAlkali removal by water wash Demineralization-1.25 N HclDemineralization-1.25 N Hcl WashWash Dry and packageDry and package
  29. 29. AlginateAlginate polyuronic saccharaidepolyuronic saccharaide Laminaria and FucusLaminaria and Fucus D- mannuronic and L-galuronic acidD- mannuronic and L-galuronic acid Emulsifier in food industriesEmulsifier in food industries Sargassum & Gracilaria spSargassum & Gracilaria sp Fresh seaweed washed & DriedFresh seaweed washed & Dried Pulverize to get powderPulverize to get powder Treat with 1N HCl (pH 2-3)-ONTreat with 1N HCl (pH 2-3)-ON Wash with water & add NaWash with water & add Na22CoCo33 Filter & bleach with 2.5 % NaCloFilter & bleach with 2.5 % NaClo Evaporate @ 60° CEvaporate @ 60° C Pure sodium alginatePure sodium alginate
  30. 30. CarotenoidsCarotenoids Solvent ExtractionSolvent Extraction AstaxanthinAstaxanthin Isolated from Micro algaeIsolated from Micro algae Powerful antioxidants in aquaculturePowerful antioxidants in aquaculture FucoxanthinFucoxanthin Brown carotenoids in certain sea weedsBrown carotenoids in certain sea weeds Promote DHA & omega-3 fatty acidsPromote DHA & omega-3 fatty acids Beta carotenoidBeta carotenoid Found in many algaeFound in many algae Colored carotenoidsColored carotenoids Antioxidants & anticancerAntioxidants & anticancer ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants
  31. 31. CarrageenanCarrageenan Isolated from sea weedsIsolated from sea weeds Sulfated polysaccharidesSulfated polysaccharides Powerful antioxidantsPowerful antioxidants Broad range of applications inBroad range of applications in food and cosmeticsfood and cosmetics
  32. 32. Fucoidon (Fucoidon (Foo–Koy–Den)) Sulfonated polysaccharidesSulfonated polysaccharides Antioxidants & immunostimulantsAntioxidants & immunostimulants Brown sea weedsBrown sea weeds Blood purifierBlood purifier Reduced CholesterolReduced Cholesterol Fight off viral infectionsFight off viral infections Scavenge free radicalsScavenge free radicals Liver tonicLiver tonic AnticancerAnticancer
  33. 33. Marine Environmental BiotechnologyMarine Environmental Biotechnology
  34. 34. Problems in Marine Aquatic EnvironmentProblems in Marine Aquatic Environment Various sources- sediments, nutrients, pesticides, sewage, heavyVarious sources- sediments, nutrients, pesticides, sewage, heavy metals, effluents……………………metals, effluents…………………… Affect the marine sediments, biodiversity, marine normal microAffect the marine sediments, biodiversity, marine normal micro flora etc.flora etc. Marine fisheriesMarine fisheries Ecosystem damageEcosystem damage
  35. 35. Sources of Environmental PollutionSources of Environmental Pollution Microbial ContaminationMicrobial Contamination Bacteria and VirusesBacteria and Viruses Seafood contamination (Process industry + shrimp farming)Seafood contamination (Process industry + shrimp farming) Improper methods of handlingImproper methods of handling Affect consumer levelsAffect consumer levels
  36. 36. Industrial EffluentsIndustrial Effluents Sewage contaminations from recreationalSewage contaminations from recreational beachesbeaches Fertilizer runoffFertilizer runoff Shrimp farm effluentsShrimp farm effluents Other industries (leather, coconut retting)Other industries (leather, coconut retting)
  37. 37. Koovam River @ 50 years backKoovam River @ 50 years back
  38. 38. Impact of polythene bags & plasticsImpact of polythene bags & plastics 100 type of birds100 type of birds 31 types of sea mamals31 types of sea mamals FishesFishes microplasticsmicroplastics Release Bisphenol, phathalate & gasesRelease Bisphenol, phathalate & gases Cause cancer, heart failuresCause cancer, heart failures Need coastal clean-upNeed coastal clean-up ICC (International Coastal Clean-up )ICC (International Coastal Clean-up ) 2,800 peoples2,800 peoples 124 tones124 tones 122 miles122 miles
  39. 39. Harmful algal blooms (HABs)Harmful algal blooms (HABs) Toxin producing dinoflagellatesToxin producing dinoflagellates Red tideRed tide Sea and Fish culture EnvironmentSea and Fish culture Environment Shrimp farm effluents (Algal bloom die off, large amount of deadShrimp farm effluents (Algal bloom die off, large amount of dead organic load accumulate)organic load accumulate) Affect filter feeding animals, shrimps, lobstersAffect filter feeding animals, shrimps, lobsters
  40. 40. Oil pollutionOil pollution Petroleum Hydrocarbons by oil spillsPetroleum Hydrocarbons by oil spills From shipsFrom ships Endocrine disturbersEndocrine disturbers Aquatic birdsAquatic birds
  41. 41. Marine BiofoulingMarine Biofouling Undesirable growth of marine organisms on immersed artificialUndesirable growth of marine organisms on immersed artificial structuresstructures Affect theAffect the speed & balance of shipspeed & balance of ship IncreasedIncreased fuelfuel andand maintenance costmaintenance cost Corrosion andCorrosion and mechanical failuremechanical failure SeawaterSeawater blockageblockage in pipesin pipes
  42. 42. Role of Marine Biotechnology on Environmental PollutionRole of Marine Biotechnology on Environmental Pollution BioremediationBioremediation ““The act of adding materials to contaminated environments such as oil spillThe act of adding materials to contaminated environments such as oil spill sites, to cause an acceleration of the natural biodegradation process”.sites, to cause an acceleration of the natural biodegradation process”. PrinciplesPrinciples Growth improvements of microbes byGrowth improvements of microbes by optimal nutrients/ oxygenoptimal nutrients/ oxygen Reduce or neutralizeReduce or neutralize the pollutantsthe pollutants Pycoremediation, Mycoremediation, complex strategiesPycoremediation, Mycoremediation, complex strategies
  43. 43. Important featuresImportant features Extremophilc bacteriaExtremophilc bacteria with stand high temperature, pH & salinitywith stand high temperature, pH & salinity Less expensive &Less expensive & Eco-friendlyEco-friendly Genetically modified organism such as super bugGenetically modified organism such as super bug Oil recoveryOil recovery MEORMEOR (Minimal disruption in sites)(Minimal disruption in sites) RemoveRemove toxic elementstoxic elements
  44. 44. AntifoulingAntifouling Anti-fouling paint or bottom paint is a specialized coating applied to the hull of a ship or boat in order to slow the growth of organisms that attach to the hull and can affect a vessel's performance and durability. Silicone, Silicone epoxySilicone, Silicone epoxy SiloxaneSiloxane PolysiloxanePolysiloxane WaxWax FeaturesFeatures Inhibitors ofInhibitors of quorum sensing-quorum sensing- spongesponge Luffariella variabilisLuffariella variabilis Neurotransmission blockersNeurotransmission blockers -2,5,6-tribromo-1-methtyl gramine- bryozoan-2,5,6-tribromo-1-methtyl gramine- bryozoan Inhibitors of adhesiveInhibitors of adhesive production/release- Inhibit the adhesion of musselsproduction/release- Inhibit the adhesion of mussels Enzyme inhibitorsEnzyme inhibitors Ion channel inhibitors-Ion channel inhibitors- Mediterranean spongeMediterranean sponge Crambe crambeCrambe crambe inhibits theinhibits the settlement of bryozoanssettlement of bryozoans
  45. 45. Effluent Treatment by ProbioticsEffluent Treatment by Probiotics Probiotics have been defined as “live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microflora balance” Gut & Water ProbioticsGut & Water Probiotics Competition exclusive principleCompetition exclusive principle Used inUsed in Shrimp farms and polluted areasShrimp farms and polluted areas Improved strains of ProbioticsImproved strains of Probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spLactobacillus and Bifidobacterium sp
  46. 46. Effluent Treatment by MicroalgaeEffluent Treatment by Microalgae Removal of nutrientsRemoval of nutrients RemovalRemoval excess nutrients and Coexcess nutrients and Co22 inin waste water systemswaste water systems SolveSolve BODBOD problemsproblems Excess algal biomass mayExcess algal biomass may harvestedharvested Removal of organic pollutantsRemoval of organic pollutants Chlorella, ankistrodesmus in paper millsChlorella, ankistrodesmus in paper mills & olive oil mills& olive oil mills Algae canAlgae can produce Oproduce O22 to bacteria andto bacteria and bacteriabacteria degradedegrade the nutrientsthe nutrients Removal of Heavy metalsRemoval of Heavy metals Sargassum sp special affinity toSargassum sp special affinity to heavyheavy metalsmetals Waste water systemsWaste water systems
  47. 47. ExtremophilesExtremophiles
  48. 48. Microbial communities which canMicrobial communities which can grow at extremegrow at extreme environmentsenvironments called extremophiles.called extremophiles. Some are subject toSome are subject to grow multiple stressgrow multiple stress conditionsconditions Great economic value withGreat economic value with biotechnologicalbiotechnological applicationsapplications ExtremophilesExtremophiles
  49. 49. Types of ExtremophilesTypes of Extremophiles PsychrophilesPsychrophiles --15 °C or lower for extended periods15 °C or lower for extended periods cold soils, permafrost, polar ice, cold ocean water etccold soils, permafrost, polar ice, cold ocean water etc Polaromonas vacuolataPolaromonas vacuolata ThermophilesThermophiles Heat- loving microbes 115Heat- loving microbes 115o CC Deep sea vent.Deep sea vent. Methanopyrus kandleriMethanopyrus kandleri HyperthermophileHyperthermophile temperatures between 80–122 °C.temperatures between 80–122 °C. Thermo acidophileThermo acidophile Combination of thermophile and acidophile that preferCombination of thermophile and acidophile that prefer temperatures oftemperatures of 70–80 °C and pH between 2 and 370–80 °C and pH between 2 and 3
  50. 50. AcidiphilesAcidiphiles sulfuric spring; Sulfolobus acidocaldarius An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 3 or below AlkaliphileAlkaliphile Source: Soda lake Eg: Natronobacterium gregoryi An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 9 or above
  51. 51. HalophilesHalophiles –– Salt loving microbesSalt loving microbes Source: Salt lake Eg. Haloferax volcanii An organism requiring at least 0.2 M concentrations of salt (NaCl) for growth Solar salt works diverse of halophilic bacteria and Actinomycetes
  52. 52. ApplicationsApplications Molecular BiologyMolecular Biology Taq DNA Polymerase- Thermus aquaticus Thermostable restriction enzymes–Pyrococcus sp Alkaline phosphatases (psychrophiles) DNA and protein stabilizersDNA and protein stabilizers Compatible Solutes di-myo-inositol-phosphate, di-mannosyl-di-myo- inositol-phosphate, di-glycerol-phosphate, mannosylglycerate and mannosylglyceramide-
  53. 53. Agro & Food IndustryAgro & Food Industry ThermophilicThermophilic amylases and cellulasesamylases and cellulases:: Bakery, glucoseBakery, glucose and fructose productionand fructose production Dietary supplements,Dietary supplements, pigments -α-Linoleic acid, β-pigments -α-Linoleic acid, β- carotenecarotene and other pigments from halophilesand other pigments from halophiles Freezing protection :Freezing protection : Antifreeze proteinsAntifreeze proteins fromfrom psychrophilespsychrophiles
  54. 54. Pharmacological IndustryPharmacological Industry Biosurfactants:Biosurfactants:Glycolipids, lipopeptides,Glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, polymeric surfactants &fatty acids, polymeric surfactants & particulate naturesparticulate natures Bacteriocin:Bacteriocin: Ptoteinaceous nature hadPtoteinaceous nature had antibiotic activityantibiotic activity Liposomes:Liposomes: phospholipids for vaccinephospholipids for vaccine deliverydelivery Polyhydroxybutyrate:Polyhydroxybutyrate: BioplasticBioplastic
  55. 55. Aquaculture BiotechnologyAquaculture Biotechnology நீரவாழவியல் உயிரொதாழிலநடபவியல்நீரவாழவியல் உயிரொதாழிலநடபவியல்
  56. 56. IMPORTANCE OF AQUACULTUREIMPORTANCE OF AQUACULTURE Lucrative food production industry Fresh, brackish & Marine based culture 10 % annual growth rate Global sea food demand-70% in the next 35 years (7 fold) Capture and culture fisheries
  57. 57. Rearing/culture and management of aquatic organismsRearing/culture and management of aquatic organisms FishesFishes ShrimpsShrimps SeaweedsSeaweeds MicroalgaeMicroalgae Live feedsLive feeds CrabsCrabs Sea cucumbersSea cucumbers OystersOysters MusselsMussels
  58. 58. Shrimp FarmingShrimp Farming Asia is the largest producer- 80 %Asia is the largest producer- 80 % India is the second place of Asia &India is the second place of Asia & fifth place in globallyfifth place in globally >350 shrimp hatcheries 13 billion seed>350 shrimp hatcheries 13 billion seed production/ annumproduction/ annum Top 5 Countries M. M tones China 34.43 India 3.13 Vietnam 1.65 Thailand 1.39 Indonesia 1.30 Aquaculture production (FAO, 2009)
  59. 59. Current problems in shrimp/ Fish productionCurrent problems in shrimp/ Fish production Culture methods • Extensive: 0-5 m3 • Moderate extensive : 5-15 m3 • Semi intensive : 15-30 m3 • Intensive : 30-60 m3 • Super Intensive : > 60 m3 Significant economic losses Bacterial diseases - Vibriosis Viral diseases – WSSV; MBV Stress Induced diseases
  60. 60. CURRENT PROBLEMS IN DISEASE CONTROLCURRENT PROBLEMS IN DISEASE CONTROL Current disease treatmentCurrent disease treatment protocols – difficultprotocols – difficult Chemicals & Synthetic drugsChemicals & Synthetic drugs Antibiotics & other chemicalsAntibiotics & other chemicals MPEDA abandoned more thanMPEDA abandoned more than 10 antibiotics10 antibiotics
  61. 61. Chloramphenicol Metronidazole Nitrofurans  Ronidazole Neomycin Ipronidazole Nalidixic acid nitroimidazoles Sulphamethoxazole Clenbuterol Chlorpromazine Diethylstilbestrol  Colchicine  Sulonamide  Dapsone Floroquinolones Dimetridazole Glycopeptides Banned Antibiotics (MPEDA)Banned Antibiotics (MPEDA)
  62. 62. Herbal MedicinesHerbal Medicines Storehouses of safer & cheaper compounds Low cost, effective, no side effects & biodegradable Various activities such as growth promotion, immunostimulants, anti stress, appetizing, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal etc. EcliptineEcliptine Tinosporone Ocemine Aegilin
  63. 63. AntibacterialsAntibacterials Piper longumPiper longumMurraya koenijiMurraya koeniji QuercusQuercus infectoriainfectoria PsoraleaPsoralea corylifoliacorylifolia Beta Ocemine Quercucin Psoralin Piperine AntiviralAntiviral Effectively controlled WSSV at earlier stage of infection Inhibit viral replication Effective against other shrimp virus such as MBV and YHV Phyllanthus niruri Leucus aspara Ocimum basilicum Psidium guajava Phenol, 2,5- bisPhenol, 2,5- bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)(1,1-dimethylethyl)
  64. 64. Algal Drugs- Antiviral & Immunostimulants SeaweedsSeaweeds Broad spectrum of activities antiviral, anthelmintic, antifungal and antibacterial Brominated, aromatics, sterols, dibutanoids, proteins, peptides, sulphated polysaccharides, terpenoids, phlorotannins, acrylic acid, phenolic compounds and steroids. CarrageenanCarrageenan Powerful antioxidantsPowerful antioxidants AlginateAlginate polysaccharaidepolysaccharaide Laminaria and FucusLaminaria and Fucus FucoidonFucoidon Powerful antiviral against WSSVPowerful antiviral against WSSV 2-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-1-2-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-1- phenylethanolphenylethanol
  65. 65. ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants Chitin, Chitoson & OilgomersChitin, Chitoson & Oilgomers Shell wasteShell waste FucoidonFucoidon Sulfated polysaccharides –SeaweedsSulfated polysaccharides –Seaweeds GlucansGlucans YeastYeast LactoferinLactoferin MilkMilk Lipopolysaccharides Bacterial Cell wallBacterial Cell wall HerbalsHerbals W. somniferaW. somnifera,, A. calamos, T. cordifoliaA. calamos, T. cordifolia
  66. 66. First Generation of vaccine Live, attenuated and killed forms killer Cellular immune responses Second Generation of vaccine Subunit vaccines T Helper cells immunity Third Generation of vaccine DNA vaccines Humoral & cellular immunity Strong & long lasting Vaccines in AquacultureVaccines in Aquaculture
  67. 67. DNA VaccineDNA Vaccine Immunization with a circular piece of DNA that code for an antigen Plasmids consist of strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation When injected into an individual, the plasmid is taken up by the host cells and its genetic information is translated into the immunizing protein. Multicistronic vectors are sometimes constructed to express more than one immunogen, or to express an immunogen and an immunostimulatory protein.
  68. 68. Recombinant plasmids enter to the host cell Gene of interest is transcribed by the RNA polymerase II & synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) Translated into the corresponding protein in the cytoplasm of the host cells T- Cell as well as B-Cell immunity will developed & produced antibody against the proteins When pathogen (antigen) enters to the host cell, the T-Cells as well as B cells recognize and killed. How DNA vaccine plasmids Stimulate immune responses?
  69. 69. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF)Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Development of SPF doubling the production inDevelopment of SPF doubling the production in LitopenaeusLitopenaeus vannameivannamei in US aqua industry during 1990sin US aqua industry during 1990s They cross bread between two traitsThey cross bread between two traits CPF and Oceana Institute develop the SPF by cross bread theCPF and Oceana Institute develop the SPF by cross bread the better characters such asbetter characters such as salinity, low DO, pH and diseasesalinity, low DO, pH and disease tolerance traitstolerance traits and analyze the characters at 30 generation andand analyze the characters at 30 generation and commercializationcommercialization
  70. 70. TRANSGENIC FISH/ GENE TRANSFER TECHNOLOGYTRANSGENIC FISH/ GENE TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY  Artificial transfer of rearranged genes into newly fertilized eggs  Carry genes from other species  Change their characters
  71. 71. Need for Transgenic fishNeed for Transgenic fish Growth enhancementGrowth enhancement Adaptation for environmentsAdaptation for environments Increase disease resistanceIncrease disease resistance Sexual maturationSexual maturation Enhance nutritional qualityEnhance nutritional quality Improve food utilizationImprove food utilization
  72. 72. .. TRANSGENESIS AND TRANSGENICTRANSGENESIS AND TRANSGENIC PROTOCOLSPROTOCOLS Introducing an exogenous gene – calledIntroducing an exogenous gene – called a transgene – into a living organism so thata transgene – into a living organism so that the organism will exhibit athe organism will exhibit a new property andnew property and transmit that property to its offspring.transmit that property to its offspring. Transgenesis can be facilitated byTransgenesis can be facilitated by 1.1.LiposomesLiposomes 2.2.plasmid vectorsplasmid vectors 3.3.viral vectorsviral vectors 4.4.pronuclear injectionpronuclear injection 5.5.protoplast fusionprotoplast fusion 6.6. ballistic DNA injectionballistic DNA injection
  73. 73. RNA Interference (RNAi) against Viral diseaseRNA Interference (RNAi) against Viral disease ““A process in which the introduction of double-strandedA process in which the introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cellRNA into a cell inhibits the expressioninhibits the expression of genes”of genes”
  74. 74. Post Translational Gene SilencingPost Translational Gene Silencing (PTGS) Pathway(PTGS) Pathway Post Translational Gene SilencingPost Translational Gene Silencing (PTGS) Pathway(PTGS) Pathway ds RNA in the cytoplasm triggers theds RNA in the cytoplasm triggers the multi domainmulti domain ribonuclease II enzymeribonuclease II enzyme DICER which cleaves the ds RNA in to siDICER which cleaves the ds RNA in to si RNA which areRNA which are 21 to 2321 to 23 nucleotidenucleotide fragments.fragments. These si RNA is recognized by theThese si RNA is recognized by the RNARNA induced Silencing complex (RISC)induced Silencing complex (RISC),, aa multi enzyme unit that brings aboutmulti enzyme unit that brings about separation of two si RNA stands.separation of two si RNA stands. The antisense Si RNA stand remainsThe antisense Si RNA stand remains bound to RISC while the sense strand isbound to RISC while the sense strand is released. Finally thereleased. Finally the antisense andantisense and RISC complex bind the target mRNARISC complex bind the target mRNA allowing the nuclease activity andallowing the nuclease activity and degraded the target genedegraded the target gene ds RNA in the cytoplasm triggers theds RNA in the cytoplasm triggers the multi domainmulti domain ribonuclease II enzymeribonuclease II enzyme DICER which cleaves the ds RNA in to siDICER which cleaves the ds RNA in to si RNA which areRNA which are 21 to 2321 to 23 nucleotidenucleotide fragments.fragments. These si RNA is recognized by theThese si RNA is recognized by the RNARNA induced Silencing complex (RISC)induced Silencing complex (RISC),, aa multi enzyme unit that brings aboutmulti enzyme unit that brings about separation of two si RNA stands.separation of two si RNA stands. The antisense Si RNA stand remainsThe antisense Si RNA stand remains bound to RISC while the sense strand isbound to RISC while the sense strand is released. Finally thereleased. Finally the antisense andantisense and RISC complex bind the target mRNARISC complex bind the target mRNA allowing the nuclease activity andallowing the nuclease activity and degraded the target genedegraded the target gene
  75. 75.  Crustaceans such as penaeid shrimp, which can be infected by more than twenty different viruses.  Bunyaviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Parvoviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae, Iridoviridae or a new virus family, the Nimaviridae  Culture practices leading to stress induced diseases, bacterial and viral infections leading to severe economic losses  White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Yellow head virus (YHV), and Taura syndrome virus (TSV)  Crustaceans such as penaeid shrimp, which can be infected by more than twenty different viruses.  Bunyaviridae, Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Parvoviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae, Iridoviridae or a new virus family, the Nimaviridae  Culture practices leading to stress induced diseases, bacterial and viral infections leading to severe economic losses  White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Yellow head virus (YHV), and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) Role of RNA Interference in aquatic disease controlRole of RNA Interference in aquatic disease control
  76. 76. Production of Yolk antibodyProduction of Yolk antibody Principle When chickens are faced with a foreign virus or bacterium, they produce antibodies to fight the invader. They pass that immunity on to their offspring, and antibodies wind up in the eggs. 1. Chickens are more apt than mammals to make high-avidity antibodies 2. A single chicken can produce an enormous amount of antibody, upto 3 grams of IgY per month, which is 10-20 times the amount of a rabbit 3. chickens produce antibody much quicker- high-titre antibody is available from eggs as early as day 25 4. Storing of eggs (antibodies) is very easy 5. It is cheaper to feed and house chickens than rabbits 6. Effective against drug-resistant bacteria.
  77. 77. IgYIgY production &production & purificationpurification YolkYolk DDHDDH22O WashO Wash Cut OpenCut Open Isoproponanl wash 1: 3 – 2 timesIsoproponanl wash 1: 3 – 2 times Acetone wash- 1 timeAcetone wash- 1 time Fitered & storeFitered & store Complete removal ofComplete removal of LipidsLipids
  78. 78. Algal BiotechnologyAlgal Biotechnology
  79. 79. Types of AlgaeTypes of Algae Seaweed: Macro; benthic & muticellularSeaweed: Macro; benthic & muticellular algaealgae Microalgae: Diverse group of unicellular;Microalgae: Diverse group of unicellular; occupy fresh, marine & extremeoccupy fresh, marine & extreme environmentsenvironments Algal Biotechnology focus on……Algal Biotechnology focus on…… Bio fuel productionBio fuel production Bioconversion of CoBioconversion of Co22 Human health and nutraceuticalsHuman health and nutraceuticals Aquaculture feedsAquaculture feeds BioremediationBioremediation Municipal waste treatmentMunicipal waste treatment Food processingFood processing
  80. 80. ApplicationsApplications Aquaculture FeedAquaculture Feed Fin fish & Shellfish LarvaeFin fish & Shellfish Larvae Chlorella, Dunaliella & nannochloropsisChlorella, Dunaliella & nannochloropsis Rich in fatty acids & Beta caroteneRich in fatty acids & Beta carotene NutraceuticalsNutraceuticals Aphanizomenon flosaquaeAphanizomenon flosaquae, Arthrospira,, Arthrospira, Chlorella spChlorella sp Arthrospira & SpirulinaArthrospira & Spirulina (>70% protein)(>70% protein) EFAsEFAs DHA & FPA crucial forDHA & FPA crucial for human physiologicalhuman physiological functionsfunctions VitaminsVitamins AntioxidantsAntioxidants FucoidonFucoidon
  81. 81. Effluent RemediationEffluent Remediation PhycoremediationPhycoremediation Effectively removeEffectively remove ammoniaammonia (75 %) ;(75 %) ; NitriteNitrite (84(84 %) ;%) ; PhosphorusPhosphorus (89)(89) Removal of nutrientsRemoval of nutrients Remove excess nutients andRemove excess nutients and CoCo22 in wastein waste water systemswater systems SolveSolve BODBOD problemsproblems ExcessExcess algal biomassalgal biomass may harvestedmay harvested Removal of organic pollutantsRemoval of organic pollutants Chlorella, ankistrodesmus in paper mills &Chlorella, ankistrodesmus in paper mills & olive oil millsolive oil mills Algae canAlgae can produce Oproduce O22 to bacteria and bacteriato bacteria and bacteria degrade the nutrientsdegrade the nutrients Diatomite-Diatomite- silicon compound forsilicon compound for chelatingchelating Removal of Heavy metalsRemoval of Heavy metals Sargassum sp special affinity to heavy metalsSargassum sp special affinity to heavy metals
  82. 82. Algae produce oxygen in spaceAlgae produce oxygen in space Chlorella and Euglena grown in photobioreactor is used to produce oxygen in the space for the Astronauts using their waste and help them for long term expedition in space NASA and many other space research station in the world open opportunities for planktologist Algal BioplasticsAlgal Bioplastics TTypically, long chain polymers, present in the algae lipids are used for making bioplastics Algae is attractive for bioplastics because of its high growth rate and high protein content. The plastics market is worth more than $400 billion and has grown at an average of 3.5% per year over the last two decades.
  83. 83. ALGAL ENERGYALGAL ENERGYALGAL ENERGYALGAL ENERGY
  84. 84. Algal Biogas ProductionAlgal Biogas Production In a biogas reactor the substrates used are converted in several reaction steps into biogas, consisting mainly of the components CH4 and CO2 The biogas yield of plants is generally limited by the greater or lesser proportion of lignocellulose, which is difficult to recycle. However, the use of microalgae with a low lignocellulose content, for example Chlorella vulgaris, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Spirulina platensis, permits an almost complete utilization of the organic substance. .
  85. 85. ALGAL OIL PRODUCTIONALGAL OIL PRODUCTION Storing the Sun’s Energy (Photosynthesis) What is needed Storage of Energy Sunlight Lipids and oils CO2 Carbohydrates Nutrients
  86. 86. How to produce more oils ?How to produce more oils ? The lipid content of an algae species can be increased by imposing a stress factor, such as starving of nitrogen or silicon. In this manner, lipid fractions up to 70-85% have been reported for nitrogen starvation and 60% for silicon starvation
  87. 87. Algal Cell Harvest Centrifugation- small microalgae Filtration- different size of algae Flocculation- Change of pH  Acid flocculation – using alum and sulphuric acid  Alkali flocculation – using NaOH and KOH  Autoflocculation – Interrupting the Co2 level
  88. 88. Algal Oil Extraction Mechanical methods: Expeller press, with vegetable oils, with chemical solvents Osmotic methods: Sudden reduction in osmotic pressure Ultrasonic assisted extraction: ultrasonic reactor, ultrasonic waves crate the rupture of cell walls Sonoenzymatic treatment: Accelerates extraction and increases yields Chemical methods: Algal powders + organic solvents (1:2) Supercritical fluid extraction: liquid CO2 With different pressure Enzymatic extraction: Enzymes to degrade the cell walls
  89. 89. TransesterificationTransesterification A reaction between anA reaction between an ester of oneester of one alcohol and a second alcohol toalcohol and a second alcohol to formform an ester of the second alcoholan ester of the second alcohol and an alcohol from the originaland an alcohol from the original ester,ester, as that of methyl acetateas that of methyl acetate andand ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetateethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate and methyl alcoholand methyl alcohol Methods for produce biodieselMethods for produce biodiesel
  90. 90. AdvantagesAdvantages Rapid and faster growth rates than terrestrial crops The per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from between 5,000 to 20,000 gallons (18,927 to 75,708 litres) per acre, per year; this is 7 to 31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil (635 gallons or 2,404 litres) Certain species of algae can be harvested daily Algal biofuel contains no sulphur, non-toxic and highly bio-degradable
  91. 91. High Value added ProductsHigh Value added Products Bio moleculesBio molecules IodineIodine AlginAlgin MannitolMannitol Glycerol & ProlineGlycerol & Proline PolymersPolymers Phyto colloids (Phyto colloids (Alginate, agar,Alginate, agar, carragennan etccarragennan etc)) Cyanobacterial origin –Cyanobacterial origin –CyanophycinCyanophycin HydrocolloidsHydrocolloids Thickening, Emulsify & stabilizersThickening, Emulsify & stabilizers Also a polymer D-mannuronic & l-Also a polymer D-mannuronic & l- guluronic acidguluronic acid Laminaria, Ascophyllum & MacrrocystisLaminaria, Ascophyllum & Macrrocystis
  92. 92. Carotenoids-Carotenoids- Powerful antioxidantsPowerful antioxidants Beta caroteneBeta carotene AlgoteneAlgotene AxtaxanthinAxtaxanthin Dunaliella salinaDunaliella salina
  93. 93. FertilizersFertilizers Phymato lithonPhymato lithon EckloniaEcklonia Ascophyllum – Agri & HorticultureAscophyllum – Agri & Horticulture purposespurposes Human & Animal foodHuman & Animal food China, Japan &KoreaChina, Japan &Korea Seaweeds:Seaweeds: Ulva, Laminaria, Undaria,Ulva, Laminaria, Undaria, Uraeilarie, CladosiponUraeilarie, Cladosipon Microalgae:Microalgae: Spirulina, Chlorella &Spirulina, Chlorella & PorphyraPorphyra For animalsFor animals Cats, dogs, aquarium fish, ornamentalCats, dogs, aquarium fish, ornamental birds, horses, poultry , cows andbirds, horses, poultry , cows and breeding bullsbreeding bulls
  94. 94. Job Opportunities in Algal IndustryJob Opportunities in Algal Industry Shrimp farm and Hatcheries Algal oil industries Carotenoids industries DHA Production industries Space research Health product industries Cosmetic industries Biofertilizer industries
  95. 95. Recombinant products including vaccines, oils, novel carotenoids, antibodies, insecticidal proteins and biohydrogen Nuclear transformationsNuclear transformations inin chlorophytes, diatoms and dinoflagellates Agitation with glass beads, electroporation, microparticle bombardment and Agrobacterium mediated transformation are used to transfer foreign genes into unicellular eukaryotic microalgae Chloroplast transformation is achieved in Euglena gracilis and unicellular red alga, Porphyridium sp. for the production of biosynthetic enzymes
  96. 96. POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMAPOST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN PLANKTONOLOGYIN PLANKTONOLOGY UGC Sponsored Innovative ProgrammeUGC Sponsored Innovative Programme Dr. M. Michael BabuDr. M. Michael Babu CoordinatorCoordinator Dr. T. CitarasuDr. T. Citarasu Co-CoordinatorCo-Coordinator
  97. 97. Scope of PlanktonologyScope of Planktonology The students more practically in the job rendering areas in planktons including algal oil production, carotenoid industries, and aquaculture sections, the students who complete this Diploma will get job opportunities in National and Global employments The syllabi framed for this course has made only after consultation with the foresaid plankton based industries and also the students will be trained in plankton based industries to complete their project work. After analyzing all the renewable oil resources, the microalgae which has more than 50% of lipid to its body weight has now been identified as an alternative to solve the future fuel scarcity
  98. 98. Research and TrainingResearch and Training Algal Identification Zooplankton culture Algal associated microbes Carotenoid production Algal oil production Algal secondary metabolites Aquaculture live feeds Other compounds Vaccine research
  99. 99. Infrastructure FacilitiesInfrastructure Facilities Aquaculture wet lab Marine Biotechnology Lab Zooplankton culture Algal culture facility Huge Centrifuge Freeze dryer Algal identification system HPLC system
  100. 100. Aquaculture companiesAquaculture companies Amalgam Enterprises Arbee Agencies Arianee Landscapes Avanti Feeds Ltd Bright and Associates Castlerock Group Of Companies CIBA Chirag International Cochin Frozen Food Exports Ltd Geo Seafood Guybro Chemicals L G Sea Foods Aquaculture companiesAquaculture companies Amalgam Enterprises Arbee Agencies Arianee Landscapes Avanti Feeds Ltd Bright and Associates Castlerock Group Of Companies CIBA Chirag International Cochin Frozen Food Exports Ltd Geo Seafood Guybro Chemicals L G Sea Foods Carotenoid CompaniesCarotenoid Companies Allied Biotech Corporation Carotenoid Technologies Sociedad Anonima Novepha Company Agro Bio Chem (India) Pvt Ltd Yunnan Green A Boiolgical Company Algart International Inc. Proalgen Biotech Ltd, Chennai MNC Globle Divis Laboratories Ltd Agro BioChem (India) Pvt Ltd BOBO Corp Hovid Bhd Carotenoid CompaniesCarotenoid Companies Allied Biotech Corporation Carotenoid Technologies Sociedad Anonima Novepha Company Agro Bio Chem (India) Pvt Ltd Yunnan Green A Boiolgical Company Algart International Inc. Proalgen Biotech Ltd, Chennai MNC Globle Divis Laboratories Ltd Agro BioChem (India) Pvt Ltd BOBO Corp Hovid Bhd Global OpportunitiesGlobal Opportunities
  101. 101. Algal oil producing companiesAlgal oil producing companies Aquaflow Binomic Corporation (ABC) Aquatic energy Circle Biodiesel and Ethanol Corporation Amalgam Enterprises Green Star Products Inc., (GSPI) Inventure Chemicals LiveFuels OriginOil, Inc., PetroAlgae Solazyme, Inc., Solix Biofuels Texas Clean Fuels
  102. 102. For Further ContactFor Further Contact Dr. M. Michael BabuDr. M. Michael Babu CoordinatorCoordinator PG Diploma in PlanktonologyPG Diploma in Planktonology Centre for Marine Science andCentre for Marine Science and TechnologyTechnology RajakkamangalamRajakkamangalam Kanyakumari DistrictKanyakumari District Mobile: +91-9443731640Mobile: +91-9443731640 Email:Email: michaelmsu@live.commichaelmsu@live.com michael@msuniv.ac.inmichael@msuniv.ac.in Website:Website: www.msuniv.ac.inwww.msuniv.ac.in
  103. 103. MARINE GENOMICSMARINE GENOMICS
  104. 104. METAGENOMICSMETAGENOMICS Defined as “Culture independent analysis of a mixture of microbial genomes using an approach based either on expression or sequencing” (Schloss and Handlesmann, 2005)
  105. 105. Why Metagenomics Need? UnderstandingUnderstanding MetabolismMetabolism Defining theDefining the MinimalMinimal Gene SetGene Set GenomeGenome EngineeringEngineering Understanding CellUnderstanding Cell Structure & FunctionStructure & Function UnderstandingUnderstanding Host InteractionsHost Interactions UnderstandingUnderstanding Protein-ProteinProtein-Protein InteractionsInteractions UnderstandingUnderstanding ExpressionExpression (RNA/Protein)(RNA/Protein) Discover DNADiscover DNA Variation, GenotypingVariation, Genotyping ForensicsForensics Drug/VaccineDrug/Vaccine DevelopmentDevelopment
  106. 106. Approaches in metagenomicsApproaches in metagenomics
  107. 107. 121 16S ribosomal RNA analysis of microbial communities 16S rRNA genes have been amplified, cloned and sequenced from thousands of distinct environmental niches, but these surveys routinely continue to identify unique new bacterial and archaeal taxa.
  108. 108. DNA Bar codingDNA Bar coding Taxonomic identification Genetic marker COI-~ 600 bp Fast mutation rate, resulting in the generation of diversity within and between populations Fish Barcode of Life Initiative (FISH-BOL)- a global effort to coordinate an assembly of a standardized DNA barcode library for all fish species
  109. 109. “A rigorously standardized sequence of a minimum length and quality from an agreed-upon gene, deposited in a major sequence database, and attached to a voucher specimen whose origins and current status are recorded” - Paul Hebert & Ryan Gregory (2005)
  110. 110. ApplicationsApplications Microbes Sea grass & Mangroves Marine Algae- 23 S & COI Marine planktons Lower chordates Marine reptiles Sea birds Marine mammals
  111. 111. CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE DIRECTIONSCONCLUSIONS & FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  112. 112. Identify new sources of marine bio-products:Identify new sources of marine bio-products: New microbialNew microbial strains for antibiotic, anticancer drugs and enzymesstrains for antibiotic, anticancer drugs and enzymes Production optimization of bio-products:Production optimization of bio-products: Large scale supplyLarge scale supply through bioprocess technology etcthrough bioprocess technology etc Develop novel screening technologies:Develop novel screening technologies: Genomic, bar coding andGenomic, bar coding and metagenomic approachmetagenomic approach To promote the marine environmental biotechnology:To promote the marine environmental biotechnology: PollutionPollution will be monitored.will be monitored. Provide a sustainable source of supply:Provide a sustainable source of supply: Chemical synthesis,Chemical synthesis, controlled harvesting of aquaculture species,controlled harvesting of aquaculture species, in vitroin vitro productionproduction through cell culture of the macro or microorganism source andthrough cell culture of the macro or microorganism source and transgenic productiontransgenic production
  113. 113. THANKTHANK
  114. 114. Your Valuable suggestions please Dr. T. CitarasuDr. T. Citarasu Assistant ProfessorAssistant Professor Centre for Marine Science and TechnologyCentre for Marine Science and Technology Manonmaniam Sundaranar UniversityManonmaniam Sundaranar University Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist, Tamilnadu, India 629502Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist, Tamilnadu, India 629502 TelefaxTelefax + 91-4652-253078+ 91-4652-253078 MobileMobile + 91-9994273822+ 91-9994273822 E. mailE. mail citarasu@gmail.com citarasu@msuniv.ac.in WebWeb www.msuniv.ac.in Research GateResearch Gate https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Thavasimuthu_Citarasu LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/pub/thavasimuthu-citarasu/7/5b/753 Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=DQx_qucAAAAJ&hl=en Dr. T. CitarasuDr. T. Citarasu Assistant ProfessorAssistant Professor Centre for Marine Science and TechnologyCentre for Marine Science and Technology Manonmaniam Sundaranar UniversityManonmaniam Sundaranar University Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist, Tamilnadu, India 629502Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari Dist, Tamilnadu, India 629502 TelefaxTelefax + 91-4652-253078+ 91-4652-253078 MobileMobile + 91-9994273822+ 91-9994273822 E. mailE. mail citarasu@gmail.com citarasu@msuniv.ac.in WebWeb www.msuniv.ac.in Research GateResearch Gate https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Thavasimuthu_Citarasu LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/pub/thavasimuthu-citarasu/7/5b/753 Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=DQx_qucAAAAJ&hl=en

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Marine Biotechnology

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