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Infectious disease pol taskeen rubab 28145 (1)

infectious diseases
case study of bronchitis

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Infectious disease pol taskeen rubab 28145 (1)

  1. 1. Infectious diseases Submitted by Taskeen Rubab 28145 Principle of life Dr Moneeza
  2. 2. Disease •Genetical •Biological •physical •Chemical
  3. 3. Infectious diseases terms •Disease •Infectious disease •Infection •Pathogen •Host •virulence
  4. 4. Koch’s Postulates Koch developed four criteria to demonstrate that a specific disease is caused by a particular agent • The specific agent must be associated with every case of the disease • The agent must be isolated from a diseased host and grown in culture • When the culture-grown agent is introduced into a healthy susceptible host, the agent must cause the same disease
  5. 5. Koch's postulates
  6. 6. Infectious Disease Agents • Most infectious agents that cause disease are microscopic in size and thus, are called microbes or microorganisms • Different groups of agents that cause disease are:  Bacteria  Viruses Protozoa (Protists) Fungi Helminths (Animals)
  7. 7. Infectious disease throughout history • Infectious agents • Small pox • Malaria • Bubonic plague or black death • Influenza • AIDS
  8. 8. How Infectious Agents Cause Disease • Production of poisons, such as toxins and enzymes, that destroy cells and tissues • Direct invasion and destruction of host cells • Triggering responses from the host’s immune system leading to disease signs and symptoms. Courtesy of CDC Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV-1 virions can be seen on surface of lymphocytes )
  9. 9. Phases of Infectious Disease • Incubation period – time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms • Prodromal phase – mild, nonspecific symptoms that signal onset of some diseases • Clinical phase – a person experiences typical signs and symptoms of disease • Decline phase - subsidence of symptoms • Recovery phase – symptoms have disappeared, tissues heal, and the body regains strength
  10. 10. Classification of Infectious Disease By duration • Acute • Chronic • Latent By location • Local • systematic By timing • Primary • Secondary
  11. 11. Disease Cause Affected organ transmission Small pox Virus skin Droplet Influenza Virus Respiratory system Direct contact HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Body fluid Hepatitis B Virus Liver Body fluid Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture wound Strep throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet
  12. 12. Factors influencing disease transmission • Environment • Vectors • Animals
  13. 13. CASE STUDY bronchitis
  14. 14. Bronchitis • Bronchitis is inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages between the nose and the lungs • More specifically, bronchitis is when the lining of the bronchial tubes becomes inflamed or infected • Bronchitis is caused by viruses, bacteria, and other particles that irritate the bronchial tubes.
  15. 15. Types of Bronchitis Acute bronchitis • Acute bronchitis is a shorter illness • commonly follows a cold or viral infection, such as the flu • Acute bronchitis usually lasts a few days or weeks Chronic bronchitis • Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a persistent, mucus-producing cough on most days of the month • three months of a year for two successive years in absence of a secondary cause of the cough.
  16. 16. Etiology and risk factor • Smokers • People who are exposed to a lot of secondhand smoke • People with weakened immune systems • The elderly and infants • People with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) • People who are exposed to air pollution
  17. 17. Signs and symptoms Bronchitis • Inflammation or swelling of bronchi • Coughing • Production of clear, white yellow, grey or green mucus • Shortness of breath • Wheezing • Fatigue • Fever and chills • Chest pain or discomfort • Blocked or runny nose
  18. 18. Pharmacological management • Antibiotics these are effective for bacterial infections, but not for viral infections. They may also prevent secondary infections • Cough medicine one must be careful not to completely suppress the cough, for it is an important way to bring up mucus and remove irritants from the lungs • Bronchodilators these open the bronchial tubes and clear out mucus • Mucolytics these thin or loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up sputum • Anti-inflammatory medicines and glucocorticoid steroids these are for more persistent symptoms • Pulmonary rehabilitation program this includes work with a respiratory therapist to help breathing.
  19. 19. Health education • Avoiding tobacco smoke and exposure to second hand smoke • Quitting smoking Avoiding people who are sick with colds or the flu • Getting a yearly flu vaccine • Getting a pneumonia vaccine (especially for those over 60 years of age) • Washing hands regularly • Avoiding cold, damp locations or areas with a lot of air pollution • Wearing a mask around people who are coughing and sneezing
  20. 20. Complications • Asthma • Bronchiectasis • Tuberculosis • Sinusitis