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Climate change1.pptx

  1. Climate change PREPARED BY :- MS.TAGHREED HAWSAWI SUPERVISES BY :- DR. ZANAB HUSSIAN
  2. Learning Objectives :-  By the end of presentation the learner will be able to:- 1- Define Climate change definition 2- Understand climate change effect 3- Anticipate financial impact of climate change among population 4- Evaluate climate change health impact 5- Combiner climate change Health Disparities verity papulation age and gender 6- Recognize nursing role with climate change 7-To implement REAP Model of the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy
  3. Outline :-  Introduction  Definition of Climate Change  Effects of climate change  Financial Impacts  Health Impacts of Climate Change  Health Disparities  Nursing Role in climate change  Nurses’ Professional Obligation
  4.  Climate change has been labeled the greatest threat to public health and to global health in the 21st century.  Costs of climate change on health have been slow to emerge in the research literature, resulting in substantial underestimates of climate change costs.  Nursing leaders role are helping patients, communities, and health care institutions engage in climate change mitigation activities and in preparing for potential effects of climate change.  Health impacts can result from direct exposures to climate change through changing weather patterns or indirectly through changes in water availability, air quality, agriculture, and the economy.
  5. Climate change A change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, such as through variations in the solar cycle.
  6. Health Impacts of Climate Change  Health impacts can result from direct exposures to climate change through changing weather patterns (e.g., heat waves) or indirectly through changes in water availability, air quality, and resultant changes in agriculture and the economy. Heat-Related Illness Water Security and Drought Insect-Borne Illnesses Respiratory Disease Mental Health
  7. Heat-Related Illness Heat gain in the human body can be caused by a combination of external heat from the environment and internal body heat generated from metabolic processes. Rapid rises in heat gain due to exposure to hotter than average conditions compromises the body’s ability to regulate temperature and can result in a cascade of illnesses include rising rates of:- 1- heat stress hyperthermia. 2- exhaustion. 3- heat cramps. 4- heat stroke. (Amengual, Homar, Brooks, Ramis, Gordaliza & Alonzo, 2014).
  8. Water Security and Drought The conventional approach for generating greater benefits from water while limiting its hazards has historically centered on investment in built or “grey” infrastructure, such as dams, dikes and reservoirs. A potential drawback is that major dam construction can exact unacceptably high costs in terms of its negative impacts on water-dependent ecosystem services and on the people, especially in poor rural communities, whose livelihoods are closely tied to these services.
  9. Insect-Borne Illnesses As environmental conditions change, the geographic range of the vectors for illnesses is extended, increasing the potential for infection. Changes in climate may make insect-borne diseases harder to control. For example, as temperature increases, the malaria parasite reproduces at a higher rate and mosquitoes feed more frequently. Example:- 1- malaria transmission 2- dengue transmission 3- cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera 4- parasitic disease transmitted
  10. Respiratory Disease Increases in acute respiratory symptoms, resulted increase emergency room visits, weather- related hospital admissions for A.Infants and B.Elderly and lead to lost school days, and premature deaths (Costello et al., 2011). The main diseases of concern are:- A.asthma, B.rhinosinusitis, C.chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and D.respiratory tract infections. Groups at higher risk of climate change effects include:- 1-Individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases 2- Disadvantaged individuals. Respiratory effect duo to climate change :- 1) by directly promoting or aggravating respiratory diseases. 2) by increasing exposure to risk factors for respiratory diseases.
  11. Mental Health  Climate change may affect mental health directly by exposing people to trauma (Berry, Bowen & Kjellstrom, 2010). 1- Adverse psychiatric outcomes are well documented in the aftermath of natural disasters (Page & Howard, 2010). 2- Acute traumatic stress and more chronic stress-related conditions (such as post-traumatic stress disorder). 3- Aggressive behavior, higher rates of criminal activity, and increased suicide rates (Berry et al., 2010).
  12. Financial Impacts Emerging research indicates that the costs of climate changes are substantial. A study in 2010 found that economic losses from climate-related disasters, not including health care costs, had soared from $5 billion to $27 billion US dollars annually from 1970 to 2010 (Reichenmiller, 2010). Recent estimates indicate that climate change and weather disasters in 2012 cost the American economy more than $100 billion (EPA, 2016)
  13. Health Disparities people in poverty may feel less empowered to advocate for better preparedness in their communities. These elements put them at higher risk for disease, injury or displacement that may result from climate change impacts (Luber, et.al, 2014). Indigenous people are also at higher risk (Bennet, et.al, 2014). Native peoples in many places subsist off the land for wild food and crops, for cultural items, and for housing. Each of these are threatened with climate change Elderly people may be more sensitive to heat and susceptible to dehydration. They are more likely than younger people to have co-morbidities which may then be exacerbated by increased heat and air pollution. They are also more likely to be on medications whose actions may be altered by heat. Children around the world are more at risk to climate change impacts (Harvard, 2016). Infants can be quite sensitive to heat, dehydration, pollution, and infection. Children of all ages are more impacted by pollution, trauma, dehydration, and starvation than healthy adults Climate change impacts may put women more at risk of disease, malnutrition, dehydration, injury, sexual violence, mental health challenges, obstetrical difficulties, and death.
  14. Nursing Role in climate change  Should be educated well about climate change and staying up to date to make changes in our personal lives to reduce our carbon footprint.  To educate our patients and their families and the communities we serve about climate change, the associated health effects, and ways in which to both mitigate and respond to  climate change.  To work in our communities to be best prepared for climate change- related emergencies.  To work within our nursing organizations to help prioritize climate change and its impacts as a nursing issue.
  15. Nursing Role in climate change  To work within nursing schools, at colleges and universities, to ensure that climate change, including mitigation and response, is a required component of nursing curriculum.  To raise our voices within our communities and through our nursing organizations in policy arenas at the local, state, and national level to advocate for policies that will mitigate the current trajectory of global warming.  To engage in policies and practices that will address equitable distribution of resources for those who are affected by climate change impacts.  To develop research agendas that address climate change’s impacts and nursing interventions  To work collaboratively with each other in order to bring our best and finest nursing knowledge and skills to mitigate and address the threats from climate change.
  16. Nurses’ Professional Obligation related to climate change Nurses contribute to scientific findings by researching climate related topics and health issues. For example, nurses have contributed to the literature through epidemiological studies, educational frameworks, policy statements, and practice initiatives Nurses educate patients and professionals, and have opportunities to include evidence and information about climate change in Colleges of Nursing, in continuing education for nurses, in patient education materials, and in efforts to educate the public Nurses are influential in policy decisions, through advocacy and by encouraging policy makers to support climate healthy decisions. It is critical that nurses educate policy makers on the need for strong action on climate change due to health impacts. Nurses deliver direct care to people of all ages. Care in the setting of climate change includes understanding health impacts and treating individuals and families for health issues that arise, as well as preventing further climate change through mitigation efforts.
  17. Nurses implication strategies to overlap climate change • , before beginning assessment, cities should establish goals and identify stakeholders, as well as existing resources and data sets. It then provides a useful step-by-step checklist of essential and recommended items to include in the risk assessment itself. • conduct a researches and studies to cover the gap between clinical and evidence based related to climate change. Assess • inform the community on how best to prepare for climate change prediction measures induced in events. • Educate the health care worker, community and their patient and patient family abut factors contributing to climate change and prevention measures. Prevention • Deterring Increased temperatures and heat lead to heat stress and heat stroke, which can aggravate heart, lung, and kidney conditions. Changes cause physical burns, cardiorespiratory problems, long-term breathing issues, and death. As well,, hypothermia, dismantled infrastructure, poor water quality, increased spread of vector-borne disease, and death. Diagnosis • leaders in the community and leaders in health care, nurses have a strong and valuable voice. By enacting sustainable practices and advocating for a more climate-resilient future, nurses can initiate meaningful action right now Treatment
  18. References 1. Golding N, Wilson AL, Moyes CL, Cano J, Pigott DM, Velayudhan R et al. Integrating vector control across diseases. BMC Med. 2015; 13:249. doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0491-4. 2. World Bank (https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending- groups; accessed March 2017). 3. It is assumed that for subnational trainings there will be no additional cost for convening as spare capacities would be utilized (i.e. available meeting rooms and supplies). 4. Cost–effectiveness and strategic planning (WHO-CHOICE), available at http://www.who.int/choice/en/# (accessed March 2017).; accessed March 2017). 5. WHO news release. 9 out of 10 people worldwide breathe polluted air, but more countries are taking action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/02-05-2018-9-out-of-10-people-worldwide- breathepolluted-air-but-more-countries-are-taking-action accessed 26 March 2019). 6. WHO. Global Health Observatory: the data repository. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (data for 2016 retrieved 11 September 2018 from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.INADEQUATEWSHv?lang=en/). 7. Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Ivanov I, Mudgal S, Corvalàn C, Bos R et al. Preventing disease through a healthier and safer workplace. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (https://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/healthier-workplace/en/, accessed 23 January 2019).