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Teaching
Aptitude
UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
GENERAL PAPER ON TEACHING & RESEARCH APTITUDE
Paper 1: Unit - 1
K.THIYAGU,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Education,
Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod
Unit 1: Teaching Aptitude
• Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory,
Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.
• Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners
(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
• Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,
Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.
• Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.
Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,
Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).
• Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
• Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in
Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing,
Innovations in evaluation systems.
2
Teaching Aptitude
Teaching Aptitude is an essential tool for the
assessment of teachers.
It is a mode of evaluating the performance of individuals
who wish to pursue the profession of teaching.
3
Teaching
Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory,
Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and
basic requirements
Topic # 1
4
Teaching: Concept
Teaching derived from “to teach” Which means to instruct
Process in which
One individual makes
something
Known to another
individual
5
Teaching is a Bipolar Process –
John Adam
(Narrow Meaning)
Teacher
Curriculum
/ Society
Students
Teaching is a Tripolar Process
(Broad Meaning)
Teacher Students
6
Formal teaching should be carried out by experienced faculty, teachers, editors etc.
Teaching is a
process which
can be carried
out
Formally Informally
Informal
teaching takes
place within the
family
Formal
teaching takes
place outside the
family.
7
Teaching: Objectives
To bring
desired
changes in
pupils
To shape
behaviour
and conduct
Acquisition
of
knowledge
To improve
the learning
skills of
students
Formation
of belief
To provide a
social and
efficient
member of
society
8
Teaching
Conditioning
Training
Instruction
Indoctrination
To bring changed in the
behaviour of students
To Improve the learning
skills of students
Shaping behaviour and
conduct
Acquisition of
Knowledge
Formation of belief
Goals of
Teaching
03
02
01
Understanding Level
Thoughtful
Reflective Level
Most Thoughtful
Memory Level
Least Thoughtful
Levels of Teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective)
Memory Level of Teaching (MLT)
The first level of teaching is a Memory Level of Teaching.
It is concerned with memory or the mental ability that exists in all
living beings and is considered as the lowest level of teaching.
Herbart is the main proponent of this level.
It induces the habit of rote memorization of facts and bits of
information.
Here the teaching-learning process is basically 'Stimulus-Response'(S-
R) here.
Here the evaluation system mainly includes oral, written and essay-
type examination.
11
Understanding Level of Teaching (ULT):
The second and thoughtful level of teaching is an understanding level of
teaching.
This level is concerned with understanding something i.e., to perceive the
meaning, grasp the idea and comprehend the meaning.
Morrison is the main proponent of this level.
Here, the instructor and the learner both play an active role.
Here the evaluation system includes both objective and essay-type examination.
This level of teaching is known as ‘memory plus insight’, as it goes beyond just
memorizing of facts.
It focuses on the mastery of the subject.
12
Reflective Level of Teaching (RLT)
The third and highest level of teaching is a memory level of teaching.
This level is concerned with both MLT and ULT.
Here the teacher thinks over their teaching practices, analyzing how to teach and
how the learning process can be changed or improved for better learning
outcomes.
Hunt is the main proponent of this level.
Here the students occupy the primary place and teacher assumes the secondary
place.
Here the evaluation system includes an essay-type examination.
The aim of this teaching is to develop a reflective power of learning such that
this teaching can assist to solve problems by reasoning, logic and imagination,
and lead successful and happy lives.
13
01
02
03
Independent Variable: Teacher
Teacher is responsible for the functioning of
students. He is free to act in the process while
students are quite dependent on him.
The teacher does plans, organize, leads and
controls the process of teaching.
Dependent Variable: Student
Student is subjected to changes and
developments through the efforts of the
teacher and teaching process.
Intervening Variable: Teaching,
Methods, Techniques
There is a need for desirable interaction
between the dependent and the
independent variable to achieve the goals
of teaching.
The contents of teaching, method, and
techniques, tactics and strategical
managements of instructional material and
teaching environment.
Basic Requirements of Teaching
Learner’s
Characteristics
Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners
(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive),
Individual differences.
Topic # 2
15
Self image, Feeling of self efficiency,
sociability
Social & Emotional
Prior Knowledge,
Educational Type,
Educational Level
Academic
Demographic Information:
Age, Gender, Maturation,
Language, Socio-economic,
cultural
Personal
Attention Span,
Memory, Mental Process,
Intellectual Skills
Cognitive
Learner’s Characteristics
• Mood Swings marked by peaks of
intensity and by unpredictability
• Concern about the physical growth
and maturity
• A belief that their personal problems,
feelings & experiences are unique to
themselves
Emotional Development
• An understanding of the complexity
of moral issues
• Judging others quickly but
acknowledging one’s own faults
slowly
Moral Development
• Developing Sexual Awareness and
often touching an dumping others
• Bodily changes that may cause
awkward, uncoordinated
movements.
Physical Development
• Moving from Concrete to Abstract
thinking
• An ability to be self-reflective
• Prefers active over passive learning
experiences
Intellectual Development
• Experimenting with ways of talking
and acting as part of searching for
social position with peers
• As Interpersonal skills are being
developed
Social Development
Characteristics of Adolescent Learners
Physical
Appearance
1
Intelligence &
Personality
2
Attitudes &
Interest
3
Motor Ability
4
Racial
Differences
5
Gender
6
Economic Status
7
Emotion
8
Achievement & Etc
9
Individual
Differences
Individual Differences
Factors Affecting Teaching
Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner,
Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning
environment and Institution.
Topic # 3
19
5
4
3
2
1
• Whole vs Part learning
• Recitation
• Learning by doing
• Suitability of the method
• Distribution of practice
Instructional Facilities
• Teacher & students ratio
• Infrastructure
• Adopted teaching methods
Learning Environment
• Subject Knowledge
• Knowledge of Learners
• Teaching Skills
• Friendliness and Approachability
• Personality and behavior
• Level of Adjustment & Mental Health
• Discipline
Teacher
• Maturation
• Age
• Motivation
• Previous learning
• Intelligence
• Metal health
• Attention & Interest
• Level of Aspiration
Learner
• Difficulty of the Task
• Length of the task
• Meaningful of the task
• Similarity of the task
Subject Matters
Factors Affecting Teaching related to…
Methods of
Teaching
Teacher centred vs. Learner
centred methods;
Off-line vs. On-line methods
(Swayam, Swayamprabha,
MOOCs etc.).
Topic # 4
21
Instructor-centered Teaching
When an instructor or a facilitator is in actively involved in
teaching while the learners are in a passive, receptive mode
listening as the instructor or a facilitator teaches is known as
instructor-centered Teaching.
In this teaching, an instructor is fully responsible for what is
taught and how it is learned.
The learner is fully dependent upon the instructor for all
learning. Here the instructor is responsible for the process of
evaluation.
22
Learner-centered Teaching
When a student or a learner
is more emphasized in a
classroom than others is
known as learner-centered
teaching.
It also involves each
student's interests, abilities,
and learning styles, placing
the learning instructors for
individuals rather than for
the class.
It includes self-evaluation.
23
Teacher-Focused Strategy
Lecture Method
It is a process of teaching
in which the teacher tells
his/her students about the
planned facts. The
students listen and take
notes.
Team Teaching
Teachers together prepare
their course, frame the
syllabus, prepare the
lesson plans, teach, guide
and evaluate the results of
the students.
Video Presentation
It is an improved method in
which it involves radio or
audio presentation, and it
can virtually bring the
whole world inside the
classroom.
Tutorials &
Simulations
Demonstration
Project Method Group Discussion &
Panel Discussion
Seminar
Brainstorming
& Role Play
Mixed
Mixed Strategy
Heuristic Method
CAI
PLM Assignment
Project Work
Case Study
Students
Focused
Students Focused Strategy (Individualized)
Teaching Stages
Pre-active Phase
(Planning)
Inter-Active Phase
(Actual Teaching)
Post-Active Phase
(Feedback)
Life 2.0
FLIP
28
Online Education @ Edinburgh
Online
&
On-campus
=
‘e-learning’
Online
&
Off-campus
=
ODL
Online
&
No-Campus
=
MOOCs, OER
29
30
31
Massive - Enrolment Numbers
Open - No Mandatory qualifications
Online - Fully
Course - Structured
is an online course aimed at unlimited
participation and open access via the web.
32
Letter Expansion Meaning
M
Massive An online course designed for large number of participants
33
Letter Expansion Meaning
O
Open Course can be accessed by (almost) anyone anywhere
Open as in freedom of place, pace and time
Open to everyone without entry qualifications
Course can be completed for free
34
Letter Expansion Meaning
O
Online All aspects of course are delivered Online
(Complete Course ONLINE)
35
Letter Expansion Meaning
C
Course The course offers a full course experience including
• Educational Content
• Facilitation Interaction among peers
• Activities/Tasks, Tests, including feedback
• Some kind of (non formal) recognition options
• A Study Guide / syllabus
36
37
Categories of MOOCs
Believe in the conventional
approach where the courses are
well-structured with
pre-selected reading and
reference materials.
xMOOCS
Allow for dynamic development
of study material.
No pre-planned set of reading
materials and courseware,
Material will be developed
through online discussions and
collaborations among learners
taking the course across the
globe.
cMOOCS
38
SWAYAM
Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds
Four Quadrant Approach
40
41
MOOCs
Advantages
Sharing ideas &
knowledge
Improves cross
cultural a
relationship
Enhances
active learning
Encourages
flipping the
classroom
Knowledge
sharing in
Discussion
Forum
No exam fever
Peer evaluation
Self paced
learning
Earn from
world class
universities
42
MOOCs
Demerits
No real-time
questioning
No physical
hands-on
practical
exposures
No effective
assessment
Gradually
kill the care,
empathy and
respect
43
44
Teaching Support System
Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
Topic # 5
45
Computers, internet, laptops,
e-readers, e-books, TV,, CD, DVD,
Interactive Whiteboard,
LCD Projects
Modern Support System
CAI,
Video Conferencing,
Projectors, AR, VR, AI
ICT Based Support
System
Blackboards,
textbooks, pictures,
posters, maps atlases,
globes, flashcards,
flip cards,
Science lab apparatus.
Traditional Teaching
Support System
Types of Teaching Support System
47
48
Evaluation Systems
Elements and Types of evaluation,
Evaluation in Choice Based Credit
System in Higher education,
Computer based testing,
Innovations in evaluation systems.
Topic # 6
49
Evaluation Techniques in Education
50
Types of
Evaluation
51
52
Key Words under CBCS (Choice Based Credit System)
Academic
Year (Odd
& Even
Semester)
Grade Point,
Letter Grade
CGPA
SGPA
Grade
Card or
Certificate
Courses,
Credit
Efficiency
Convenience
Automatic Scoring
with Instant feedback
Analytics & Report
Security Configurations
Less Human Error
& Reusability
Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of
the printing and typesetting industry.
Offline Assessment
01 Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of
the printing and typesetting industry.
Online Assessment
02
Computer Based Test (CBT) Advantages
Innovations in Evaluation Systems
ConcepTests
Talk Show Performance
Minute Paper
Artificial Intelligence
& Gamification
Assessment Rubrics
ePortfolio
Podcasts and Vlog
Thank You
CUKerala
Thiyagu Suriya

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Teaching Aptitude.pdf

  • 1. Teaching Aptitude UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION GENERAL PAPER ON TEACHING & RESEARCH APTITUDE Paper 1: Unit - 1 K.THIYAGU, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod
  • 2. Unit 1: Teaching Aptitude • Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements. • Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences. • Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution. • Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs. Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.). • Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based. • Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems. 2
  • 3. Teaching Aptitude Teaching Aptitude is an essential tool for the assessment of teachers. It is a mode of evaluating the performance of individuals who wish to pursue the profession of teaching. 3
  • 4. Teaching Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements Topic # 1 4
  • 5. Teaching: Concept Teaching derived from “to teach” Which means to instruct Process in which One individual makes something Known to another individual 5
  • 6. Teaching is a Bipolar Process – John Adam (Narrow Meaning) Teacher Curriculum / Society Students Teaching is a Tripolar Process (Broad Meaning) Teacher Students 6
  • 7. Formal teaching should be carried out by experienced faculty, teachers, editors etc. Teaching is a process which can be carried out Formally Informally Informal teaching takes place within the family Formal teaching takes place outside the family. 7
  • 8. Teaching: Objectives To bring desired changes in pupils To shape behaviour and conduct Acquisition of knowledge To improve the learning skills of students Formation of belief To provide a social and efficient member of society 8
  • 9. Teaching Conditioning Training Instruction Indoctrination To bring changed in the behaviour of students To Improve the learning skills of students Shaping behaviour and conduct Acquisition of Knowledge Formation of belief Goals of Teaching
  • 10. 03 02 01 Understanding Level Thoughtful Reflective Level Most Thoughtful Memory Level Least Thoughtful Levels of Teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective)
  • 11. Memory Level of Teaching (MLT) The first level of teaching is a Memory Level of Teaching. It is concerned with memory or the mental ability that exists in all living beings and is considered as the lowest level of teaching. Herbart is the main proponent of this level. It induces the habit of rote memorization of facts and bits of information. Here the teaching-learning process is basically 'Stimulus-Response'(S- R) here. Here the evaluation system mainly includes oral, written and essay- type examination. 11
  • 12. Understanding Level of Teaching (ULT): The second and thoughtful level of teaching is an understanding level of teaching. This level is concerned with understanding something i.e., to perceive the meaning, grasp the idea and comprehend the meaning. Morrison is the main proponent of this level. Here, the instructor and the learner both play an active role. Here the evaluation system includes both objective and essay-type examination. This level of teaching is known as ‘memory plus insight’, as it goes beyond just memorizing of facts. It focuses on the mastery of the subject. 12
  • 13. Reflective Level of Teaching (RLT) The third and highest level of teaching is a memory level of teaching. This level is concerned with both MLT and ULT. Here the teacher thinks over their teaching practices, analyzing how to teach and how the learning process can be changed or improved for better learning outcomes. Hunt is the main proponent of this level. Here the students occupy the primary place and teacher assumes the secondary place. Here the evaluation system includes an essay-type examination. The aim of this teaching is to develop a reflective power of learning such that this teaching can assist to solve problems by reasoning, logic and imagination, and lead successful and happy lives. 13
  • 14. 01 02 03 Independent Variable: Teacher Teacher is responsible for the functioning of students. He is free to act in the process while students are quite dependent on him. The teacher does plans, organize, leads and controls the process of teaching. Dependent Variable: Student Student is subjected to changes and developments through the efforts of the teacher and teaching process. Intervening Variable: Teaching, Methods, Techniques There is a need for desirable interaction between the dependent and the independent variable to achieve the goals of teaching. The contents of teaching, method, and techniques, tactics and strategical managements of instructional material and teaching environment. Basic Requirements of Teaching
  • 15. Learner’s Characteristics Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences. Topic # 2 15
  • 16. Self image, Feeling of self efficiency, sociability Social & Emotional Prior Knowledge, Educational Type, Educational Level Academic Demographic Information: Age, Gender, Maturation, Language, Socio-economic, cultural Personal Attention Span, Memory, Mental Process, Intellectual Skills Cognitive Learner’s Characteristics
  • 17. • Mood Swings marked by peaks of intensity and by unpredictability • Concern about the physical growth and maturity • A belief that their personal problems, feelings & experiences are unique to themselves Emotional Development • An understanding of the complexity of moral issues • Judging others quickly but acknowledging one’s own faults slowly Moral Development • Developing Sexual Awareness and often touching an dumping others • Bodily changes that may cause awkward, uncoordinated movements. Physical Development • Moving from Concrete to Abstract thinking • An ability to be self-reflective • Prefers active over passive learning experiences Intellectual Development • Experimenting with ways of talking and acting as part of searching for social position with peers • As Interpersonal skills are being developed Social Development Characteristics of Adolescent Learners
  • 18. Physical Appearance 1 Intelligence & Personality 2 Attitudes & Interest 3 Motor Ability 4 Racial Differences 5 Gender 6 Economic Status 7 Emotion 8 Achievement & Etc 9 Individual Differences Individual Differences
  • 19. Factors Affecting Teaching Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution. Topic # 3 19
  • 20. 5 4 3 2 1 • Whole vs Part learning • Recitation • Learning by doing • Suitability of the method • Distribution of practice Instructional Facilities • Teacher & students ratio • Infrastructure • Adopted teaching methods Learning Environment • Subject Knowledge • Knowledge of Learners • Teaching Skills • Friendliness and Approachability • Personality and behavior • Level of Adjustment & Mental Health • Discipline Teacher • Maturation • Age • Motivation • Previous learning • Intelligence • Metal health • Attention & Interest • Level of Aspiration Learner • Difficulty of the Task • Length of the task • Meaningful of the task • Similarity of the task Subject Matters Factors Affecting Teaching related to…
  • 21. Methods of Teaching Teacher centred vs. Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.). Topic # 4 21
  • 22. Instructor-centered Teaching When an instructor or a facilitator is in actively involved in teaching while the learners are in a passive, receptive mode listening as the instructor or a facilitator teaches is known as instructor-centered Teaching. In this teaching, an instructor is fully responsible for what is taught and how it is learned. The learner is fully dependent upon the instructor for all learning. Here the instructor is responsible for the process of evaluation. 22
  • 23. Learner-centered Teaching When a student or a learner is more emphasized in a classroom than others is known as learner-centered teaching. It also involves each student's interests, abilities, and learning styles, placing the learning instructors for individuals rather than for the class. It includes self-evaluation. 23
  • 24. Teacher-Focused Strategy Lecture Method It is a process of teaching in which the teacher tells his/her students about the planned facts. The students listen and take notes. Team Teaching Teachers together prepare their course, frame the syllabus, prepare the lesson plans, teach, guide and evaluate the results of the students. Video Presentation It is an improved method in which it involves radio or audio presentation, and it can virtually bring the whole world inside the classroom.
  • 25. Tutorials & Simulations Demonstration Project Method Group Discussion & Panel Discussion Seminar Brainstorming & Role Play Mixed Mixed Strategy
  • 26. Heuristic Method CAI PLM Assignment Project Work Case Study Students Focused Students Focused Strategy (Individualized)
  • 27. Teaching Stages Pre-active Phase (Planning) Inter-Active Phase (Actual Teaching) Post-Active Phase (Feedback)
  • 29. Online Education @ Edinburgh Online & On-campus = ‘e-learning’ Online & Off-campus = ODL Online & No-Campus = MOOCs, OER 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Massive - Enrolment Numbers Open - No Mandatory qualifications Online - Fully Course - Structured is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. 32
  • 33. Letter Expansion Meaning M Massive An online course designed for large number of participants 33
  • 34. Letter Expansion Meaning O Open Course can be accessed by (almost) anyone anywhere Open as in freedom of place, pace and time Open to everyone without entry qualifications Course can be completed for free 34
  • 35. Letter Expansion Meaning O Online All aspects of course are delivered Online (Complete Course ONLINE) 35
  • 36. Letter Expansion Meaning C Course The course offers a full course experience including • Educational Content • Facilitation Interaction among peers • Activities/Tasks, Tests, including feedback • Some kind of (non formal) recognition options • A Study Guide / syllabus 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Categories of MOOCs Believe in the conventional approach where the courses are well-structured with pre-selected reading and reference materials. xMOOCS Allow for dynamic development of study material. No pre-planned set of reading materials and courseware, Material will be developed through online discussions and collaborations among learners taking the course across the globe. cMOOCS 38
  • 39. SWAYAM Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds
  • 41. 41
  • 42. MOOCs Advantages Sharing ideas & knowledge Improves cross cultural a relationship Enhances active learning Encourages flipping the classroom Knowledge sharing in Discussion Forum No exam fever Peer evaluation Self paced learning Earn from world class universities 42
  • 43. MOOCs Demerits No real-time questioning No physical hands-on practical exposures No effective assessment Gradually kill the care, empathy and respect 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Teaching Support System Traditional, Modern and ICT based. Topic # 5 45
  • 46. Computers, internet, laptops, e-readers, e-books, TV,, CD, DVD, Interactive Whiteboard, LCD Projects Modern Support System CAI, Video Conferencing, Projectors, AR, VR, AI ICT Based Support System Blackboards, textbooks, pictures, posters, maps atlases, globes, flashcards, flip cards, Science lab apparatus. Traditional Teaching Support System Types of Teaching Support System
  • 47. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. Evaluation Systems Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems. Topic # 6 49
  • 50. Evaluation Techniques in Education 50
  • 52. 52
  • 53. Key Words under CBCS (Choice Based Credit System) Academic Year (Odd & Even Semester) Grade Point, Letter Grade CGPA SGPA Grade Card or Certificate Courses, Credit
  • 54. Efficiency Convenience Automatic Scoring with Instant feedback Analytics & Report Security Configurations Less Human Error & Reusability Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Offline Assessment 01 Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Online Assessment 02 Computer Based Test (CBT) Advantages
  • 55. Innovations in Evaluation Systems ConcepTests Talk Show Performance Minute Paper Artificial Intelligence & Gamification Assessment Rubrics ePortfolio Podcasts and Vlog