1. POLLUTION DUE TO PLASTIC WASTE
•Types of plastic waste
•Pollution of water bodies, drains, sewage
• Soil pollution- assessment of level of
•Impact on soil quality
•Control measures- role of societies & civic
2. PLASTIC WASTE
Once plastic is discarded after its utility is over, it is
known as plastic waste
The term “plastics” includes materials composed of
various elements such as carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur.
Plastics typically have high molecular weight,
meaning each molecule can have thousands of
atoms bound together.
In other words plastics are macromolecules,
formed by polymerization and having the ability to
be shaped by the application of reasonable amount
of heat and pressure or any other form of forces.
3. CATEGORIES OF PLASTIC
Recyclable Plastics (Thermoplastics): PET,
HDPE, LDPE, PP, PVC, PS, etc.
B. Non-Recyclable Plastics (Thermoset &
others): Multilayer & Laminated Plastics, PUF,
Bakelite, Polycarbonate, Melamine, Nylon etc.
4. THERMO PLASTIC THERMOSET PLASTIC
Polyethylene tetraphthalate Bakelite
Poly vinyl acetate Melamine
Poly vinyl chloride Polyester
Low density polyethylene Urea-Formaldehyde
High density polethylene
5. TYPES OF PLASTIC WASTE
High density polyethylene
Low density polethlene
7. QUANTITY OF PLASTIC
MATERIAL IN INDIA
Plastic products have become an integral part in
everybody’s daily life. Its production crosses the 150
million tonnes per year globally and in India,
approximately 8 Million tonnes plastic products are
consumed every year (2008)
The current growth rate in Indian polymer
consumption (16% p.a.) is clearly higher than that
in China (10% p.a.) and many other key Asian
8. The average Indian consumption of virgin
plastics per capita reached 3.2 kg in
2000/2001 (5 kg if recycled material is
included) from a mere 0.8 kg in 1990/1991.
However, this is only one-fourth of the
consumption in China (12 kg/capita, 1998)
and one sixth of the world average
This consumption led to more than 5400
tonnes of plastics waste being generated per
day in 2000/2001 (totalling 2 million tonnes
9. The consumption of plastics will increase about
sixfold between 2000 and 2030.
The share of polyolefins in India will remain at about
60%, a percentage comparable to that of Western
In 2030, plastics waste for disposal (excluding
recycled plastics) will increase 10 times compared to
the situation in the year 2000/2001; this model result
assumes that the plastics recycling rates will remain
at the current level for the next three decades.
10. Mostly, plastic waste are recyclable but,recycled
products are more harmful to the environment as
thus contains additives and colours .
The recycling of a virgin plastic material can be done
2-3 times only, because after every recycling, the
plastic material deteriorates due to thermal pressure
and its life span is reduced.
Hence recycling is not a safer and permanent
solution for plastic waste disposal.
It is estimated that approximately 70% of plastic
packaging products are converted into plastic waste
in a short span.
Approximately 5.6 million tons per annum (TPA)
plastic waste is generated in country, which amounts
to 15342 tons per day (TPD)
11. PLASTIC POLLUTION
Plastic pollution involves the accumulation
of plastic products in the environment that
adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or
Plastic pollution occurs in many forms,
including but not limited to littering,marine
debris (man-made waste that has been released
in a lake, sea, ocean, or waterway), plastic
particle water pollution, plastic netting
and Friendly Floatees.
13. ON LAND
Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals into
the surrounding soil, which can then seep
into groundwater or other surrounding water sources.
Landfill areas are constantly piled high with many
different types of plastics.
In these landfills, there are many
microorganisms which speed up the biodegradation of
Regarding biodegradable plastics, as they are broken
down, methane is released, which is a very
powerful greenhouse gas that contributes significantly
to global warming.
14. ON OCEAN
Nurdles are plastic pellets (a type of microplastic)
that are shipped in this form, often in cargo ships, to
be used for the creation of plastic products.
A significant amount of nurdles are spilled into
oceans, and it has been estimated that globally,
around 10% of beach litter is nurdles.
Plastics in oceans typically degrade within a year, but
not entirely, and in the process toxic chemicals such
as bisphenol a and polystyrene can leach into waters
from some plastics.
15. Polystyrene pieces and nurdles are the most
common types of plastic pollution in oceans,
and combined with plastic bags and food
containers make up the majority of oceanic
In 2012, it was estimated that there was
approximately 165 million tons of plastic
pollution in the world's oceans
16. IN RIVERS
Plastic waste is finding its way into the rivers,
oceans and seas of the world due to which the rich
marine life is facing serious health hazards. Marine
animals like fish, sea birds, otters and other marine
species are swallowing these plastic wastes as
food items that are leading to a premature death of
these precious marine species.
17. ON HUMANS
Plastics contain many different types of chemicals, depending
on the type of plastic.
The addition of chemicals is the main reason why these plastics
have become so multipurpose, however this has problems
associated with it.
Some of the chemicals used in plastic production have the
potential to be absorbed by human beings through skin
A lot is unknown on how severely humans are physically
affected by these chemicals. Some of the chemicals used in
plastic production can cause dermatitis upon contact with
In many plastics, these toxic chemicals are only used in trace
amounts, but significant testing is often required to ensure that
the toxic elements are contained within the plastic by inert
material or polymer.
18. ISSUES ON DISPOSAL OF PLASTIC WASTE:
• Release of fugitive emissions during polymerization
• Release of harmful gases such as Carbon Monoxide,
Formaldehyde etc. during product manufacturing.
• Land become infertile due to indiscriminate plastic
• Release of toxic emissions such as Carbon Monoxide,
Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxin, Furans, Amines,
Nitrides, Styrene, Benzene, 1, 3- butadiene, CCl4, and
Acetaldehyde on burning of plastics waste including
polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
19. • Leaching of toxic metals into underground water such as
Lead and Cadmium pigments due to indiscriminate
dumping of plastic waste on land.
• Multilayer, metalised pouches and other thermoset plastic
pose disposal problems.
• Sub-standard plastic carry bags, thin packaging films etc.
pose problem in collection and recycling and reuse.
• Indiscriminate and littered plastic waste pose unaesthetic
look and choke the drain.
• Soiled and mixed plastics waste interferes its beneficial
• Unsound of plastic waste and running of recycling
industries in non-conforming areas releases fugitive
20. CONTROL MEASURES
It has been observed that disposal of plastic waste is a
serious concern due to improper collection and
However, a few technologies have been developed to
minimize its adverse effect on the environment.
Currently Worldwide accepted technology used for the
plastic disposal is incineration, though it is not preferred
option in India because it releases toxic gases like
chlorinated dioxins and furans, raising several
CPCB put efforts to consolidate innovative technical
options for safer disposal of plastic waste, these are
described in the following paragraphs. It is worth to note
that before adopting any technology, it is necessary to
segregate plastic waste from municipal and others solid
21. Using incinerators: Plastic waste is being burned in incinerator
centers located outside the city limits in developed economies
and this practice is now being followed by developing
economies as well. This technique eliminates huge volumes of
plastic material but there are some concerns related with air
pollution due to such burning but efforts are being made to
improve technology to reduce such air pollution in future.
Prohibition on manufacturing/selling of certain plastic
material/bags: Some governments in the developed and
developing countries has prohibited the manufacture and
selling of plastic bags or material that contains more than the
standard prescribed microns of plastic. By this way, the
excessive dependence on plastic has been controlled to some
extent. (Understand better about ill-effects of plastics.)
22. Using paper bags and other cloth materials as
shopping bags for a customer can be useful. It
is suggested to use paper bags and bags made
with cloth material such as jute, cotton etc while
going for shopping or for purchasing grocery
items. In this way, we as individuals can rely
less on the plastic bags while going on a
23. CIVIC PRACTICES
Using garbage bins/dust bins at public places for
disposing of the plastic water bottles, food
containers and other plastic material.
Avoid throwing plastic garbage in open spaces,
public places, water channels, rivers, sea beaches
and other fragile natural resources or environment.
24. Follow the government regulations relating to
plastic management and help the government
agencies in dealing with plastic waste.
Create awareness among the people about safe
practices of plastic waste management and run
a campaign if possible with the help of other
agencies who are involved in plastic waste