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INT-244 Confucianism

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INT-244 Confucianism

  1. 1. Confucianism
  2. 2. Demographics • Worldwide 6,111,000 followers • Taiwan, Korea, Japan, China, and Vietnam Association of Religion Data Archives (2006) https://worldhistorya3.weebly.com/
  3. 3. History
  4. 4. Confucius (Kong Qi) 551 - 479 BC Born in Qufu, China In the State of Lu Modern day Shandong province https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucianism/
  5. 5. ( Late Spring & Autumn Period (771 - 481 BC)
  6. 6. City of Lu Shangdon Province
  7. 7. Confucius Kong Fuzi Means master Kong https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucianism/
  8. 8. Confucius Zhou Dynasty Director of Public works Director of Justice Department https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucianism/
  9. 9. School Curriculum Trained civil servants Taught ruling class they could have happy, fulfilling lives if they observed right conduct, moral code, and just government https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucianism/
  10. 10. School Curriculum Ruling Class were uninterested! https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  11. 11. Confucius 498 BC Left Qufu and traveled for 14 years and allegedly teaching The five classics But people didn’t seem interested https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  12. 12. Confucius Gathered four disciples https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  13. 13. Confucius 484 BC Offered a position in Qufu Returned home https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  14. 14. Confucius Set up his own school in Lu https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  15. 15. Temple of Confucius in Shandong Province
  16. 16. Died in 479 BC Age 73 in Qufu, Lu Province https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius
  17. 17. Five Great Sages Confucius (551 - 479 BC) Mengzi (505 - 435 BC) Tzu Ssu (481 - 402 BC) Mencius (372 - 289 BC) Xunzi (310 - 235 BC) https://www.worldhistory.org/Mencius/
  18. 18. Mencius (Mang Tze) 372-289 BC Popularized / spread Confucianism https://www.worldhistory.org/Mencius/
  19. 19. Born in Zhou Province 372 BC Traveled all around china spreading Confucianism and planting schools https://www.worldhistory.org/Mencius/
  20. 20. Han Dynasty 202 BC - 220 AD Officially adopted Confucianism as the national belief system and it has been Chinese culture since https://www.britannica.com/topic/Han-dynasty
  21. 21. Four Books & Five Classics • The Book of Rites (aka Great Learning) • The Doctrine of the Mean • The Analects of Confucius • The Works of Mencius • The I-Ching • The Classics of Poetry • The Classics of Rites • The Classics of History • The Spring and Autumn Annals https://www.worldhistory.org/Mencius/
  22. 22. Teaching & Beliefs
  23. 23. Confucianism Premise: Moral harmony of the individual is related to social harmony. Social harmony of a society is related to cosmic harmony
  24. 24. Premise Heaven does not have two suns and the people do not have two kings'. A consequence of this idea is that, just as there is only one cosmic environment, there is only one true way to live and only one correct political system. If society fails it is because sacred texts and teachings have been misinterpreted; the texts themselves contain the Way but we must search for and find it. https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucianism/
  25. 25. Basic Principles 1. People are innately good & inclined to choose good 2. People choose wrong because they are ignorant 3. People are ignorant of the moral code 4. People can be educated in the moral code 5. People educated in the moral code will choose good https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucius/
  26. 26. Basic Principles 1. Tian (Heaven) is the source and sustainer of life 2. Understanding one’s relationship to Tian and one’s place in the universe establishes social order https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucius/
  27. 27. Five Hierarchical Relationships 1. Ruler to Subject 2. Husband to Wife 3. Father to Son 4. Brother (older) to Brother (younger) 5. Friend (older) to Friend (younger) https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucius/
  28. 28. Five Virtues 1. Ren – benevolence 2. Yi – righteousness 3. Li – ritual 4. Zhi – knowledge 5. Xin - integrity 1. Xiao – filial piety 2. Zhong – loyalty 3. Jie – contingency 4. Yi – justice/righteousness Four Constants Guo, Qiyong et al. (2012). The values of Confucian benevolence. Frontiers of philosophy in China 7(1) pp. 20-54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44259370
  29. 29. The Silver Rule Whatsoever you do not want done to you, do not do to others (Analects 12:2)
  30. 30. Civil Service Exam Han Dynasty All civil servants Military officers Required to take exam Any male was eligible
  31. 31. Mulan, 2020, “It is my place to bring honor to the family”
  32. 32. Mulan, 2020, “Taking the sword”
  33. 33. Confucian Texts
  34. 34. Books of Confucianism • Five Classics • Four Books of Learning Academic.hamilton.edu/asian_studies
  35. 35. Five Classics 1. Book of Odes 2. Book of Documents 3. Book of Rites 4. Spring & Autumn Annals 5. Book of Changes (I-Ching) Academic.hamilton.edu/asian_studies
  36. 36. Four Books of Learning 1. The Great Learning 2. The Analects 3. The Book of Mencius 4. The Doctrine of the Mean Academic.hamilton.edu/asian_studies
  37. 37. Five Classics Wujing 1. Book of Odes 2. Book of Documents 3. Book of Rites 4. Spring & Autumn Annals 5. Book of Changes (I Ching) https://www.worldhistory.org/Confucius/
  38. 38. Book of Odes Aka Book of Songs AKA Book of Poetry 305 Poems Folk songs Sacrificial hymns Love, marriage, farming, war https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  39. 39. How is the Night? How is the night? The night's not yet ended. Courtyard torches are lit; our lord is coming, his bridle-bells make tinkling sounds. How is the night? The night's not yet over. Courtyard torches shimmer and shine: our lord is coming, his bridle-bells make jangling sounds. How is the night? The night gives way to dawn. Courtyard torches are glimmering: our lord is coming, I can see his banners! Kizer, K. (2002). Poem 152 in Chinese poetry. https://www.litkicks.com/BookOfOdes
  40. 40. Book of Documents Events of ancient China 58 chapters Chronicles kings Yao & Shun The role and duties of a sage The Role and duty of a king https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  41. 41. Book of Rites Social Norms during Zhou dyanasty Government organizations Ritual Conduct https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  42. 42. Book of Rites • If a man be sitting, let him do so as a personator of the deceased; if he be standing, let him do so (reverently), as in sacrificing • In going to take counsel with an elder, one must carry a stool and a staff with him (for the elder's use). When the elder asks a question, to reply without acknowledging one's incompetency and (trying to) decline answering, is contrary to propriety https://www.sacred-texts.com/cfu/liki/liki01.htm
  43. 43. All wisdom comes from the Lord, and so do common sense and understanding (Proverbs 2:6, CEV)
  44. 44. When a man sees an intimate friend of his father, not to presume to go forward to him without being told to do so; nor to retire without being told; nor to address him without being questioned:--this is the conduct of a filial son, 5. A son, when he is going abroad, must inform (his parents where he is going); when he returns, he must present himself before them. Where he travels must be in some fixed (region); what he engages in must be some (reputable) occupation. 6. In ordinary conversation (with his parents), he does not use the term 'old' (with reference to them)[2]. 7. He should serve one twice as old as himself as he serves his father, one ten years older than himself as an elder brother; with one five years older he should walk shoulder to shoulder, but (a little) behind him. 8. When five are sitting together, the eldest must have a different mat (by himself)[3]. 9. A son should not occupy the south-west corner of the apartment, https://www.sacred-texts.com/cfu/liki/liki01.htm
  45. 45. Kung Fu, 1972, “Why did you not drink”
  46. 46. Spring & Autumn Annals Longest of 5 classics History of State of Lu https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  47. 47. Book of Changes I- Ching https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  48. 48. Five Classics Wujing It was whilst he was teaching in his school that Confucius started to write. Two collections of poetry were the Book of Odes (Shijing or Shi king) and the Book of Documents (Shujing or Shu king). The Spring and Autumn Annals (Lin Jing or Lin King), which told the history of Lu, and the Book of Changes ( Yi Jing or Yi king) was a collection of treatises on divination. https://www.ancient.eu/Confucius/
  49. 49. 1. In the first (or lowest) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon lying hid (in the deep). It is not the time for active doing. 2. In the second NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon appearing in the field. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man. 3. In the third NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the superior man active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. (The position is) dangerous, but there will be no mistake. 4. In the fourth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up, but still in the deep. There will be no mistake. The Khien Hexagram By King Wan https://www.sacred-texts.com/ich/ic01.htm
  50. 50. 5. In the fifth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon on the wing in the sky. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man. 6. In the sixth (or topmost) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon exceeding the proper limits. There will be occasion for repentance. 7. (The lines of this hexagram are all strong and undivided, as appears from) the use of the number NINE. If the host of dragons (thus) appearing were to divest themselves of their heads, there would be good fortune. The Khien Hexagram By King Wan https://www.sacred-texts.com/ich/ic01.htm
  51. 51. The Four Books of Learning 1. Book of Analects 2. Book of Mencius 3. Book of Great Learning 4. Doctrine of the Mean https://www.ancient.eu/Confucius/
  52. 52. The Analects During Spring Autumn Period of China Collection of Confucian Proverbs https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  53. 53. Textbook for Civil Service https://www.britannica.com/topic/Yijing
  54. 54. Analects 2.3 If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame and, moreover, will become good. (Analects, 2.3; Tamblyn, p. 3)
  55. 55. • By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest. • Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it. • It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop. • Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated. • If you make a mistake and do not correct it, this is called a mistake. • Study the past if you would define the future. https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/15321.Confucius
  56. 56. • The funniest people are the saddest ones • Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves • To be wronged is nothing…unless of course you continue to remember it • The man who asks a question is a fool for a minute, the man who does not ask is a fool for life. • When you see a good person, think of becoming like her/him. When you see someone not so good, reflect on your own weak points • The gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected without trials. https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/15321.Confucius
  57. 57. Book of Mencius Conversations between Mencius & disciples How to govern https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  58. 58. Book of Great Learning The Great Learning is a guide for moral self- cultivation. According to the Great Learning, the key to moral self-cultivation is learning, or the investigation of things. Through the investigation of things, one comes to understand the principle in all things, which allows one to better comprehend the world. Through this moral self-cultivation, one's li (principle) and qi (psychophysical stuff) are in harmony, leading to consistent moral behavior. Zhu Xi prescribed that The Great Learning be the first of the Confucian Classics read, as the message contained in The Great Learning would orient scholars to think about the value of their studies. https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  59. 59. Doctrine of the Mean The Doctrine of the Mean has been translated in many ways, including The Constant Mean (Legge) and Maintaining Perfect Balance (Gardener). The Doctrine of the Mean is attributed to Zisi, Kongzi's grandson, and deals with how to maintain perfect balance and harmony in one's life. The Doctrine of the Mean focuses on following the Way and acting in accordance with what is right and natural, but acknowledges that people often do not act properly. To rectify the situation, people are encouraged to engage in moral self-cultivation to act properly. In addition, the Doctrine of the Mean emphasizes the fact that the good governance rests with men and that rulers who maintain balance are not only more effective, but also encourage the Way in others. https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/CultTemp/sitePages/ fi veclassics.html
  60. 60. Temple Rituals
  61. 61. Stress honoring the ancestors
  62. 62. Mulan (1998)
  63. 63. Confucian Temple in Quzhou Probably built about 1136. They have sacri fi ces to Confucius and tablets dedicated to the scholars there
  64. 64. Temple to Confucius in Beijing One hundred ninety-eight carved stone tablets that still stand in front of the main gate of the Temple in Beijing best illustrate the Confucius Temple's integral connection with the examination system: they bear over fifty thousand names of men who passed the highest examination beginning in 1313, the date of the first examination to be held in the capital city of Beijing, to 1904, when the last civil examination was held there. The Libationer of the Directorate of Education led the new degree-holders who had passed the Palace Examination to the Temple to pay obeisance to the Supreme Sage. https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/culttemp/index.html
  65. 65. Confucian Temple in Beijing
  66. 66. Confucianism In Modern China
  67. 67. Mao Tse Tung Communist Revolution 1949 Sought to eradicate Confucianism
  68. 68. Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976 Confucian Books Burned Temples destroyed
  69. 69. Confucian Temple in Taipei Taiwan Confucianism survived in Taiwan from 1949 to 1996 after Mao and was brought back to China by scholars
  70. 70. Communism Changed China Erased Class differences Woman had equal rights Erased religious practices (secularism)
  71. 71. Communism Retained Confucianism Loyalty to the State Stress on education and civil service exams Stress on social duty
  72. 72. Deng Xiaoping 1978 - 1989
  73. 73. Return of Confucianism Confucianism has made comeback as the Communist Party looked for ways to justify its authoritarianism and forge a common Chinese identity. In the 1990s, Confucianism was promoted to provide moral teachings and counteract the decadence and materialism brought about by the Deng reforms. In the early 2000s, a number of schools opened up to teach Confucian values to youngsters and an institute was set up at Renmin University devoted to the study of Confucius and Confucian thought. Hays, Sep 2016, “Confucianism Today”
  74. 74. Gaokao Modern Day College Exam Determines if a student will go to a. Tech or Vocation School b. Chinese University
  75. 75. Ruism Modern traditions and Social values in China rooted in Confucian philosophy including stress on Learning, self-development, and social hierarchy Vigo (2014) China Source Quarterly
  76. 76. guóxué Modern educational program providing adult opportunities to earn a BA, MA or even PhD, Stressing Confucian texts and moral education Vigo (2014) China Source Quarterly
  77. 77. The Confucius Institute • Founded in 2004 • Confucian learning around the world • Some are institutes within Universities. • Some are independent schools • Teach Chinese, culture, music, • Controversy: Propaganda tool of the PRC • Suppress learning about Taiwan • Promote learning about Communism https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/01/16/how-china-in fi ltrated-us-classrooms-216327/
  78. 78. Page, Jeremy. (2015). Chinese Communist Party Turns to Confucius. Wall Street Journal