Digital Culture has allowed many avenues for producing and
publishing different artefacts within society
This presentation explores ideas surrounding how the ‘digital
moment’ or technology has increased the concept of remix culture
with a look at manipulation of photography and areas of sampling
within the music industry
Within the creative context where does copyright sit when the
‘digital revolution” has allowed people all over the world to go from
simple consumers to producers in the digital age?
The Digital movement formed through out the 1980s into the 1990s and
has evolved and continues to develop rapidly in present day.
It allows people to share ideas, information and expressions over vast
distances in virtually no time. It connects people to a network and has
empowered people like never before.
Through the digital movement or culture, the way people produce and
consume within society has also been altered.
The way someone gains access to, uses and often making copies of a
work is much easier, affordable and faster than ever.
To an extent, in an online environment, copying a piece of work is as
simple as clicking on a web page to view the content as when one clicks
on a page, automatically a copy of that link is made on a computers
system and memory.
Copyright was designed to regulate copying and productions of work, but
not simply viewing, yet with the digital age, programmes and web pages
available, the distinctions of copyright are becoming less clear by the
In the digital world a click of a button and create, recreate and unlimited
amount of productions!!!
Giving individuals access to being able to remix a piece of art with out
needing to possess the traditional idea of ‘talent’ or experience that is
often associated with artists!
Any Warhol -Pop Art, Marilyn
With the click of a button, and
the help of different programmes
found on the internet, I be
considered an artist too?????
Clicking a button and recreating art or culture is seemingly what remix
culture is about.....
So in this digital world art and technology work together
Within digital culture, technology increases the possibilities for
modifying original work or even reproduce or imitate different elements
of art (McCourt 2005: 251)
Even with the simple click of a button in most editing programmes you
can make a simple photograph look like it has been painted or immense
effort has been put into it.
Changes in the production and manipulation of photography are increasingly
leading to production of new products, stimulating new desires and evolving
through communication and digital culture (Wells and Price 2003: 24).
“Mashups involve the reuse, or remixing, of works of art, of content, and/or of
data for purposes that usually were not intended or even imagined by the
original creators” (Lamb 2007:14)
Intertextuality seems to be the key within mashup or remix culture, taking one
thing into something else and making it new again or turning it into something
Thanks to the Mp3 and digital technology, music
can be more easily and rapidly transferred across
global networks. As well as this, music can be
reconfigured, re-contextualised, altered and
reproduced on the world wide web..........
You only need to search “lip sync” on you tube to
discover the million videos individuals have posted
lip syncing to their favourite song or parody’s
incorporating different videos or different
An extreme example of changing the context or
idea of something on you tube can be seen with
different voice over clips such as this one.....take
the time have a laugh and see what remix culture
Music is the prime example of this...........
MP3, an abbreviation of Motion Picture Experts Group One Audio Layer
BASICALLY a programme which shrinks the size of the music file that
reduces the amount of space required for its storage and increases the
possibility for transfer between devices across networked communications
(Beer 2008: 73)
In this day and age people can have music where ever they go!
Open your eyes, and see how they listen! The head
phones go every where............................ Taking their
play lists and accessing music where ever they roam.....
The digital revolution, and being able to condense music files
has enabled individuals to make their own mashups in forms
of play lists, edit their own music at home and then upload it
them selves onto the internet...
Within society consumer’s is are faced with a range of
cultural offerings that have been
pre-selected by the companies of the culture industry and the
media (Tschmuck 2009:253), in a way this is an alternative
way of consuming music on their terms and digital culture
has turned the consumer into a producer.
Girl Talk is the pseudonym of DJ and re-mixer Greg
Known for sampling artists from all over the world, and remixing them to create his own
Re-contextualising and creating another aspect of remix digital culture.......
But taking elements of other artist’s creations and using them in a new piece of music,
thanks to the digital age,
Girl Talk is an example of a DJ who has used the technique of
sampling to create mash-ups of different musicians and re-
contextualise it into a new art form.
Each of his songs are built on recognizable samples of hit singles,
re-contextualized into an entirely new piece.
In a documentary addressing the gray area of sampling with a focus on
Girl Talk’s work presents ideas that address where sampling and copy
right issues should merge. He does not pay the artists he samples and
the documentary “Good Copy Bad Copy” 2007 explores this area
“Based on the notion that some sampling of copy righted
material, especially when manipulated and recontextualised into a new art
form is legit a deserves to be heard”
“I do my own work (remixing different samples) but I do owe all of them
(sampled artists) a little credit because they are blatantly on the album.
Why go after some one who is simply trying to make music?”
In the featured example you can here many different samples of artists and
already well known songs put together to make a new production of work
Through the digital age these productions have been possible, evolving
creativity through appropriation of music.
Where the issue lies in this example of remix culture is the gray area that is
copy right.... Digital culture has challenged the ‘traditional’ music industries
three pillars on which they are based on: control over publishing rights,
marketing and promotional power, and control of distribution networks
The idea of copy right is designed to prevent the
unauthorised use by others of a work, that is, the
original form in which an idea or information has
been expressed (Attorney General Dept. 2008)
To it is clear to see that copy right is there to protect
authors and artisits from their work being
misrepresented or appropriated,
Within the music industry, it can be seen that copyright law
enables record companies to control the
commercialization of the authors’ and musicians’ creative
work, which leads to monopolistic competition in the music
industry (Tschmuck 2009:261)
Yet the corporate side of the music industry has been said
“a ruthless corporate machine that continually
attempts to control creativity, compromise aesthetic
practices and offers audiences little real choice”
To an extent, Girl Talk has broken copy right laws, but as
Keil and Field (1994) has suggested that “Everybody’s
music belongs to everybody else” (321) and if the music
industry is evil, isn’t he just doing justice which is
facilitated by digital culture?
We have now seen how Digital Culture enables re-mix culture which has
allowed the development of popular music within society and can encourage
individuals to explore their creative side by becoming a producer
Remix Culture, Fair use is your friend.
The use of something else or a remix or re-contextualisation of an artefact
should be seen as a positive thing within society!
From photos to music, the production of one thing always comes from
another and re-mix culture is becoming part of the digital generation way!!
We have the whole world in our hands thanks to digital culture…
Beer, David (2008) 'THE ICONIC INTERFACE AND THE VENEER OF SIMPLICITY:MP3 players and the reconfiguration of music
collecting and reproduction practices in the digital age', Information, Communication & Society, 11:1, 71 – 88
Keil, C. Field, S 1994) “Commodified grooves! Music Groove, University of Chicago Press: Chicago
Lamb, B. (2007). Dr Mashup; or, why educators should learn to stop worrying and love the remix. EDUCAUSE Review, 42(4), 12-25.
McCourt, Tom(2005)'Collecting Music in the Digital Realm',Popular Music and Society,28:2,249 — 252
Negus, K. ‘Where the Mystical Meets the Market:
Creativity and Commerce in the Production of Popular Music’ in The Sociological Review, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp316-341.
Tschmuck, Peter(2009)'COPYRIGHT, CONTRACTS AND MUSIC PRODUCTION',Information, Communication &
Society,12:2,251 — 266
Vaidhyanathan, S. ‘The Digital Moment’ and ‘Epilogue’ in Copyrights and Copywrongs:
The Rise of Intellectual Property and How it Threatens Creativity, New York University Press, New York, 2000, pp. 149-189.
Wells, L and Price, D (2003) ‘Aesthetics and Technology’ in Liz Wells (ed) Photography: A Critical Introduction 2nd ed., Routledge,
‘Good Copy Bad Copy’ (2007) Directed by: ANDREAS JOHNSEN RALF CHRISTENSEN HENRIK MOLTKE