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 Characteristics of Echinoderms
 Echinoderms are characterized by radial
symmetry, several arms (5 or more, mostly
grouped 2 left - 1 middle - 2 right) radiating
from a central body (= pentamerous). The
body actually consists of five equal
segments, each containing a duplicate set
of various internal organs. They have no
heart, brain, nor eyes, but some brittle stars
seem to have light sensitive parts on their
arms.
 Ecology and range of Echinoderms
 Echinoderms are exclusively marine. They
occur in various habitats from the
intertidal zone down to the bottom of
the deep sea trenches and from sand to
rubble to coral reefs and in cold and
tropical seas.
 Behavior of Echinoderms
 Some echinoderms are
carnivorous (for example
starfish) others are
detritus foragers (for
example some sea
cucumbers) or
planktonic feeders (for
example basket stars).
 Reproduction is carried
out by the release of
sperm and eggs into the
water.
 Examples of Echinoderms
 Star Fish
 Sea Urchins
 Sea Stars or Star Fish
 Heart Urchins
 Sand Dollars
 Sea Cucumbers
 Are examples of Echinoderms.
 Characteristics of sea stars (or starfish)
 Sea stars are characterized by radial symmetry, several
arms radiating from a central body. Mouth and anus are
close together on the underside, the anus is at the center
of the disc together with the water intake . The upper
surface is often very colorful. Minute pincer-like structures
called pedicellaria are present. These structures ensure
that the surface of the arms stay free from algae. The
underside is often a lighter color.
 There are a few starfish that have 6 or 7 arms, for example
Echinaster luzonicus or Protoreaster, some even more like
the elven-armed sea star . Others normally have 5 arms
but now have more arms, because after an injury an arm
divided and grew into two arms.
The majority of sea stars are carnivorous
and feed on sponges, bryozoans,
ascidians and molluscs. Other starfishes
are detritus feeders (detritus =
organically enriched film that covers
rocks) or scavengers. Some starfish are
specialized feeders, for example the
crown-of-thorns that feeds on life coral
polyps.
 It can reach 50 cm diameter and has
numerous (10 to 20) spiny arms with
formidable thorn like toxic spines. The
crown-of-thorns feed on live coral
polyps. They "graze" the corals which are
left behind white and dead. Scientist
have also found out, that some crown of
thorns are deterred from eating the coral
polyps by the small crabs living among
the coral branches (Trapezia sp).
 Feather stars also known as crinoids. They
are characterized by radial symmetry. The
body of a typical feather star is cup-shaped,
their numerous feathery arms project from a
central disc. Some have five arms, others as
many as 200. The arms, called pinnules are
coated with a sticky substance that helps to
catch food.
 Feather stars are primarily nocturnal but
they are seen in the open during the day
with their arms rolled up.
 Feather stars can crawl, roll, walk and
even swim but usually they cling to sponges
or corals. Feather stars are very abundant in
areas exposed to periodic strong currents,
because they feed on plaktonic food
 Brittle stars are close relatives of sea stars.
Characterized by radial symmetry with a
central body from which five snakelike
arms protrude. The arms are highly
flexible.
 As the name suggests, the arms of the
brittle stars are rather liable to break. This is
actually an escape mechanism. Those arms
regenerate quickly and an entire new
organism can regenerate, if the broken arm
is attached to a seizable portion of the disk.
Brittle stars can reproduce asexually by self-
division. Brittle stars are the most active and
fastest moving echinoderms.
Echinoderms
Echinoderms
Echinoderms
Echinoderms
Echinoderms
Echinoderms

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Echinoderms

  • 1.
  • 2.  Characteristics of Echinoderms  Echinoderms are characterized by radial symmetry, several arms (5 or more, mostly grouped 2 left - 1 middle - 2 right) radiating from a central body (= pentamerous). The body actually consists of five equal segments, each containing a duplicate set of various internal organs. They have no heart, brain, nor eyes, but some brittle stars seem to have light sensitive parts on their arms.
  • 3.  Ecology and range of Echinoderms  Echinoderms are exclusively marine. They occur in various habitats from the intertidal zone down to the bottom of the deep sea trenches and from sand to rubble to coral reefs and in cold and tropical seas.
  • 4.  Behavior of Echinoderms  Some echinoderms are carnivorous (for example starfish) others are detritus foragers (for example some sea cucumbers) or planktonic feeders (for example basket stars).  Reproduction is carried out by the release of sperm and eggs into the water.
  • 5.  Examples of Echinoderms  Star Fish  Sea Urchins  Sea Stars or Star Fish  Heart Urchins  Sand Dollars  Sea Cucumbers  Are examples of Echinoderms.
  • 6.  Characteristics of sea stars (or starfish)  Sea stars are characterized by radial symmetry, several arms radiating from a central body. Mouth and anus are close together on the underside, the anus is at the center of the disc together with the water intake . The upper surface is often very colorful. Minute pincer-like structures called pedicellaria are present. These structures ensure that the surface of the arms stay free from algae. The underside is often a lighter color.  There are a few starfish that have 6 or 7 arms, for example Echinaster luzonicus or Protoreaster, some even more like the elven-armed sea star . Others normally have 5 arms but now have more arms, because after an injury an arm divided and grew into two arms.
  • 7. The majority of sea stars are carnivorous and feed on sponges, bryozoans, ascidians and molluscs. Other starfishes are detritus feeders (detritus = organically enriched film that covers rocks) or scavengers. Some starfish are specialized feeders, for example the crown-of-thorns that feeds on life coral polyps.
  • 8.  It can reach 50 cm diameter and has numerous (10 to 20) spiny arms with formidable thorn like toxic spines. The crown-of-thorns feed on live coral polyps. They "graze" the corals which are left behind white and dead. Scientist have also found out, that some crown of thorns are deterred from eating the coral polyps by the small crabs living among the coral branches (Trapezia sp).
  • 9.
  • 10.  Feather stars also known as crinoids. They are characterized by radial symmetry. The body of a typical feather star is cup-shaped, their numerous feathery arms project from a central disc. Some have five arms, others as many as 200. The arms, called pinnules are coated with a sticky substance that helps to catch food.
  • 11.  Feather stars are primarily nocturnal but they are seen in the open during the day with their arms rolled up.
  • 12.  Feather stars can crawl, roll, walk and even swim but usually they cling to sponges or corals. Feather stars are very abundant in areas exposed to periodic strong currents, because they feed on plaktonic food
  • 13.  Brittle stars are close relatives of sea stars. Characterized by radial symmetry with a central body from which five snakelike arms protrude. The arms are highly flexible.
  • 14.  As the name suggests, the arms of the brittle stars are rather liable to break. This is actually an escape mechanism. Those arms regenerate quickly and an entire new organism can regenerate, if the broken arm is attached to a seizable portion of the disk. Brittle stars can reproduce asexually by self- division. Brittle stars are the most active and fastest moving echinoderms.