- 1. Differentiating Instruction Shaylynn Curtis, Michelle Jones, Sarah Porter, Veronica Vande Kamp MTE/533 Sylvia Hill September 29, 2014
- 2. Differentiated Instruction Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction, (Tomlinson, 2014).
- 3. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for science Flexibility grouping Students in the science classroom benefit from interacting with each other and working toward a common goal. An example of a goal in science is the completion of a laboratory exercise. The teacher may present a concept to the class, then put the students into pairs or small groups. Changing up the groups should happen often based on student interests, student learning style, or whatever factors that may come into play (Willoughby, 2014).
- 4. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for science Role play Students with a variety of interests, learning styles, and abilities can benefit greatly from activities that are based on authentic situations. The teacher can create lesson plans around debates, computer simulations, or science topics currently in the news (Willoughby, 2014).
- 5. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for science Learning Stations The teacher can create spaces around the classroom for small-group or independent investigation of a scientific experiment or process. The essential materials and resources should be available at each space in the classroom. There should be a topic at each space that correlates with the focus of the study. The activities at each space should encourage thinking skills and help students to solve problems (Willoughby, 2014).
- 6. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for science Orbital studies Orbital studies is when the teacher develops a list of topics that is related to a science concept. The teacher allows the students to select a top that is of interest to them. Each student performs their own investigation with help from the teacher. This type of activity provides flexibility, level of difficulty, and the makeup of the product completed by the student (Willoughby, 2014).
- 7. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for math Student Grouping - Students are placed in groups according to proficiency. - Allows teachers to challenge high-achievers, while providing remediation, repetition, and review for low achievers, (Davis, 2009). - Provides specific instruction to a few students who are seen as very high achieving, and sometimes to provide more individualized assistance to students who are seen to be achieving significantly below their peers, (Davis, 2009).
- 8. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for math Learning Centers - Classroom learning centers are important part of independent exploration and learning, (Springer, 2011). - Math learning centers provide an opportunity to practice and apply skills and strategies taught within the classroom, (K-5 Math Teaching Resources, 2010). - Math learning centers should include: a variety of activities differentiated to meet the needs of students, hold students accountable for the work in which they are engaged, and allows teachers to assess students math skills, strategies, and understanding, (K-5 Math Teaching Resources, 2010).
- 9. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for math Use of manipulatives - Manipulatives help students make the leap from intuitive to logical thinking, from concrete to the abstract, ( Learning Resources.com) - Manipulatives are helpful for problem solving skills.
- 10. Four Trends in Differentiating instruction for math Increased use of technology - Apply technology to develop students higher-order- thinking skills and creativity, (Jahan, 2014). - Use technology resources to collect and analyze data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practices and maximize student learning, (Jahan, 2014).
- 11. Instructional Issues With Trends for Science Role Play Requires careful, thoughtful planning which is time consuming. Students must be highly interested and motivated in their topic; otherwise they will not be actively involved. Expectations for students must be clear and students must be held accountable for their research, preparation, and collaboration with peers; otherwise they will not understand the purpose of the activity. Learning Stations Students might skip stations if they already know the material or if the materials is too difficult. Some stations might have task designed for advanced students only. Orbital Studies May be too difficult or complex for some students. Teachers must provide varying levels of difficulty for these activities. Flexible Grouping Students may not like working with the students they are grouped with. If students are grouped based on ability, the students with lower abilities will not benefit from their grouping.
- 12. Instructional Issues With Trends For Mathematics Student Grouping Group work consumes more time because students must coordinate time, meet, correspond, make decisions, and integrate the contributions of each team member. Some students lose motivation during group work because of free riding, social loafing, and conflict with other group members. Allocating time for group work, assessing teamwork skills and group dynamics, and assigning group grades can be difficult for teachers. Learning Centers Learning Centers require a great deal of planning because teachers must be able to articulate key skills being learned at each center and to evaluate the success of that learning center in promoting key skill development. Learning Centers may be too difficult or too easy for some students.
- 13. Instructional Issues With Trends For Mathematics Use of Manipulatives Some teachers do not know when and how to use the manipulatives. Therefore, their students fail to achieve success with them. Students can be easily distracted with manipulatives if rules and procedures are not put in place when using them. Increased use of Technology New software, training for teachers, and equipment can be very costly for schools. Teachers need to receive training with the technology so they understand the benefits to learning and to themselves. Adding technology into existing lesson plans takes additional planning time. Some software requires a significant amount of classroom time to be utilized.
- 14. Whether the trend can be used for math, science, or both Trend: Flexibility Grouping of students - This trend can be used successfully in any subject. In both math and science, students can work collaboratively in groups to reach common goals. Depending on the activity, teachers can use flexibility grouping in a variety of ways. Students can be grouped by ability or differentiate groups. Trend: Learning Stations (centers) -This trend can be used in both math and science. In math, learning stations can provide a way for teachers to differentiate instruction. In science, learning stations can provide a way for students to learn material in a variety of ways. For example, if students are learning about weather. Stations could be set up for students to learn about different areas of weather.
- 15. Whether the trend can be used for math, science, or both Trend: Role play - Role play can be used in science and math. It is commonly used in other subjects, but rarely used in math. Role playing can be used in science when students debate issues. It can be used in math by students solving real world problems that involve math. It can be difficult for some students to be motivated by this trend. Trend: Orbital Studies - Orbital studies can be used in both subjects, however, it is easier in science. It is easier for students to learn and research different areas in science. Math is a harder subject to include orbital studies. Students could chose a math mathematician to research and present to the class.
- 16. Whether the trend can be used for math, science, or both Trend: use of manipulatives - This trend is commonly used in both math and science. Students in math use manipulatives to help them learn math concepts. Students use base ten blocks to help them add or see relationships between numbers. While in science, students use science manipulatives to explore and construct their own ideas through trial and error in experiments. Trend: Technology - The trend of technology is commonly used in math and science. Teachers use technology to help students practice math facts and to explore new concepts in science. Many teachers incorporate the use of smart boards, Ipads, and other forms of technology into their daily lessons.
- 17. Math Manipulatives Lesson Plan Grades: 1 Subject: Math Estimated Time Duration: 30 minutes Lesson Summary: Students will use manipulatives as such currency, pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters) to learn how to count and add money correctly. This lesson teaches students to add coin currency correctly with the use of manipulatives.
- 18. Math Manipulatives Lesson Plan Continued Instructions: Students will be given a ziplock bag contained with a dollars amount of each coin, 100 pennies, 20 nickels, 10 dime, and 4 quarters. Students will then be given a worksheet where they are required to place the appropriate coin(s) in a box that has a desired currency amount. 27 Cents 12 Cents 34 Cents 52 Cents 96 Cents 44 Cents 19 Cents 63 Cents 7 Cents
- 19. Math Manipulatives Lesson Plan Continued Materials: Ziplock bag contained of with a dollars amount of each coin, 100 pennies, 20 nickels, 10 dime, and 4 quarters, a worksheet, pencil and scratch paper. Expansion: Students that are higher level achievers will be given a separate worksheet that focuses on subtracting currency. Accommodations: Students that need accommodations will be provided assistance and different worksheet that focuses on currency of 1-10 cents.
- 20. Reference Willoughby, J. (2014). Improving Science Education with Differentiated Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/improving_science.phtml Howes, E. V., Cruz, B.C., (2009). Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives. Journal of Elementary Science Education, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 33-46. Western Illinois University. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ849719.pdf Pbworks. (2014). Learning Stations. Retrieved from http://2differentiate.pbworks.com/w/page/860074/Learning%20Stations Teaching Excellence & Educational Motivation. (2014). What are the challenges of group work and how can I address them? Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/challenges.html Utah Education Network. (2014). Learning Centers. Retrieved from http://www.uen.org/k-2educator/learning_centers.shtml BJU Press. (2014). The Proper Use of Manipulatives in the Math Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.bjupress.com/resources/articles/t2t/proper-use-of-manipulatives-in-math-classroom.php About.com. (2014). Issues with Integrating Technology in the classroom. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/od/technologyandeducation/tp/Issues-With-Integrating-Technology-In-The-Classroom.htm
- 21. References lAbout.com. (2014). Issues with Integrating Technology in the classroom. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/od/technologyandeducation/tp/Issues-With-Integrating- Technology-In-The-Classroom.htm lBJU Press. (2014). The Proper Use of Manipulatives in the Math Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.bjupress.com/resources/articles/t2t/proper-use-of-manipulatives-in-math-classroom. php Davis, H., (2009). Education.com. Ability Grouping. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/ability-grouping/ lHowes, E. V., Cruz, B.C., (2009). Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives. Journal of Elementary Science Education, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 33-46. Western Illinois University. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ849719.pdf
- 22. References continued Jahan, A., (2014). Differentiation Using Technology in Math Classrooms. Retrieved from: http://www.tcea.org/handouts/2013/Speaker10494_Session1928_1.pdf K-5 Math Teaching Resources, (2010). Math Centers. Retrieved from: http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com/math-centers.html Learning Resources. Research on the Benefits of Manipulatives. Retrieved from: http://www.learningresources.com/text/pdf/Mathresearch.pdf lPbworks. (2014). Learning Stations. Retrieved from http://2differentiate.pbworks.com/w/page/860074/Learning%20Stations
- 23. References continued Springer, S., (2011). Eduaction.com. Learning Centers in the Classroom. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/learning-centers/ lTeaching Excellence & Educational Motivation. (2014). What are the challenges of group work and how can I address them? Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/ groupprojects/challenges.html lUtah Education Network. (2014). Learning Centers. Retrieved from http://www.uen.org/k-2educator/learning_centers.shtml lWilloughby, J. (2014). Improving Science Education with Differentiated Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/improving_science.phtml