Fuel-additives are a class of performance modifiers that
are added to gasoline/fuels to enhance certain properties
and/or to provide additional properties not present in the
gasoline. Fuel additives are used as combustion
modifiers, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors and deposit
Importance of Fuel Additives
Loss of a gasoline’s volatility become a problem for normal
driving, and also a major problem when starting seasonal-use
vehicles like boats, motor homes, lawn care equipment and
electric generators. Using a gasoline stabilizer basically reduces
hard-starting caused by the tendency of the more gaseous
components of gasoline to evaporate into the atmosphere.
water condensation normally found in gasoline storage tanks
and in automobile fuel tanks often caused the fuel line to
freeze during cold weather. The historic remedy is to add
various alcohol-based fuel line antifreezes that will mix with
the water to prevent fuel line freeze-up.
Ethyl lead was used in gasoline/fuel for many years to increase the
gasoline’s octane rating and lubricate engine valve seats. Octane
booster additives became popular for increasing the octane rating of
gasoline used in the high-compression engines of the day. In most
cases, a valve seat lubricant is included in an octane booster to
reduce wear on antique and collector car engines equipped with
cast-iron valve seats.
Fuel Injector Cleaners
The symptoms of clogged fuel injectors are hard-starting, poor cold-
engine performance and sluggish acceleration. These symptoms are
caused by carbon deposits clogging the fuel injector nozzles. Most
lower-priced fuel injector cleaners are designed as preventive
maintenance additives while the higher-priced cleaners are
designed to also remove heavy carbon deposits from cylinder heads,
valves and pistons. Any of these additives generally perform well
when used as directed.
Upper Cylinder Lubricants
Varnish deposits and low-speed driving, early L-head or “flat head”
gasoline engines often had problems with engine valves sticking in
their valve guides. Light-viscosity, high-detergent upper cylinder oils
were designed to be added to the fuel tank to help clean and
lubricate sticking valves. Nowadays, sticking valves are rare and
usually caused by insufficient oil clearance in the valve guide
assembly. Nevertheless, many modern gasoline additives contain
some type of upper cylinder lubricant to lubricate valve guides,
seats and piston rings.
Anti-gelling additives are added to the fuel tank to liquify the
solidified paraffin wax or “gel” that forms in the fuel and clogs diesel
fuel filters during sub-freezing temperatures. While modern diesels
use heated fuel lines and filters to prevent gelling, anti-gelling
additives might be required to improve cold-starting performance
during extreme winter temperatures.
Terminal and Cargo Fuel Additives
Terminal and cargo additives include:
The presence of highly olefinic cracked components can lead to
short induction periods, darkening and gum formation.
Antioxidants can improve the stability of these fuels and increase
the blending options for the refiner. We offer two different types
of antioxidant chemistry, phenylene diamines and alkylated
phenols which can be used for both gasoline and jet fuel
applications. Our customized solutions are developed based
upon olefin content, storage conditions and fuel applications to
deliver improved performance to:
Improve storage stability
Retard gum formation
Increase refiner blending options
You need a cost effective way to reduce the growth of wax crystals
in your diesel, biodiesel and heating fuels to increase the yield and
avoid plugging fuel filters.
CFI additives were developed to protect against engine failure while
providing blending and operational flexibility. These additives also
improve the low-temperature handling properties of biofuels,
petroleum fuels, residual oil and crude oils, positively affecting your
refinery’s gross margins. Low temperature performance of middle
distillates can be defined by these key properties:
Cloud Point: The temperature at which wax crystals are first visible;
nucleation of wax crystals.
Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP): An indication of vehicle low
temperature operability. At temperatures close to the cloud point,
fuel system filters in vehicles become blocked.
Pour Point: The lowest temperature at which fuel will flow,
interlocking wax crystal formation that prevents flow.
When slow dissipation is an issue or low sulfur fuels are
transported through distribution systems (like pipelines),
the risk of fire or explosion hazard caused by static build-
up and electro-static ignition increases. As fuels have
become cleaner over the years, lower sulfur levels have
increased these risks. The process used to remove polar
compounds from low sulfur fuels reduces the ability of
the fuel to dissipate a static charge.
Dorf Ketal's Conductivity Improvers include a non-
metallic range of Static Dissipator Additives (SDAs). At low
concentrations (typically 0.5 to 2 mg/l), SDAs increase the
electrical conductivity of middle distillates, reducing the
risk of accidents.
One or more undesirable fuel reactions, such as a darkening of
color, gum formation or sedimentation? You could be at risk of
Metal Deactivator is a proven, highly-effective solution for
eliminating the catalytic effect trace dissolved concentrations
of copper, vanadium and iron can have on fuel degradation. It
works by chelating dissolved trace metals to reduce the
catalytic process at its source. After assessing the level and
nature of metal contamination present in the fuel, we will
prescribe a customized solution using Metal Deactivator
combined with a blend of antioxidants and a dosage rate
developed specifically to meet the needs.
Heating Fuel Additives
Thermal Stability Enhancer
additives to enhance thermal stability of fuels at elevated
temperature, and which can be accelerated by contact
between heating fuel and metallic pipe work, are
encountered in heating appliances. Enhance thermal
stability ensures minimal fuel degradation prior to
combustion, with optimum performance from the
Corrosion inhibitor additives provide refiners and
producers another tool to meet fuel specifications.
Various types of metals are used such as mild steel,
copper and silver, so corrosion inhibitors are appropriate
for use in diesel, jet fuel or gasoline streams.
Technically, these inhibitors adhere to the metal surface to
form a hydrophobic barrier film which separates the
metal and the fuel. The effectiveness of these inhibitors
depends on the chemical composition, their molecular
structure, and their affinities for the metal surface.
Fuel Additives User Benefits
The range of benefits to the user occuring from fuel
additives is very significant and include:
Greatly reduced risk of static discharge, which can cuase
fire and explosions
1. Protection of fuel tanks, pipelines and other
equipments from expensive corrosion
2. reducing wear in moving parts