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BED 105
Asst.Prof.Suresh waghmare
Dr.D.Y.Patil college of
education Pimpri
Introduction to Advanced
Pedagogy
 Meaning of Pedagogy:
 Pedagogy and pedagogue come from the Greek
paidos "boy, child" and ago means “lead” it means
‘ to lead the child’
 Dictionary meaning
1. the art or function of teaching.
2. the art or science of teaching; education;
instructional methods.
Definitions of Pedagogy
 pedagogy: the principles & methods of instruction
 The function or work of a teacher, teaching.
 Pedagogy: The art, or science of being teacher,
 Pedagogy: the activities of educating or
instructing.
 Preparatory training or instructions.
Advanced Pedagogy
 Advance pedagogy means, a skillful planning of a
working system by which objective can be achieved
conveniently.
 “Advanced pedagogy means developing &
implementing planned activities to engage the
participants as a partner in the teaching activity.”
 In other word, the determination of some policy by
planning before presenting the content.
 For example, CAI, Blended learning, Flipped classroom
etc.
Advanced pedagogy means teacher can integrate, different innovative teaching
strategies, techniques, ICT tools, decision making tools etc into their teaching,
design & implement different modes of learning processes through alternative
delivery system for courses.
Advanced
pedagogy
Innovative
Instructional
strategies
Use of Adv.
technology
Effective
teaching
learning
process
Enriched
Curriculum
Need
 It strengthens student motivation
 For promoting discovery/active learning
 For better understanding.
 For special as well as all kind learner.
 For coping with fast changing & volatile
environment
 To scientific study of teaching process.
 To aware about the various new teaching
methods.
 For self directed learning
Principles of Advanced
Pedagogy
 The learning environment should be supportive &
productive.
a) build positive relationship by knowing & valuing each
student.
b) promote a culture of value & respect for individual & their
communities.
c) use strategies that promote students self confidence &
willingness to take risk with their learning.
d) ensures each student experiences success through
structured support, valuing of efforts of their work.
 The learning environment promotes independence,
interdependence & self motivation.
a) Encourages & supports students to take responsibility for their
learning.
b) Uses strategies that build skills of productive collaboration.
 Students need, background, perspectives & interests are
reflected in the learning program:
a) Use strategies that are flexible & responsive towards needs &
interests of individual students.
b) Uses a range of strategies that support the different ways of
thinking & learning.
c) Build on students prior experiences, knowledge & skills .
• Students are challenged & supported to develop
deep levels of thinking & application.
a) Plan sequences to promote sustained learning.
b) Promotes substantive discussion of ideas
c) Use strategies that challenge & support students to question &
reflect
d) Uses strategies to develop investigating & problem solving skill.
e) Uses strategies to foster imagination & creativity.
 Assessment practice are an integral part of learning &
teaching
a) uses assessment practices that encourage reflection & self assessment.
b) makes assessment criteria explicit
c) uses evidence from assessment to inform planning & teaching.
d) Ensure that student receive frequent constructive feedback that supports
further learning.
 Learning connects strongly with communities &
practice beyond the classroom.
a) Support students to engage with contemporary knowledge &
practice.
b) plans for students to interact with local & broader communities.
c) Uses technologies in ways that reflect professional & community
practices.
 Learning by discovery
 Activity learning
 Learning by doing
 Individualized Learning
 Learning by increased communication
 Learning by increased collaboration
 Tutor guided learning
 Situated learning
1. Effective pedagogy equips learners for life in its
broadest sense.
Learning should aim to help individuals and groups to
develop the intellectual, personal and social resources that
will enable them to participate as active citizens, contribute
to economic development and flourish as individuals in a
diverse and changing society. This means adopting a broad
conception of worthwhile learning outcomes and taking
seriously issues of equity and social justice for all.
2. Effective pedagogy engages with valued forms
of knowledge. Pedagogy should engage learners with the
big ideas, key skills and processes, modes of discourse,
ways of thinking and practicing, attitudes and relationships,
which are the most valued learning processes and outcomes
in particular contexts. They need to understand what
constitutes quality, standards and expertise in different
settings.
 Effective pedagogy recognizes the importance of prior
experience and learning. Pedagogy should take account of
what the learner knows already in order for them, and those who
support their learning, to plan their next steps. This includes
building on prior learning but also taking account of the personal
and cultural experiences of different groups of learners.
 4. Effective pedagogy requires learning to be scaffold.
Teachers, trainers and all those, including peers, who support the
learning of others, should provide activities, cultures and
structures of intellectual, social and emotional support to help
learners to move forward in their learning. When these supports
are removed the learning needs to be secure.
 5. Effective pedagogy needs assessment to be congruent
with learning. Assessment should be designed and
implemented with the goal of achieving maximum validity both in
terms of learning outcomes and learning processes. It should
help to advance learning as well as determine whether learning
has occurred.
6. Effective pedagogy promotes the active engagement of the learner. A
chief goal of learning should be the promotion of learners’ independence and
autonomy. This involves acquiring a repertoire of learning strategies and practices,
developing positive learning dispositions, and having the will and confidence to become
agents in their own learning.
7. Effective pedagogy fosters both individual and social processes and
outcomes. Learners should be encouraged and helped to build relationships and
communication with others for learning purposes, in order to assist the mutual
construction of knowledge and enhance the achievements of individuals and groups.
Consulting learners about their learning and giving them a voice is both an expectation
and a right.
8. Effective pedagogy recognizes the significance of informal learning.
Informal learning, such as learning out of school or away from the workplace, should be
recognized as at least as significant as formal learning and should therefore be valued
and appropriately utilized in formal processes.
9. Effective pedagogy depends on the learning of all those who support the
learning of others. The need for lecturers, teachers, trainers and co-workers to
learn continuously in order to develop their knowledge and skill, and adapt and
develop their roles, especially through practice-based inquiry, should be
recognized and supported.
10. Effective pedagogy demands consistent policy frameworks with support for
learning as their primary focus. Organizational and system level policies need
to recognize the fundamental importance of continual learning - for individual,
team, organizational and system success - and be designed to create effective
learning environments for all learners.
Teaching phases of Philip
Jackson Model
Post Active
Evaluation & attainment of the objectives
Inter Active
Implementation, Execution of plan, learning experiences
Pre active
Planning & designing of lesson
Philip Jackson Model
 Pre-active phase of Teaching:
1. Determining goals/Set the objective.
2. Selection of the content to be taught
3. Sequencing/Organization of the content
4. Selection of the methods of teaching
5. Select the tool and techniques of Evaluation
Inter Active Phase of teaching
 This phase includes the execution of the plan
where learning experiences are provided to
students through suitable modes.
 Sizing up of the class- make the learner ready to
learn, perceive the size of the class, who can help
you in teaching, who can create a problem etc.
 Knowing the learner- check previous knowledge
of the learner, abilities, interests, attitudes &
academic background of the learner
Operations in the phase
Perception Diagnosis Response
 Perception: Teacher tries to know himself, his abilities, for
teaching against the class group. Similarly students also
tries to have perception of the abilities, behavior &
personality characteristics of the teacher.
 Diagnosis: A teacher tries to access the achievement
level of his students with regards to their abilities, interest
& aptitude. He/She can asks several questions to know
how far students know about the topic.
 Reaction Process: In this stage teacher observes the
students that how they response to the teacher’s question.
The students has to the proper way of reacting &
responding to the various stimuli & teaching techniques
presented to it.
Teaching Strategies
 Thinking skill strategies such as De Bono’s Six
thinking hats & Mind Mapping- White, Red, Black,
Yellow, Green, Blue
 Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence – Logical-
Mathematical, Linguistic, Spatial, Musical,
Personal, Bodily Kinesthetic, Naturalist
 Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive & Affective domain
 Co operative learning-Group Investigations,
Jigsaw, Guided reading.
 Brain Based learning
Post Active Phase of teaching
 This phase concerns with the evaluation activities,
this can be done in number of ways including tests
or quizzes or by observing students reaction of
questions, comments, structures & instructed
situations.
Activities suggested in this phase
1) Defining the exact dimensions of the changes
caused by teaching – teacher compares the actual
behavioral changes in the students with their
expected behavioral changes.
2) Selecting the proper tool & techniques:
teacher selects the testing devices & techniques to
compare the actual behavioral changes in the
students with the desired behavioral change which
are reliable & valid & which can evaluate the
cognitive & non cognitive aspects of the pupil.
For Example,
i) Draw the Diagram of plant cell. (Observation
tool.) ii) Explain the Diagram of plant cell, (Written
Exam)
3) Changing the strategies in terms of
evidences gathered-
Based on the responses of the student, change
the strategies of teaching. Through evaluation
the teaching activities are diagnosed & can be
made effective by necessary modifications &
changes in them. For example : with the help of
chart & PPT
Following are the main operations
at this stage
1. Assessing the suitability of objectives
determined.
2. Decision regarding re-teaching the content
or further taking up the content.
3. Assessing the suitability of the instructional
material and aids.
4. Assessing the impact of the classroom
environment
Role of Teacher
 As a planner
 To develop the accurate plan of teaching.
 Formation of objectives, it should be in the
correct form.
 Selection of the learning-experiences.
 For that purpose always select the suitable
method.
 To use the innovative ideas and tricks.
 To select the Evaluation tool.
Phase II- as good executer
 Personality of teacher should be good.
 Good presentation & class control
 Make a well-planned tests & scales.
 Refer standard test for testing and measuring student
ability & skill.
 Always use the reinforcement.
 Phase III- as good evaluator
 Fix the expected behavior level.
 Diagnose about the tool & techniques, it's appropriate ?
 Introspect the fault and enlist the issues.
 Change the teaching strategy.
Student Voice
 In education, student voice refers to the values, opinions, beliefs,
perspectives, and cultural backgrounds of individual students and
groups of students in a school, and to instructional approaches and
techniques that are based on student choices, interests, passions,
and ambitions.
 Historically, student councils and other forms of student-led
government were the most common channels for students to share
their opinions and viewpoints, but many of these opportunities did
not allow students to make authentic contributions to the
leadership of a school. Increasingly, more school districts now
have voting or nonvoting student seats on the school board, and
some states even elect student representatives to the state board
of education. Students may also be asked to serve on a formal
committee, such as a school-improvement committee, or
participate in the hiring of a new superintendent, principal, or
teacher
Student Voice
 Meaning : Participation of student in the various
activities, program and events conducted by school or
teacher.
 Definition :
 Student voice is any expression of any learner
regarding anything related to education & describes
the distinct perspective & actions of young people
throughout school focused on education.
 Active participation of the students in the teaching-
learning process through, Planning activities for
achieving goal or objective of the education, feedback.
 “Meaningful involvement of students means
validating & authorizing them to represent
their own ideas, opinions, knowledge &
experiences throughout education in order to
improve our schools.”
Importance
 to become active participants
 Developing decision making skill
 To build positive relationships with teachers
 For individual youth development
 Successful implementation of academic programs
 To develop leadership skill
 Student assessment
 Teacher training
Ways of encourage students voice
 In writing-
 Allow for creative expression-Art & Drama,
poetry, video etc.
 Make lessons personally relevant
 Give more discussion time to explore & develop
their ideas
 Reward risks & recognize those who speak up
 In gesture, Body language
 Encourage debate
 Engage different forms of leadership
Merits
 Every student get opportunity.
 All round development.
 Get direct Experience.
 Permanent learning & Perfect Learning.
 Know the capacity and ability of other student.
 Understand the Opinion, Views and Approaches.
 It empowers students to take responsibility of their own
learning.
 They become more effective learners.
 It increases teachers efficiency.
Demerits
 Without planning it will be time wasting event.
 Increasing casualness about the study.
 Over confidence
 Chances of disrespect of teachers by
students.
 Time consuming
Importance
 Create new forms of knowledge through its emphasis
on breaking down disciplines & creating
interdisciplinary knowledge.
 In removing categories of race, gender, class etc.
 Reject the distinction between high and popular culture
so as to make curriculum knowledge responsive to the
everyday knowledge that constitutes peoples lived
histories differently
 The aim is to liberate students from oppression.
Critical Pedagogy
 Critical Pedagogy follows, Paulo Freire : who is
generally considered to be “ the inaugural
philosopher of critical pedagogy.” Freire used the
term “Critical pedagogy” himself when describing
this philosophy. After Freire Wexler, Mclaren, Ira
Shor, Darder worked on this.
 Critical pedagogy is the means and methods of
testing & attempting to change the structures of
school that allows inequalities. It is cultural-political
tool that takes seriously the notion of human
differences particularly those related to race, gender
and class.
 “Critical pedagogy is both a way of thinking about
and negotiating through praxis the relationship
among classroom teaching, the production of
knowledge, the larger institutional structures of the
school, and the social and material relations of the
wider community, society and nation state”
(Breunig, 2005).
 Critical pedagogy is a cultural-political tool that
takes seriously the notion of human differences,
particularly as these differences relate to race,
class, and gender.
Definitions
 “Critical pedagogy refers to the ability to analyze, expose
and challenge the hidden social, cultural and political
processes that are part of knowledge production
including how one’s views and assumptions come from a
particular cultural & historical formation.”
 McLaren defines critical pedagogy as follows:
 Critical pedagogy is a way of thinking about, negotiating,
and transforming the relationship among classroom
teaching, the production of knowledge, the institutional
structure of the school, and the social and material
relations of the wider community, society, and, nation.
 Critical pedagogy may be defined as an
approach to education which encourages
students first to become conscious of the
social oppressions or dominations around
them(racism, castism, sexism etc) & second
to reflect on the actions which may be
required to become free from those
oppressions or dominations.
How to be Critically Conscious
 According to Ira Shor (1992) a student can be
critically conscious by: Thinking, reading,
writing, and speaking while going beneath the
surface meaning.
 A student must go beyond: Myths, clichés,
received wisdom, and mere opinions
 Most importantly students must understand the
deep meaning, root causes, social context, and
personal consequences of: Any action, Object,
Process, Experience, Organization, Subject
matter, Mass Media, Text, Policy etc.
Examples
 Change in relationship between student &
teacher
 The rejection of Economic determination:
race, class, gender, religion.
Role of School & Teacher
 Role of Schools
 School should foster public values-accountability,
responsiveness etc.
 School should provide sense of democratic community for
teachers & students
 Role of teacher:
 Curriculum constructer
 They must be able to critically analyze the ideologies, values &
interest.
 A major function of critical pedagogy is to critique, expose, and
challenge the manner in which schools impact upon the political
& cultural life of students.
 Teacher has to motivate & facilitate learners to construct
knowledge in a democratic way.
Merits of Critical Pedagogy
 It is based on problem based approach which helps in critical
analysis.
 Critical pedagogy transforms the learner from objects to subjects.
 It makes learner more active.
 To develop the habit of multi- Dimensional thinking & innovative
thinking.
 It focused on dialogue instead of a one way transmission of
knowledge.
 It creates new forms of knowledge through its emphasis on breaking
down disciplinary boundaries.
 It facilitates collective decision making through open discussion.
 Students acquire more knowledge than content.
 Critical pedagogy makes learning a simple and easy.
Demerits of Critical Pedagogy
 It is not applicable for all type of learners.
 Possibility of distraction.
 Some students remain passive.
 It is not useful for primary level students.
 Critical pedagogy may not be appropriate for
math classes.
 It is based on the principle that students
should come to their own conclusion and
there is possibility of wrong conclusion.
Differentiation
 Differentiated instruction/learning is the
process of ensuring that what a student
learns, how he /she learns it, how the
students demonstrate what he/she has
learned is a match for that student’s readiness
level, interests, & preferred mode of learning.
 Differentiated instruction is an approach to
teaching & learning for students with different
abilities in the same classroom.
Differentiation
 “Differentiation is the process by which
curriculum objectives, teaching methods,
assessment methods, resources & learning
activities are planned to cater the needs of the
individual learner.”
 “Differentiation is teaching strategy which
helps us to recognize student varying
background knowledge readiness, language,
preferences in the learning, interests and to
react responsively.”
Principles of differentiation
 Assessment is ongoing & tightly linked to
instruction.
 Teachers ensure respectful activities for all
students.
 Flexible grouping is a hallmark of the class –
sometimes students work with peers on the
same level of readiness & sometimes with
different levels of readiness.
Characteristics
 Assessment is ongoing & diagnostic to
understand how to make instruction more
responsive to learner need.
 Focuses on multiple forms of intelligence is
event.
 Students are frequently guided in making
interest based learning choices.
 Multiple materials are provided
 Students are assessed in multiple ways.
Elements for Classroom differentiation
 Content: what the students needs to learn or how
the students will get access to the information.
 Process: activities in which the students engages
in order to make sense of or master the content.
 Products: ask the students to rehearse, apply,
and extend what he or she has learned in a unit
 Learning environment: the way the classroom
works & feels.
Seven building blocks of differentiated
instruction
 Knowing the learner
 Traits of a quality teacher
 Quality curriculum
 Classroom learning environment
 Flexible teaching & learning time resources
 Instructional delivery & best practices
 Assessment, Evaluation & grading
Engagement in the teaching
 Student engagement is frequently used to,
“Depict students Willingness to participate in
routine school activities, such as attending class,
submitting required work, following teachers
directions in class.
 “Student’s engagement in teaching and learning
refers to student’s active participation in the
academic environment resulting in an enhanced
learning experience.”
Definition
 Learning refers to students active participation
in the academic environment resulting in an
enhanced learning experience.
 Engagement is students cognitive investment
in, active participation in, and emotional
commitment to their learning.
 Engagement is students involvement with
activities & conditions likely to generate high
quality learning.
Importance of Students
Engagement
 Active participation encourages our students to take more
responsibility for, and have ownership of their learning to
enhance their academic experience .
 Recognizes the different goals, approaches & motivations of
each individual students as well as the collective student
voice.
 We are able to get feedback.
 To creates mutually beneficial learning communities.
 For deep and transformation of learning.
 Enhancing the working and learning capacity of learners.
Principles
 All students have equal voice & opportunity to contribute.
 Students are engaged in decision making procedure.
 Regular feedback allows students to review their own academic
performance & progress.
 Students are encouraged & enables to learn independently.
 Students are able to identify & articulate the skills they gain
from opportunities.
 Opportunities to engage are widely published, accessible &
flexible to meet the needs of all students & staff.
 The effectiveness & impact of student engagement in teaching
& learning are regularly monitored, reviewed & disseminated.
Ways to promote students
engagement
 Enable students to work autonomously
 Fosters learning relationships
 Enhance students self belief
 Challenging & enriching educational
experiences
 Institutional culture: welcoming to students
from different diverse background.
 Invest in a variety of support services.
E content
 Preparation – Target group of students, age, class and
academic subject along with outline of chosen units is
decided.
 Programme Specification – Arranging order of units, sub-
units, points, sub-points, etc according to psychological
relevance and sequence.
 Review – Subject experts and language experts review the
capability, utility and exactness of points in the content and
the programmer evaluated feasibility to prepare the lesson on
the computer.
 Documentation and Programming – Includes various
suggestions for students, teachers and technicians on how to
use the programme. Eg. Name of programme and files,
bibliography, complementary practice, textbooks, system and
language, formulae and principles, testing suggestions, etc.
 Evaluation/Review – A committee reviews if
objectives have been met and provides any
recommendations.
 Prototype – A prototype for testing is released
and piloted. Teachers and students try out the
program. Feedback is gained. Achievement
tests are conducted to check achievement of
objectives.
 Modification – Deficiencies, bugs, faults are
removed based on the feedback and information
received from the pilot group..
 Final product – The final gold release of the
programme is distributed.

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Introduction-to-Advanced-Pedagogy.pptx

  • 2. Introduction to Advanced Pedagogy  Meaning of Pedagogy:  Pedagogy and pedagogue come from the Greek paidos "boy, child" and ago means “lead” it means ‘ to lead the child’  Dictionary meaning 1. the art or function of teaching. 2. the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
  • 3. Definitions of Pedagogy  pedagogy: the principles & methods of instruction  The function or work of a teacher, teaching.  Pedagogy: The art, or science of being teacher,  Pedagogy: the activities of educating or instructing.  Preparatory training or instructions.
  • 4. Advanced Pedagogy  Advance pedagogy means, a skillful planning of a working system by which objective can be achieved conveniently.  “Advanced pedagogy means developing & implementing planned activities to engage the participants as a partner in the teaching activity.”  In other word, the determination of some policy by planning before presenting the content.  For example, CAI, Blended learning, Flipped classroom etc.
  • 5. Advanced pedagogy means teacher can integrate, different innovative teaching strategies, techniques, ICT tools, decision making tools etc into their teaching, design & implement different modes of learning processes through alternative delivery system for courses. Advanced pedagogy Innovative Instructional strategies Use of Adv. technology Effective teaching learning process Enriched Curriculum
  • 6. Need  It strengthens student motivation  For promoting discovery/active learning  For better understanding.  For special as well as all kind learner.  For coping with fast changing & volatile environment  To scientific study of teaching process.  To aware about the various new teaching methods.  For self directed learning
  • 7. Principles of Advanced Pedagogy  The learning environment should be supportive & productive. a) build positive relationship by knowing & valuing each student. b) promote a culture of value & respect for individual & their communities. c) use strategies that promote students self confidence & willingness to take risk with their learning. d) ensures each student experiences success through structured support, valuing of efforts of their work.  The learning environment promotes independence, interdependence & self motivation. a) Encourages & supports students to take responsibility for their learning.
  • 8. b) Uses strategies that build skills of productive collaboration.  Students need, background, perspectives & interests are reflected in the learning program: a) Use strategies that are flexible & responsive towards needs & interests of individual students. b) Uses a range of strategies that support the different ways of thinking & learning. c) Build on students prior experiences, knowledge & skills . • Students are challenged & supported to develop deep levels of thinking & application. a) Plan sequences to promote sustained learning. b) Promotes substantive discussion of ideas c) Use strategies that challenge & support students to question & reflect d) Uses strategies to develop investigating & problem solving skill. e) Uses strategies to foster imagination & creativity.
  • 9.  Assessment practice are an integral part of learning & teaching a) uses assessment practices that encourage reflection & self assessment. b) makes assessment criteria explicit c) uses evidence from assessment to inform planning & teaching. d) Ensure that student receive frequent constructive feedback that supports further learning.  Learning connects strongly with communities & practice beyond the classroom. a) Support students to engage with contemporary knowledge & practice. b) plans for students to interact with local & broader communities. c) Uses technologies in ways that reflect professional & community practices.
  • 10.  Learning by discovery  Activity learning  Learning by doing  Individualized Learning  Learning by increased communication  Learning by increased collaboration  Tutor guided learning  Situated learning
  • 11. 1. Effective pedagogy equips learners for life in its broadest sense. Learning should aim to help individuals and groups to develop the intellectual, personal and social resources that will enable them to participate as active citizens, contribute to economic development and flourish as individuals in a diverse and changing society. This means adopting a broad conception of worthwhile learning outcomes and taking seriously issues of equity and social justice for all. 2. Effective pedagogy engages with valued forms of knowledge. Pedagogy should engage learners with the big ideas, key skills and processes, modes of discourse, ways of thinking and practicing, attitudes and relationships, which are the most valued learning processes and outcomes in particular contexts. They need to understand what constitutes quality, standards and expertise in different settings.
  • 12.  Effective pedagogy recognizes the importance of prior experience and learning. Pedagogy should take account of what the learner knows already in order for them, and those who support their learning, to plan their next steps. This includes building on prior learning but also taking account of the personal and cultural experiences of different groups of learners.  4. Effective pedagogy requires learning to be scaffold. Teachers, trainers and all those, including peers, who support the learning of others, should provide activities, cultures and structures of intellectual, social and emotional support to help learners to move forward in their learning. When these supports are removed the learning needs to be secure.  5. Effective pedagogy needs assessment to be congruent with learning. Assessment should be designed and implemented with the goal of achieving maximum validity both in terms of learning outcomes and learning processes. It should help to advance learning as well as determine whether learning has occurred.
  • 13. 6. Effective pedagogy promotes the active engagement of the learner. A chief goal of learning should be the promotion of learners’ independence and autonomy. This involves acquiring a repertoire of learning strategies and practices, developing positive learning dispositions, and having the will and confidence to become agents in their own learning. 7. Effective pedagogy fosters both individual and social processes and outcomes. Learners should be encouraged and helped to build relationships and communication with others for learning purposes, in order to assist the mutual construction of knowledge and enhance the achievements of individuals and groups. Consulting learners about their learning and giving them a voice is both an expectation and a right. 8. Effective pedagogy recognizes the significance of informal learning. Informal learning, such as learning out of school or away from the workplace, should be recognized as at least as significant as formal learning and should therefore be valued and appropriately utilized in formal processes. 9. Effective pedagogy depends on the learning of all those who support the learning of others. The need for lecturers, teachers, trainers and co-workers to learn continuously in order to develop their knowledge and skill, and adapt and develop their roles, especially through practice-based inquiry, should be recognized and supported. 10. Effective pedagogy demands consistent policy frameworks with support for learning as their primary focus. Organizational and system level policies need to recognize the fundamental importance of continual learning - for individual, team, organizational and system success - and be designed to create effective learning environments for all learners.
  • 14. Teaching phases of Philip Jackson Model Post Active Evaluation & attainment of the objectives Inter Active Implementation, Execution of plan, learning experiences Pre active Planning & designing of lesson
  • 15. Philip Jackson Model  Pre-active phase of Teaching: 1. Determining goals/Set the objective. 2. Selection of the content to be taught 3. Sequencing/Organization of the content 4. Selection of the methods of teaching 5. Select the tool and techniques of Evaluation
  • 16. Inter Active Phase of teaching  This phase includes the execution of the plan where learning experiences are provided to students through suitable modes.  Sizing up of the class- make the learner ready to learn, perceive the size of the class, who can help you in teaching, who can create a problem etc.  Knowing the learner- check previous knowledge of the learner, abilities, interests, attitudes & academic background of the learner
  • 17. Operations in the phase Perception Diagnosis Response
  • 18.  Perception: Teacher tries to know himself, his abilities, for teaching against the class group. Similarly students also tries to have perception of the abilities, behavior & personality characteristics of the teacher.  Diagnosis: A teacher tries to access the achievement level of his students with regards to their abilities, interest & aptitude. He/She can asks several questions to know how far students know about the topic.  Reaction Process: In this stage teacher observes the students that how they response to the teacher’s question. The students has to the proper way of reacting & responding to the various stimuli & teaching techniques presented to it.
  • 19. Teaching Strategies  Thinking skill strategies such as De Bono’s Six thinking hats & Mind Mapping- White, Red, Black, Yellow, Green, Blue  Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence – Logical- Mathematical, Linguistic, Spatial, Musical, Personal, Bodily Kinesthetic, Naturalist  Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive & Affective domain  Co operative learning-Group Investigations, Jigsaw, Guided reading.  Brain Based learning
  • 20. Post Active Phase of teaching  This phase concerns with the evaluation activities, this can be done in number of ways including tests or quizzes or by observing students reaction of questions, comments, structures & instructed situations. Activities suggested in this phase 1) Defining the exact dimensions of the changes caused by teaching – teacher compares the actual behavioral changes in the students with their expected behavioral changes.
  • 21. 2) Selecting the proper tool & techniques: teacher selects the testing devices & techniques to compare the actual behavioral changes in the students with the desired behavioral change which are reliable & valid & which can evaluate the cognitive & non cognitive aspects of the pupil. For Example, i) Draw the Diagram of plant cell. (Observation tool.) ii) Explain the Diagram of plant cell, (Written Exam)
  • 22. 3) Changing the strategies in terms of evidences gathered- Based on the responses of the student, change the strategies of teaching. Through evaluation the teaching activities are diagnosed & can be made effective by necessary modifications & changes in them. For example : with the help of chart & PPT
  • 23. Following are the main operations at this stage 1. Assessing the suitability of objectives determined. 2. Decision regarding re-teaching the content or further taking up the content. 3. Assessing the suitability of the instructional material and aids. 4. Assessing the impact of the classroom environment
  • 24. Role of Teacher  As a planner  To develop the accurate plan of teaching.  Formation of objectives, it should be in the correct form.  Selection of the learning-experiences.  For that purpose always select the suitable method.  To use the innovative ideas and tricks.  To select the Evaluation tool.
  • 25. Phase II- as good executer  Personality of teacher should be good.  Good presentation & class control  Make a well-planned tests & scales.  Refer standard test for testing and measuring student ability & skill.  Always use the reinforcement.  Phase III- as good evaluator  Fix the expected behavior level.  Diagnose about the tool & techniques, it's appropriate ?  Introspect the fault and enlist the issues.  Change the teaching strategy.
  • 26. Student Voice  In education, student voice refers to the values, opinions, beliefs, perspectives, and cultural backgrounds of individual students and groups of students in a school, and to instructional approaches and techniques that are based on student choices, interests, passions, and ambitions.  Historically, student councils and other forms of student-led government were the most common channels for students to share their opinions and viewpoints, but many of these opportunities did not allow students to make authentic contributions to the leadership of a school. Increasingly, more school districts now have voting or nonvoting student seats on the school board, and some states even elect student representatives to the state board of education. Students may also be asked to serve on a formal committee, such as a school-improvement committee, or participate in the hiring of a new superintendent, principal, or teacher
  • 27. Student Voice  Meaning : Participation of student in the various activities, program and events conducted by school or teacher.  Definition :  Student voice is any expression of any learner regarding anything related to education & describes the distinct perspective & actions of young people throughout school focused on education.  Active participation of the students in the teaching- learning process through, Planning activities for achieving goal or objective of the education, feedback.
  • 28.  “Meaningful involvement of students means validating & authorizing them to represent their own ideas, opinions, knowledge & experiences throughout education in order to improve our schools.”
  • 29. Importance  to become active participants  Developing decision making skill  To build positive relationships with teachers  For individual youth development  Successful implementation of academic programs  To develop leadership skill  Student assessment  Teacher training
  • 30. Ways of encourage students voice  In writing-  Allow for creative expression-Art & Drama, poetry, video etc.  Make lessons personally relevant  Give more discussion time to explore & develop their ideas  Reward risks & recognize those who speak up  In gesture, Body language  Encourage debate  Engage different forms of leadership
  • 31. Merits  Every student get opportunity.  All round development.  Get direct Experience.  Permanent learning & Perfect Learning.  Know the capacity and ability of other student.  Understand the Opinion, Views and Approaches.  It empowers students to take responsibility of their own learning.  They become more effective learners.  It increases teachers efficiency.
  • 32. Demerits  Without planning it will be time wasting event.  Increasing casualness about the study.  Over confidence  Chances of disrespect of teachers by students.  Time consuming
  • 33. Importance  Create new forms of knowledge through its emphasis on breaking down disciplines & creating interdisciplinary knowledge.  In removing categories of race, gender, class etc.  Reject the distinction between high and popular culture so as to make curriculum knowledge responsive to the everyday knowledge that constitutes peoples lived histories differently  The aim is to liberate students from oppression.
  • 34. Critical Pedagogy  Critical Pedagogy follows, Paulo Freire : who is generally considered to be “ the inaugural philosopher of critical pedagogy.” Freire used the term “Critical pedagogy” himself when describing this philosophy. After Freire Wexler, Mclaren, Ira Shor, Darder worked on this.  Critical pedagogy is the means and methods of testing & attempting to change the structures of school that allows inequalities. It is cultural-political tool that takes seriously the notion of human differences particularly those related to race, gender and class.
  • 35.  “Critical pedagogy is both a way of thinking about and negotiating through praxis the relationship among classroom teaching, the production of knowledge, the larger institutional structures of the school, and the social and material relations of the wider community, society and nation state” (Breunig, 2005).  Critical pedagogy is a cultural-political tool that takes seriously the notion of human differences, particularly as these differences relate to race, class, and gender.
  • 36. Definitions  “Critical pedagogy refers to the ability to analyze, expose and challenge the hidden social, cultural and political processes that are part of knowledge production including how one’s views and assumptions come from a particular cultural & historical formation.”  McLaren defines critical pedagogy as follows:  Critical pedagogy is a way of thinking about, negotiating, and transforming the relationship among classroom teaching, the production of knowledge, the institutional structure of the school, and the social and material relations of the wider community, society, and, nation.
  • 37.  Critical pedagogy may be defined as an approach to education which encourages students first to become conscious of the social oppressions or dominations around them(racism, castism, sexism etc) & second to reflect on the actions which may be required to become free from those oppressions or dominations.
  • 38. How to be Critically Conscious  According to Ira Shor (1992) a student can be critically conscious by: Thinking, reading, writing, and speaking while going beneath the surface meaning.  A student must go beyond: Myths, clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions  Most importantly students must understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, and personal consequences of: Any action, Object, Process, Experience, Organization, Subject matter, Mass Media, Text, Policy etc.
  • 39. Examples  Change in relationship between student & teacher  The rejection of Economic determination: race, class, gender, religion.
  • 40. Role of School & Teacher  Role of Schools  School should foster public values-accountability, responsiveness etc.  School should provide sense of democratic community for teachers & students  Role of teacher:  Curriculum constructer  They must be able to critically analyze the ideologies, values & interest.  A major function of critical pedagogy is to critique, expose, and challenge the manner in which schools impact upon the political & cultural life of students.  Teacher has to motivate & facilitate learners to construct knowledge in a democratic way.
  • 41. Merits of Critical Pedagogy  It is based on problem based approach which helps in critical analysis.  Critical pedagogy transforms the learner from objects to subjects.  It makes learner more active.  To develop the habit of multi- Dimensional thinking & innovative thinking.  It focused on dialogue instead of a one way transmission of knowledge.  It creates new forms of knowledge through its emphasis on breaking down disciplinary boundaries.  It facilitates collective decision making through open discussion.  Students acquire more knowledge than content.  Critical pedagogy makes learning a simple and easy.
  • 42. Demerits of Critical Pedagogy  It is not applicable for all type of learners.  Possibility of distraction.  Some students remain passive.  It is not useful for primary level students.  Critical pedagogy may not be appropriate for math classes.  It is based on the principle that students should come to their own conclusion and there is possibility of wrong conclusion.
  • 43. Differentiation  Differentiated instruction/learning is the process of ensuring that what a student learns, how he /she learns it, how the students demonstrate what he/she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level, interests, & preferred mode of learning.  Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching & learning for students with different abilities in the same classroom.
  • 44. Differentiation  “Differentiation is the process by which curriculum objectives, teaching methods, assessment methods, resources & learning activities are planned to cater the needs of the individual learner.”  “Differentiation is teaching strategy which helps us to recognize student varying background knowledge readiness, language, preferences in the learning, interests and to react responsively.”
  • 45. Principles of differentiation  Assessment is ongoing & tightly linked to instruction.  Teachers ensure respectful activities for all students.  Flexible grouping is a hallmark of the class – sometimes students work with peers on the same level of readiness & sometimes with different levels of readiness.
  • 46. Characteristics  Assessment is ongoing & diagnostic to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner need.  Focuses on multiple forms of intelligence is event.  Students are frequently guided in making interest based learning choices.  Multiple materials are provided  Students are assessed in multiple ways.
  • 47. Elements for Classroom differentiation  Content: what the students needs to learn or how the students will get access to the information.  Process: activities in which the students engages in order to make sense of or master the content.  Products: ask the students to rehearse, apply, and extend what he or she has learned in a unit  Learning environment: the way the classroom works & feels.
  • 48. Seven building blocks of differentiated instruction  Knowing the learner  Traits of a quality teacher  Quality curriculum  Classroom learning environment  Flexible teaching & learning time resources  Instructional delivery & best practices  Assessment, Evaluation & grading
  • 49. Engagement in the teaching  Student engagement is frequently used to, “Depict students Willingness to participate in routine school activities, such as attending class, submitting required work, following teachers directions in class.  “Student’s engagement in teaching and learning refers to student’s active participation in the academic environment resulting in an enhanced learning experience.”
  • 50. Definition  Learning refers to students active participation in the academic environment resulting in an enhanced learning experience.  Engagement is students cognitive investment in, active participation in, and emotional commitment to their learning.  Engagement is students involvement with activities & conditions likely to generate high quality learning.
  • 51. Importance of Students Engagement  Active participation encourages our students to take more responsibility for, and have ownership of their learning to enhance their academic experience .  Recognizes the different goals, approaches & motivations of each individual students as well as the collective student voice.  We are able to get feedback.  To creates mutually beneficial learning communities.  For deep and transformation of learning.  Enhancing the working and learning capacity of learners.
  • 52. Principles  All students have equal voice & opportunity to contribute.  Students are engaged in decision making procedure.  Regular feedback allows students to review their own academic performance & progress.  Students are encouraged & enables to learn independently.  Students are able to identify & articulate the skills they gain from opportunities.  Opportunities to engage are widely published, accessible & flexible to meet the needs of all students & staff.  The effectiveness & impact of student engagement in teaching & learning are regularly monitored, reviewed & disseminated.
  • 53. Ways to promote students engagement  Enable students to work autonomously  Fosters learning relationships  Enhance students self belief  Challenging & enriching educational experiences  Institutional culture: welcoming to students from different diverse background.  Invest in a variety of support services.
  • 54. E content  Preparation – Target group of students, age, class and academic subject along with outline of chosen units is decided.  Programme Specification – Arranging order of units, sub- units, points, sub-points, etc according to psychological relevance and sequence.  Review – Subject experts and language experts review the capability, utility and exactness of points in the content and the programmer evaluated feasibility to prepare the lesson on the computer.  Documentation and Programming – Includes various suggestions for students, teachers and technicians on how to use the programme. Eg. Name of programme and files, bibliography, complementary practice, textbooks, system and language, formulae and principles, testing suggestions, etc.
  • 55.  Evaluation/Review – A committee reviews if objectives have been met and provides any recommendations.  Prototype – A prototype for testing is released and piloted. Teachers and students try out the program. Feedback is gained. Achievement tests are conducted to check achievement of objectives.  Modification – Deficiencies, bugs, faults are removed based on the feedback and information received from the pilot group..  Final product – The final gold release of the programme is distributed.