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Sciences of Europe No 92 (2022)

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No 92 (2022)
Sciences of Europe
(Praha, Czech Republic)
ISSN 3162-2364
The journal is registered and published in Czech Re...

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CONTENT
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Partsei Kh., Erstenyuk H.
ACTIVITY OF GLUTATION SYSTEM OF ERYTHROCYTES
UNDER CONSUMPTION OF EN...

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Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 3
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
АКТИВНІСТЬ ГЛУТАТІОНОВОЇ СИСТЕМИ ЕРИТРОЦИТІВ ЗА УМОВ СПОЖИВАННЯ
ЕНЕР...

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Sciences of Europe No 92 (2022)

  1. 1. No 92 (2022) Sciences of Europe (Praha, Czech Republic) ISSN 3162-2364 The journal is registered and published in Czech Republic. Articles in all spheres of sciences are published in the journal. Journal is published in Czech, English, Polish, Russian, Chinese, German and French, Ukrainian. Articles are accepted each month. Frequency: 24 issues per year. Format - A4 All articles are reviewed Free access to the electronic version of journal Edition of journal does not carry responsibility for the materials published in a journal. Sending the article to the editorial the author confirms it’s uniqueness and takes full responsibility for possible consequences for breaking copyright laws. Chief editor: Petr Bohacek Managing editor: Michal Hudecek • Jiří Pospíšil (Organic and Medicinal Chemistry) Zentiva • Jaroslav Fähnrich (Organic Chemistry) Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic • Smirnova Oksana K., Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Department of History (Moscow, Russia); • Rasa Boháček – Ph.D. člen Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze • Naumov Jaroslav S., MD, Ph.D., assistant professor of history of medicine and the social sciences and humanities. (Kiev, Ukraine) • Viktor Pour – Ph.D. člen Univerzita Pardubice • Petrenko Svyatoslav, PhD in geography, lecturer in social and economic geography. (Kharkov, Ukraine) • Karel Schwaninger – Ph.D. člen Vysoká škola báňská – Technická univerzita Ostrava • Kozachenko Artem Leonidovich, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Department of History (Moscow, Russia); • Václav Pittner -Ph.D. člen Technická univerzita v Liberci • Dudnik Oleg Arturovich, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, De- partment of Physical and Mathematical management methods. (Chernivtsi, Ukraine) • Konovalov Artem Nikolaevich, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Chair of General Psy- chology and Pedagogy. (Minsk, Belarus) «Sciences of Europe» - Editorial office: Křižíkova 384/101 Karlín, 186 00 Praha E-mail: info@european-science.org Web: www.european-science.org
  2. 2. CONTENT BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Partsei Kh., Erstenyuk H. ACTIVITY OF GLUTATION SYSTEM OF ERYTHROCYTES UNDER CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY DRINK ................3 ECONOMIC SCIENCES Hasanova M., Rzayeva U., Ismayilova G., Mushkiyev Z. STUDY OF MANAGEMENT FEATURES OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN.................................................................8 JURIDICAL SCIENCES Javadova A. ASSESSMENT OF EXPERT OPINION ON STUDY OF MICRO-OBJECTS........................................................14 Gadirov A. THE ROLE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGISLATION IN THE EFFECTIVE FIGHT AGAINST CRIME .....................17 MEDICAL SCIENCES Baltov M., Bivolarski I., Mihaylova V., Alakidi A., Shilev P. CASE REPORT OF WERDNIG-HOFFMANN DISEASE (SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY).................................24 Ahmedov S., Alieva E., Mehmani I., Kerimova G. ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MOBILITY OF TEETH IN VARIOUS AGE GROUPS..............................30 Mehmani I., Mehmani V., Velihanova N. THE EXPEDIENCY OF METHODS FOR RESTORING THE DENTITION IN ADENTIA AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS .................32 Vinnikova V., Kamyshna I. EFFICACY OF KINESOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR-SACRAL OSTEOCHONDROSIS OF THE SPINE ...........................40 Valiev M., Shalgumbayeva G., Musakhanova A. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY RATES FROM CANCER OF THE TONGUE, ORAL CAVITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN FOR 2015-2019 ...................................43 Osukhovska O., Tabachnikov S., Khaustova O., Salden V., Synitska T. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION OF PSYCHIATRIC CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH COVID-19 AT THE CURRENT STAGE IN UKRAINE.............................46 PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES Balycheva N. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EDUCATIONAL DISCIPLINE «OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY» IN THE FORMATION HIGHER EDUCATION RECIPIENTS OF SAFETY CULTURE.......................................................51 PHILOLOGICAL SCIENCES Mehdiyeva A. PROBLEMS OF METAPHOR RESEARCH IN GERMAN STUDIES.....................................................................54 TECHNICAL SCIENCES Konoval V., Holub S. INTELLECTUAL MONITORING OF CHARGE FORM CHOICE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE EXPLOSIVE BREAKDOWN DESTRUCTION IN QUARRIES ..................................................................................57 Oksanich I., Shevchenko I., Palagin V., Kohdas M., Belska V., Bahno V. INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MEASURING DEFORMATIONS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES GAAS WAFERS.....................................................................65 Nyamdorj S. CLASSIFICATION OF LOESS TYPE SOILS OF CENTRAL MONGOLIA BY INDIRECT SIGNS AND FOUNDATION DESIGNING ISSUES ....................................................74
  3. 3. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 3 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES АКТИВНІСТЬ ГЛУТАТІОНОВОЇ СИСТЕМИ ЕРИТРОЦИТІВ ЗА УМОВ СПОЖИВАННЯ ЕНЕРГЕТИКА Парцей Х.Ю. Асистент кафедри біологічної та медичної хімії імені Г.О. Бабенка Івано-Франківський національний медичний університет Івано-Франківськ, Україна Ерстенюк Г.М. Доктор біологічних наук, професор кафедри біологічної та медичної хімії імені Г.О. Бабенка Івано-Франківський національний медичний університет Івано-Франківськ, Україна ACTIVITY OF GLUTATION SYSTEM OF ERYTHROCYTES UNDER CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY DRINK Partsei Kh. Assistant of the Department of Biological and Medical Chemistry named after G.O. Babenka Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine Erstenyuk H. Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Department of Biological and Medical Chemistry named after G.O. Babenka Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6532820 АНОТАЦІЯ Функціональну основу системи антиоксидантного захисту еритроциту формує глутатіонова система. Метою даної роботи було дослідити впив енергетика на активність глутатіонової системи еритроцитів, оскільки вона відіграє важливу роль у захисті від оксидативного стресу. Дослідження було проведено на щурах - самцях лінії Вістар, які перебували у віварії за відповідних умов освітлення, температурного режиму, вологості та стандартного раціону. Піддослідні тварини були розділені на п’ять груп: I група - отримувала питну воду (контрольна група); II група - отримувала енерге- тичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 1-шу добу по завершенню експери- менту; III група - отримувала енергетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 10- ту добу по завершенню експерименту група; IV група - отримувала енергетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 20-ту добу по завершенню експерименту; V група - отримувала енер- гетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 30-ту добу по завершенню експери- менту. Стан антиоксидантної системи оцінювали за активністю глутатіонової системи, а саме глутатіонпе- роксидази (КФ 1.11.1.9), глутатіонредуктази (КФ 1.8.1.7) та глутатіонтрансферази (КФ 2.5.1.18). За умов споживання енергетика спостерігається пригнічення активності глутатіонпероксидази, глу- татіонредуктази та глутатіон-S-трансфераза в II, III, IV та V дослідних групах в порівнянні з контрольною групою (І). Отримані результати вказують на порушення зі сторони ферментативної ланки антиоксидант- ного захисту еритроцитів тварин, які споживали енергонапій, що може спричинити до порушення гомео- стазу організму в цілому. ABSTRACT The glutathione system forms the functional basis of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of energy on the activity of the glutathione system of erythrocytes, as it plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress. The study was conducted using male Wistar rats, which were kept in the vivarium under appropriate lighting conditions, temperature, humidity and standard diet. All animals had free access to feed (based on daily require- ments) and water (based on 20 ml of water per rat per day). The amount of standard feed consumed for laboratory animals was determined by its residue in the feeder. Control over the growth and development of animals was performed by weighing them at the beginning and at the end of the experiments. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: 1st group – received drinking water (control group); 2nd group – received an energy drink for a month and the collection of material was carried out on the 1th day at the end of the experiment; 3rd group – received an energy drink for a month and the collection of material was carried out on the 10th day at the end of the experiment; 4th group – received an energy drink for a month and the collection of material was carried
  4. 4. 4 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) out on the 20th day at the end of the experiment; 5th group – received an energy drink for a month and the collection of material was carried out on the 30th day at the end of the experiment. The state of the antioxidant system was assessed by the activity of the glutathione system, namely glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9), glutathione re- ductase (EC 1.8.1.7) and glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18. Under the conditions of energy drink consumption, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed in the II, III, IV and V experimental groups in comparison with the control group (I). The obtained results indicate a violation of the enzymatic link of antioxidant protection of erythrocytes of animals that consumed energy drink, which can lead to disruption of homeostasis of the body as a whole. Ключові слова: лабораторні щурі, енергетичний напій, еритроцити, глутатіонредуктаза, глутатіонпе- роксидаза, глутатіон-S-трансфераза. Keywords: laboratory rats, energy drink, erythrocytes, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, gluta- thione-S-transferase. Енергетичні напої – безалкогольні напої, що містять у своєму складі кофеїн, таурин, цукор та інші інгредієнти. Їх популярність достатньо висока, особливо серед молоді. Згідно з європейськими до- слідженнями, споживачами енергетика здебіль- шого є молоді люди віком від 10 до 20 років (68%) [15]. Це може бути пов'язано з рекламою вироб- ників, які стверджують про високий енергетичний потенціал, оскільки допомагають побороти втому на деякий час. Однак відомо, що ефект енергетика згодом зменшується, тобто, бадьорість і актив- ність він забезпечує лише на декілька годин. Натомість, за іншими даними [4] значне вживання енергетичних напоїв може призвести до надмірного споживання цукру, що в свою чергу викликає дов- готривалі проблеми зі здоров'ям, такі як: ерозія зубів, ожиріння і діабет 2 типу. Стосовно впливу окремих компонентів, то варто зазначити, що кофеїн - добре відомий стиму- лятор, який впливає на численні нейромедіаторні та ендокринні системи [12]. Блокуючи фосфодіесте- разу, кофеїн підсилює передачу сигналів через ад- ренергічні шляхи, що призводить до збільшення ча- стоти серцевих скорочень, підвищення кров'яного тиску, рівня глюкози в крові та бронходилатації. Кофеїн виступає в ролі антагоніста передачі сиг- налів через аденозинові рецептори і збільшує вивільнення катехоламінів. Під впливом кофеїну підвищується загальний обмін речовин, потреба у кисні, прискорюється гліколіз, ліполіз, виникає гіперглікемія. Кофеїн призводить до розслаблення гладкої мускулатуру шлунку за рахунок збіль- шення концентрації гастрину та стимулює сек- рецію соляної кислоти, що може призвести до запа- лення слизової оболонки [13]. Іншим широко використовуваним компонен- том енергетичних напоїв є таурин, який має чис- ленні біологічні і фізіологічні функції, включаючи нейромодуляцію, захист, осморегуляцію, стійкість клітинної мембрани, і модуляцію рівнів внутрішнь- оклітинного кальцію [7]. Високі концентрації тау- рину негативно впливають на обмінні процеси, мо- жуть активувати апоптоз клітин [14]. Оскільки кофеїн і таурин широко використову- ються в складі енергетичних напоїв, було прове- дено дослідження з вивчення їх впливу на фізичну працездатність спортсменів, що засвідчило про збільшення витривалості на довгі дистанції [8]. Оксидативний стрес виникає при наявності дисбалансу між утворенням окислювальних сполук і їх знешкодженням в організмі. Вільні радикали постійно утворюються в низьких концентраціях при нормальних фізіологічних процесах. Проте, їх надлишок призводить до пошкодження клітин че- рез порушення структури і функцій ліпідів, білків і нуклеїнових кислот, що може спричинити навіть загибель клітин. До клітин, які першочергово зазна- ють впливу активних кисневих радикалів, належить еритроцит. Функціональну основу системи антиоксидант- ного захисту еритроциту формує глутатіонова си- стема, яка відіграє значну роль у пригніченні пато- логічного процесу, а її виснаження може призво- дити до виникнення серйозних цитотоксичних і деструктивних ушкоджень [11]. Система глу- татіону пов’язує всі ланки біохімічних механізмів детоксикації ліпофільних і гідрофільних ксенобіо- тиків, які функціонують як єдине ціле. Відомо, що глутатіонпероксидаза (КФ 1.11.1.9) - відіграє важливу роль в антиоксидант- ному захисті еритроцитів. Ензим каталізує окис- нення глутатіону і деактивує гідроген пероксид. Спорідненість глутатіонпероксидази до H2О2 є вищою, ніж у каталази, що має значення при захисті від низьких концентрацій гідроген пероксиду [5, 9, 10]. Глутатіонредуктаза (КФ 1.8.1.7) – це флаво- протеїд, який каталізує реакцію відновлення глу- татіону, що дозволяє підтримувати сталу концен- трацію відновленого глутатіону, а значить і актив- ність глутатіонпероксидази. Відновлення глутатіону відбувається за рахунок енергії НАДФН, що утворюється в реакції дегідрогенізації глюкозо-6-фосфату [6]. Глутатіон-S-трансфераза (КФ 2.5.1.18) – це ен- зим, що складається з мультифункціональних білків, які використовують відновлений глутатіон для захисту організму від оксидативного стресу шляхом відновлення гідропероксидів жирних кис- лот і нуклеотидів [2]. Метою даної роботи було дослідити впив енергетика на активність глутатіонової системи еритроцитів, оскільки вона відіграє важливу роль у захисті від оксидативного стресу. Методи дослідження. Дослідження було про- ведено на щурах - самцях лінії Вістар, які перебу- вали у віварії за відповідних умов освітлення, тем- пературного режиму, вологості та стандартного раціону. Усі тварини мали вільний доступ до комбікорму (з розрахунку добової потреби) та води
  5. 5. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 5 (з розрахунку 20 мл води на одного щура на добу). Кількість спожитого стандартного комбікорму для лабораторних тварин визначали за його залишком у годівниці. Контроль за ростом і розвитком тварин проводили за допомогою зважування їх на початку та наприкінці дослідів. Забір матеріалу було прове- дено в умовах наркозу (внутрішньом'язево тіопен- тал натрію, 60 мг/кг) з дотримання вимог Європей- ської конвенції з захисту хребетних тварин, яких використовують з експериментальною та науковою метою (Страсбург,1986), Закону України № 3447- IV «Про захист тварин від жорстокого повод- ження», прийнятий парламентом 21 лютого 2006 року в новій редакції, згідно Статті 26 Правил по- водження з тваринами, що використовуються в на- укових експериментах, тестуванні, навчальному процесі, виробництві біологічних препаратів, а та- кож рекомендації Першого Національного кон- гресу України з біоетики (Київ, Україна, 2001). Піддослідні тварини були розділені на п’ять груп: І група - отримувала питну воду (контрольна група); ІІ група - отримувала енергетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 1-шу добу по завершенню експерименту; ІІІ група - от- римувала енергетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 10-ту добу по за- вершенню експерименту група; IV група - отри- мувала енергетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 20-ту добу по завер- шенню експерименту; V група - отримувала енер- гетичний напій упродовж місяця і забір матеріалу було проведено на 30-ту добу по завершенню експерименту. Стан антиоксидантної системи еритроцитів оцінювали за активністю глутатіонової системи, а саме: глутатіонпероксидази (ГП) [КФ 1.11.1.9] [1], глутатіонредуктази (ГР) [КФ 1.8.1.7] та глу- татіонтрансферази [КФ 2.5.1.18] [3]. Одержані циф- рові дані статистично обраховували з використан- ням програми STATISTICA 7 з урахуванням кри- терію t Стьюдента. Результати й обговорення. Результати до- слідження дозволили встановити пригнічення анти- оксидантного захисту еритроцитів, які проявлялись зниженням активності глутатіонпероксидази, зо- крема найбільшою мірою виражені ці зміни у тва- рин II-ї групи - на 19 % (р<0,001) одразу після за- вершення споживання енергонапою. Впродовж наступних періодів спостереження активність цього ензиму була нижчою від показників кон- трольної групи тварин на 12 % (р<0,001), 10 % (р<0,001) та 8 % (р<0,05) відповідно (Рис.1). Водно- час, порівняльний аналіз показує, що після відміни енергетика спостерігається підвищення активності ГП на 20 – ту та 30 – ту доби на 12 % (р<0,05) та 15 % (р<0,001) порівняно з II дослідною групою тварин (Рис.1). Однак, ці показники є достовірно нижчими (р<0,001) від значень у контрольній групі. Рис. 1. Вплив енергетичного напою на активність глутатіонпероксидази еритроцитів (M±m) (n=7) Примітка: * - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками інтактної групи тварин (І); ** - р<0,05 - достовірність порівняно з показниками інтактної групи тварин (І); # - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІ групи тварин; ## - р<0,05 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІ групи тварин; & - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІІ групи тварин; $ - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками IV групи тварин. Функціонування глутатіонпероксидази тісно пов’язане з активністю глутатіонредуктази, яка за- безпечує відновлення окисненого глутатіону. У ре- зультаті проведених досліджень встановлено зни- ження активності глутатіонредуктази в II, III та IV групах у 1,6 (р<0,001), 1,5 (р<0,001) та 1,1 (р<0,001) разів відповідно та незначне підвищення на 30-ту добу спостереження порівняно з інтактною (Рис.2). Після завершення вживання енергетика нами вста- новлено підвищення активності даного ферменту на 20 – ту та 30 – ту доби в 1,4 (р<0,001) та 1,6 (р<0,001) разів порівняно з II дослідною групою тварин (Рис.2). * * * ## & ** # & $ 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 мкмоль/хв мг протеїну I II III IV V Групи тварин I - контроль II - 1 день III - 10 днів IV - 20 днів V - 30 днів
  6. 6. 6 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) Рис. 2. Вплив енергетичного напою на активність глутатіонредуктази еритроцитів (M±m) (n=7) Примітка: * - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками інтактної групи тварин (І); # - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІ групи тварин; & - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІІ групи тварин;$ - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками IV групи тварин. Важливим компонентом антиоксидантного за- хисту є глутатіон-S-трансфераза. Вона приймає ак- тивну участь у інактивації великої кількості різних токсичних сполук шляхом кон'югації з глутатіоном та сприяє виведенню їх з організму. Під дією енер- гонапою спостерігається пригнічення її активності упродовж всього періоду спостереження, найбільш істотні зміни відмічено у II-й дослідній групі - у 3,3, (р<0,001) в порівнянні з контрольною групою (І) (Рис.3). У наступні періоди експерименту актив- ність цього ензиму зростала у 2,1 - 2,7 разів порівняно з II дослідною групою тварин (Рис.3), водночас була істотно нижчою від показників кон- трольної групи тварин. Рис. 3. Вплив енергетичного напою на активність глутатіонтрансферази еритроцитів (M±m) (n=7) Примітка: * - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками інтактної групи тварин (І); # - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІ групи тварин; & - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками ІІІ групи тварин; $ - р<0,001 - достовірність порівняно з показниками IV групи тварин. Аналіз одержаних результатів вказує на пору- шення функціонування глутатіонової системи еритроцитів в експериментальних тварин після прийому енергонапою, що може свідчити про ро- звиток оксидативного стресу. Висновки. Отримані результати вказують на порушення зі сторони ферментативної ланки анти- оксидантного захисту еритроцитів тварин, які спо- живали енергонапій, що може спричинити до пору- шення гомеостазу організму в цілому. Перспективи подальших досліджень. Такі дані спонукають до поглибленого вивчення про- та антиоксидантної систем за умов впливу енергетич- ного напою та дослідження впливу на метаболізм еритроцитів. * * * # & # & $ 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 нмоль НАДФН2/хв мг протеїну I ІІ III IV V Групи тварин I - контроль II - 1 день III - 10 днів IV - 20 днів V - 30 днів * * # * # & * # & 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 нмоль/хв мг протеїну I II III IV V Групи тварин I - контроль II - 1 день III - 10 днів IV - 20 днів V - 30 днів
  7. 7. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 7 Літературa 1. Власова С.Н, Шабунина Е.И., Переслегина А.И. Активность глутатионзависимых ферментов эритроцитов при хронических заболеваниях печени у детей / С.Н. Власова, // Лаб. Дело. — 1990. — № 8. — С. 19–21. 2. Копильчук Г.П., Николайчук І.М., Кузяк О.М. Вміст оксиду азоту та S-нітрозотіолів у кліти- нах печінки щурів за умов різного забезпечення ха- рчового раціону макронутрієнтами. Scientific Herald of Chernivtsi University. Biology (Biological Systems). 2020. Т. 12, вип. 2. С. 187-195. https://doi.org/10.31861/biosystems2020.01.031 3. Прохорова М.И. Методы биохимических исследований. /М.И. Прохорова — Л.: Изд-во Ле- нинградского ун-та, 1982. 4. Breda JJ, Whiting SH, Encarnac¸ão R, Norberg S, Jones R, Reinap M, et al. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond. Front Public Health. 2014; 2:134. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00134 PMID: 25360435 5. Cohen G, Hochstein P. Glutathione peroxidase: The primary agent for the elimination of hydrogen peroxide in erythrocytes. Biochemistry. 1963;2(6):1420-1428. DOI: 10.1021/ bi00906a038; 6. Couto, N., Wood, J., & Barber, J. (2016). The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 95, 27– 42. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.02.028. 7. Curran, C. P., & Marczinski, C. A. (2017). Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain. Birth Defects Research, 109(20), 1640– 1648.doi:10.1002/bdr2.1177 8. Imagawa TF, Hiraro I, Utsuki K, Horie M, Naka A, Matsumoto K et al(2009)Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance. Int J Sports Med 30:485-488. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1104574 9. Johnson RM et al. Hemoglobin autoxidation and regulation of endogenous H2O2 levels in erythrocytes. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2005;39(11):1407-1417. DOI: 10.1016/j. freeradbiomed.2005.07.002 10. Johnson RM et al. The effects of disruption of genes for peroxiredoxin-2, glutathione peroxidase-1, and catalase on erythrocyte oxidative metabolism. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2010;48(4):519-525. DOI: 10.1016/j. freeradbiomed.2009.11.021; 11. Kalinina EV, Chernov NN, Novichkova MD. Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes. Biochemistry. 2014; 79(13): 1562-83. English. 12. McLellan, T. M., Caldwell, J. A., & Lieberman, H. R. (2016). A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 294312.doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.001 13. Rodak, K.; Kokot, I.; Kratz, E.M. Caffeine as a Factor Influencing the Functioning of the Human Body—Friend or Foe?Nutrients 2021, 13, 3088. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093088. 14. Zhang X, Shuo T, Wang Y, Xu B. Mechanism of taurine-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 2014;46:261–272. 15. Zucconi S, Volpato C, Adinolfi F, Gandini E, Gentile E, Loi A, et al. Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks. EFSA Support Publ. 2013 Mar 1; 10(3):n/a-n/a.
  8. 8. 8 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) ECONOMIC SCIENCES STUDY OF MANAGEMENT FEATURES OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN Hasanova M. head teacher Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, the department of agribusiness and management Rzayeva U. head teacher Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, the department of agribusiness and management Ismayilova G. head teacher Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, the department of agribusiness and management Mushkiyev Z. assistant teacher Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, the department of agribusiness and management DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6532825 ABSTRACT At the present stage of economic development, support for the development of small and medium-sized busi- nesses is a very important and urgent issue. The presence of SMEs creates favorable conditions for the recovery of the economy, as a competitive environment develops, they contribute to the saturation of the market with goods and services, the growth of export potential, and the better use of local raw materials. The development of small and medium-sized businesses is also important for Azerbaijan, since it is they who create a competitive environ- ment in the country's economy and prevent monopolization. One of the weak points of SMEs is the problems of their management, the lack of sufficient knowledge in the field of management among the leaders of small and medium-sized businesses. And the lack of such knowledge makes it impossible to create a management system that meets modern requirements. This explains the relevance of this article, which examines the management fea- tures of small and medium-sized businesses in Azerbaijan. Keywords: small and medium-sized businesses, management, competition, diversification, employment, ef- ficiency, management, management, structure, unity of command, collegiality, solution, consulting. Introduction The modern economy is characterized by the pres- ence of industries with different sizes. These can be large firms created to produce high-tech products or small enterprises created to provide various services. The development of science and technology contributes to the concentration of production. The concentration of production leads to the emergence of large firms with a large amount of material, financial and labor re- sources. They use economies of scale and have great opportunities for introducing scientific and technologi- cal innovations. But in the economy there have always been and are small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs), which many scientists call the locomotive of the economy. In Azerbaijan, such enterprises began to be created and developed after gaining independence and market reforms in the economy. They operate mainly in industries requiring relatively little capital and labor. Most of them are in the industries for the pro- duction of consumer goods and the provision of ser- vices. Small and medium-sized businesses are one of the most important socio-economic institutions in many developed countries. According to many researchers, small and medium-sized businesses are a stable basis for a market economy. The place that they occupy in the economy of various countries can be characterized by various indicators. The main ones are such indica- tors as the share of workers employed in this area in the total number of the employed population of the coun- try, the share of products produced by them in the coun- try's GDP, etc. Main chapter In many countries, medium and small businesses in terms of production are regional in nature and occupy a large place in the regional economy, form the struc- ture of the regional economy. They, using the resources of the region, satisfy the needs of its population, deter- mine the place of the region in the national economy. SMEs are more widespread than large businesses, and since they are closer to consumers, they can more fully use their public function. Since SMEs increase the level of employment in the country, providing the population with income (livelihood), we can say that they contrib- ute to reducing social tension. It is SMEs that form the middle stratum of the population and play an important role in the democratization of market relations. Small and medium-sized enterprises in the labor market oc- cupy an important place as an employer. Since the cost of creating jobs at such enterprises is much lower, they are used in the implementation of state social programs to reduce unemployment. Attracting labor resources to social production is also included in the social functions performed by SMEs. In recent years, large-scale measures have been taken in the Azerbaijani economy to ensure the com- petitiveness of local production and achieve sustainable economic development. As a result of economic re- forms and support for business entities operating in the
  9. 9. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 9 non-oil sector of the country's economy, the implemen- tation of a policy of additional benefits and incentives in this area has made significant progress. The effective activity of small-scale production forms is associated with a number of their advantages compared to large-scale production. These advantages are proximity to local markets and adaptation to cus- tomer requirements (large firms are not profitable), the absence of a large number of management links, etc. The diversity and diversification of demand in the con- sumer goods industry contributes to the creation and development of small forms of production. Taking into account the specifics of small busi- ness, it is important to accurately define the criteria for classifying enterprises as small and medium-sized busi- nesses. Until 2018, in the Republic of Azerbaijan, the number of employees and annual turnover were taken as such criteria. By the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan No. 556 dated December 21, 2018, the criteria for classifying business entities as small and medium-sized businesses were changed. Now, the average annual number of employees and their average annual profit are accepted as criteria for referring to SMEs. In accordance with this decision, micro business entities include business entities, the av- erage annual number of employees of which is 1-10 people, and the average annual income is up to 200 thousand manats; 3,000 thousand manats, to medium- sized businesses - entities whose indicators are respec- tively 51-250 people and from 3 million to 30 million manats, and to large ones, respectively - over 351 peo- ple and more than 30 million manats. [one] The number and sectoral affiliation of small and medium-sized businesses operating in Azerbaijan is presented in Table 1. Table 1. The number of micro, small and medium-sized businesses operating in Azerbaijan by type of ownership and eco- nomic activity Indicators Total İncluding State Non-state Of them Private Foreign Joint Total, including by type of economic activity 316370 1811 314559 311296 2519 744 Agriculture and fisheries 3264 162 3102 3034 40 28 Industry 14007 476 13531 13154 266 111 Construction 11670 182 11488 11169 235 84 Trade and repair of ve- hicles 103707 135 103572 102674 691 207 Transport and warehousing 65987 189 65798 65653 109 36 Tourist accommodation and catering 20513 17 20496 20302 148 46 Information and communication 6939 130 6809 6696 90 23 Real estate transactions 7282 93 7189 7122 42 25 Education 6358 52 6306 6237 49 20 Health and social services 3793 52 3741 3699 35 7 Other industries 72850 323 72527 71556 814 157 Source: www.stat.gov.az An analysis of the number of SMEs operating in the country showed that in 2020, 316,370 business en- tities operated in Azerbaijan, of which 8.7 thousand units are SMEs. Most of the subjects of the Ministry of Railways are in the trade and repair of vehicles, where their number is somewhere around 2.5 thousand units, and in industry about 1.4 thousand units. The presence of small businesses creates favorable conditions for the recovery of the economy, as a com- petitive environment develops, additional jobs are cre- ated, economic restructuring is activated, and the con- sumer industry is developing. In addition, the develop- ment of small business contributes to the saturation of the market with goods and services, the growth of ex- port potential, and the better use of local raw materials. [8] Small businesses play an important role in the economies of many countries. In the countries of the European Union, the USA and Japan, more than 50% of the employed population works in small and me- dium-sized enterprises. They account for more than 60% of GDP. Small and medium business entities play a leading role in the macroeconomics of developing countries. But in underdeveloped countries, their share in GDP production and employment is slightly lower. So, if in developed countries the share of small and me- dium-sized businesses in the production of GDP is over 60%, then in countries with economies in transition this figure is 40%, and in countries with low rates of devel- opment it is about 30%. In providing employment for the population, the share of small and medium-sized businesses in developing countries is 50%, in countries
  10. 10. 10 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) with economies in transition - 36%, and in weakly de- veloping countries it fluctuates around 30%. [9] Thus, the economic development of the country directly depends on the state of small and medium- sized businesses. And this position of SMEs in the economy is associated with their characteristics. The fact is that SMEs have the opportunity to get more products and a greater variety of products with less in- vestment; economic fluctuations have little effect on them; they adapt more easily to changing demand and its diversity; they ensure a relatively even economic de- velopment of the regions and, most importantly, they minimize the inequity in the distribution of income. [6] Such features allow SMEs to become the main participants in solving important problems in the econ- omy of our country too. The development of small and medium-sized businesses is also important for Azerbai- jan, since it is they who create a competitive environ- ment in the country's economy and prevent monopoli- zation. In the field of small and medium-sized busi- nesses, a significant part of national resources is being formed, and prerequisites are being created for the de- velopment of large businesses. The positive role of small business in the scale of the economy of countries is expressed in the fact that it is more flexible and mobile, quickly responds to changes in the external environment, and creates new jobs. [2] Economic indicators determining the role of small and medium businesses in the economy of Azerbaijan are presented in table 2. Table 2. Main macroeconomic indicators of small and medium-sized businesses in Azerbaijan Indicators Total Share of SMEs in the national economy, in % Created value added, one million manat 10 941,0 16,7 Number of employees, thousand people 348,7 42,1 Average monthly nominal wage, manat 612,3 X Investments in fixed assets, one million manats 2 674,1 23,2 Source: www.stat.gov.az Analyzing the place of small and medium-sized businesses in the country's economy, we found that the share of SMEs in the added value created in the country for 2020 was 16.7%, and the number of employees em- ployed here is 42.1% of all employed in the country. Investments in fixed assets made by SMEs account for 23.2% of all investments in the country's economy over the same period. The average monthly nominal salary in the country in 2020 was 707 manats, in SMEs this figure is 612.3 manats. These indicators reflect the important role of SMEs in the country's economy. Small and medium-sized businesses play an im- portant role in the development of the country's econ- omy, the creation of jobs and employment of the coun- try's population, and the development of technological innovations. But despite this and the strong support of the state, many small and medium-sized businesses go bankrupt and go out of business. One of the important reasons for this is that the leaders of small and medium- sized businesses do not have sufficient knowledge in the field of management. And the lack of such knowledge makes it impossible to create a management system that meets modern requirements. Therefore, speaking about small and medium-sized businesses, it is necessary to pay attention to the features of their management, since management in small enterprises differs in many respects from the management system of large enterprises. Large enterprises usually form a diversified man- agement system with managers of different levels. And at small enterprises, the management system is simpli- fied. But this does not mean that in small enterprises the management process is simpler. On the contrary, in many cases the management of SMEs is more complex. [3]. Small and medium-sized businesses, as well as large enterprises, are subject to the influence of various factors of the internal and external environment. The factors of the internal environment include the fixed and working capital of small and medium-sized busi- nesses, the people who work here and the relationship between them. Environmental factors include the eco- nomic policy of the state, the investment environment, suppliers and buyers, legislation, nearby population, etc. These factors directly affect the formation and im- plementation of the management process. And depend- ing on the quality of management, the influence of these factors can be increased or decreased. Effective management of the SME entity will cre- ate favorable conditions for their further development. Features of the management of SMEs depend on their form of ownership, on the basis of what property they are created. But the most pressing issue in the field of their management is the possibility of introducing mod- ern management technologies. Here, the management process is primarily af- fected by the creation of a management system. The formation of a management system solves several is- sues, such as: - creation of an optimal organizational and mana- gerial structure; - distribution of official powers; - formation of a system for evaluating the activi- ties of both managers and ordinary workers. SMEs operating in Azerbaijan have a simple gov- ernance structure. It can be represented schematically as follows.
  11. 11. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 11 Figure 1. Simple organizational structure of management in small enterprises For SMEs operating in Azerbaijan, you can often find such an organizational structure of management. Here, the head of the enterprise is one leader, who is usually its owner. This leader can be said to be the sole manager of this enterprise. Sole management and management gives him the opportunity to reduce disagreements when choosing the goals and objectives of the enterprise, when making certain management decisions, spend less time on the decision-making process and control the implementation of these decisions himself. This can be done if the SME entity belongs to one person. And if the owner has enough knowledge and skills for this, the decisions are correct, effectively implemented and manage to achieve the management goals. When the owner of an SME entity is several people, then at such an enterprise the position of a chief or just a director is used, who takes on the responsibility for making management decisions, and their last option is presented to the owners of the company, informing them of the consequences of these decisions. If these consequences cause controversy, then the decision is put to the vote of the founders of the company, after which the final decision is made. With sole management in the field of finance, supply, procurement, production, sales, all decisions are made and the director (owner) is fully responsible for this.Even enterprises with such a small management structure face a number of challenges. One of these problems is the lack of managerial knowledge of the head-owner of the company. Sometimes the owner of an SME does not have both technical and managerial knowledge, and in some such enterprises nepotism flourishes, with the owner's relatives taking over the reins of power. Therefore, the study of various issues of management of small and medium-sized businesses is very relevant. Based on this, in order for SMEs to function and develop in a competitive environment, they must either use the services of consulting enterprises or involve professional managers in management.ecisions are made and the director (owner) is fully responsible for this. When an SME entity has several founders (owners) and is headed by a chief director, these enterprises have a system of subordination and distribution of powers. That is, to resolve financial issues there is a financial director, for the selection and placement of personnel, the head of the personnel department, who are responsible for the quality and consequences of these decisions. And in larger enterprises, management groups are formed. In some enterprises, these groups consist of a manager, a specialist in procurement, finance, sales, production, marketing, etc. Even enterprises with such a small management structure face a number of challenges. One of these problems is the lack of managerial knowledge of the head-owner of the company. Sometimes the owner of an SME does not have both technical and managerial knowledge, and in some such enterprises nepotism flourishes, with the owner's relatives taking over the reins of power. Therefore, the study of various issues of management of small and medium-sized businesses is very relevant. Based on this, in order for SMEs to function and develop in a competitive environment, they must either use the services of consulting enterprises or involve professional managers in management. CEO (usually the owner of the company) supply production sales
  12. 12. 12 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) Figure 2. A simple organizational and managerial structure for managing SMEs based on the distribution of powers. In such small enterprises, the general management is carried out by its head, who is usually its owner. All responsibility for the activities of the enterprise lies with him. But there are specialists here who help him make better and more effective decisions. For more efficient enterprise management in slightly larger SMEs, two basic principles must be observed. This is the distribution of powers and strict structuring of the enterprise. [5] Such enterprises in Azerbaijan are created in the organizational-legal form of a cooperative or joint-stock company. The management of such SMEs is based on the principles of collegiality. At such enterprises, the supreme governing body is the general meeting of members of the cooperative or shareholders of the company. The meeting decides strategic issues of enterprise development. For example, organization and reorganization, liquidation of an enterprise, change in the authorized capital, adoption of the annual production and financial report, election of the board (board of directors), audit commission, supervisory board, etc. Decisions on the list of these issues are also taken by the general meeting and are reflected in the charter of the subject. At such SMEs, a board or board of directors is elected at the general meeting to carry out current management, and an audit commission is elected to carry out control functions. At the first meeting of the board (board of directors), the chairman of the board (general director) is elected among its members. The board (board of directors) forms the management structure, makes management decisions and reports to the owners of the company. In accordance with the organizational structure, the divisions are reflected in the management structure and their leaders are indicated. At SMEs, these are mainly units related to the supply, production and marketing of products. Figure 3. Organizational structure of management of MPS entities based on collective shared ownership CEO (company owner) procurement director Production Director sales director
  13. 13. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 13 Conclusion In a small business, management has its own characteristics. The manager working here is a generalist who can work in several areas of management. One of the main features of management in SMEs is that power is exercised in an informal style and therefore special requirements are imposed on the manager. He is responsible not only for the results of work, but also for the climate in the team, he is flexible and businesslike, sets specific tasks and controls their implementation, and simultaneously solves several issues. The manager of an SME entity builds business relationships with various people, has authority among employees, and gives good advice. In conclusion, we can say that managers working in SMEs are different from managers in large enterprises. This fact is based on: here the manager in most cases is also the owner; there is no system of divisions, which means that there is no need for heads of structural divisions; the team is usually small here, sometimes they are relatives and close acquaintances of the owner of the enterprise. On the one hand, this is good, since they feel the work as their own business and treat it responsibly, non-verbal methods of management can be used in relation to them. But. On the other hand, this can lead to such a phenomenon as “nepotism”, when positions are distributed not in accordance with business qualities, but according to the degree of kinship. In this case, the rest of the employees are unmotivated and work carelessly. In recent years, large-scale measures have been taken in Azerbaijan to achieve sustainable economic development and ensure the competitiveness of domestic production. As a result of economic reforms and support for small and medium-sized businesses operating in the country’s non-oil sector. The implementation of additional benefits and incentive policies in this area has made significant progress. Studies show that despite this, in the development of small and medium-sized businesses, there are some problems associated with their management. To support the subjects of the Ministry of Railways in solving these and other problems existing in the industry, the Strategic Roadmap for the development of SMEs provided for the creation of special consulting services that provide them with information and consulting services. But studies show that small and medium-sized businesses turn to such services very little in general, including for advice on business management. Although in international practice the use of such services creates additional opportunities for their sustainable and effective development of SMEs. In our opinion, in order for small and medium- sized entrepreneurs to pay due attention to such services and use their services, it is necessary to carry out explanatory work among entrepreneurs, to give examples from world practice. References 1. Decision No. 556 of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated December 21, 2018 2. Dorofoeeva, О. Н. Features of management in small business [Electronic resource] Access mode: http: // 3 3. Smagina, I. А. Small business: big reference book / Smagina I. A., Sergeeva T. Yu. - M.: Yurkniga, 2014 4. Roadmap “Strategic Roadmap for the production of consumer goods at the level of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Azerbaijan” approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated December 6, 2016 5. Author's team with the participation and editing of A. B. Abbasov. Business organization and management / Detslik. Baku: "University of Economics" Publishing House, 2011.- 464 p. 6. Agasef Mammad oglu. MANECMENT (textbook). - Baku, “Nurlan” 2007. 268 p. 7. A.H. Alakbarov, MA Valiyev, SH Purhani. Management. Textbook for universities. "Chashyoglu" printing house. Baku city, 2013. 660 p. 8. Efil İ. (2010). Management and Organization in Operations. B.11. Bursa: Dora Basim Publishing Distribution. 9. Didem PAŞAOĞLU vb. Management and organization Anadolu University. ESKİŞEHİR, January 2013, p.43 10. www.stat.gov.az
  14. 14. 14 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) JURIDICAL SCIENCES ASSESSMENT OF EXPERT OPINION ON STUDY OF MICRO-OBJECTS Javadova A. Senior expert, Department of physical and chemical Forensic Sciences Centre the Ministry of Justice of the Azerbaijan Republic DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6532833 ABSTRACT One of the most important means of cognition in criminal proceedings is criminal-procedural evidence, this is carried out with help of special means in the procedural forms provided by law and by the authorized subjects As it is known, evidence about the identity of the offender, the instrument of the crime, the place and circum- stances of the crime, the method of committing the crime, etc. can be obtained through the results of the forensic study of micro-objects Micro-objects taken from the crime scene are the carriers of the evidence which contributes to conducting successful investigation and disclosure of crimes such as intentional homicide, assault, grievous bodily harm, theft, etc. Simultaneously, the forensic literature on forensic examination of micro-objects is mainly devoted to the development of the methodological foundations and methodology of such kind of forensic studies. Practically, the issues of evaluating expert opinions on a comprehensive scientific study of the technology of the process of using micro-objects as a source of evidence, the study of micro-objects have almost not been considered in the special literature. With this respect, the scientific study of the peculiarities of evaluating the conclusions from experts on the study of micro-objects by the inspector and the court is of particular relevance, as well as scientific and practical significance. Keywords: physical evidence, expert opinion, micro-objects. One of the most difficult stages of the evidence process is the evaluation of the evidence. Evaluation of evidence is one of the necessary stipulations for the ex- pedient conduct of an investigation and court proceed- ings, the adoption of a legal and valid procedural deci- sions, and the proper application of the law. In the con- text where serious changes have taken place in the situation, structure and dynamics of crime, the most dangerous types of crime emerged and developed , the class of professional criminals have formed and the ab- sence of visible traces when they commit crimes, no traditional traces at the scene of the crime, the role and importance of expert opinions as a type of evidence ob- tained as a result of a special study of micro objects, including micro particles of fibrous materials, that left at the crime scene, as a source of information of foren- sic importance in the discovery of crimes and prelimi- nary investigation of crimes, in court has increased sig- nificantly. As micro objects and micro particles (glass, metal, ceramic fragments, paint and varnish particles, soil, river sand, human hair, plant and synthetic fibers, vari- ous dust micro particles, etc.) act as sources of eviden- tiary information in the investigation of a number of crimes, especially intentional homicide, rape, theft and other criminal acts, it is possible to obtain factual infor- mation - evidentiary information by conducting special research in applying appropriate research methods and techniques, modern technology and technical means, to disclosure of criminals by reflecting the results of re- search in an expert opinion that considered procedural document and to significantly assist to the judicial-in- vestigative bodies in the investigation Y.V. Jhdanova notes that the subject of proof is a mental activity based on the internal beliefs in order to determine the assessment of the evidences, including expert opinion, as well as the relevance, feasibility and validity of the information on individual cases of the criminal case. [l] T.I. Aliyeva notes that “the expert's opinion should be verified and evaluated in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure. The verification and eval- uation of the expert opinion determines whether the ex- pert opinion is accepted as evidence and its validity”. [2] N.V. Savelyeva notes that the expert opinion should be evaluated as other evidence in terms of feasi- bility, relevance and validity, and for this it is necessary to evaluate the form and content of the opinion. [3] A.N. Petrukhina states that expert opinion is one of the types of evidence and, as a general rule, should be evaluated in terms of relevance, feasibility and reli- ability. Simultaneously, the author also distinguishes another feature of the evidence - their substantiating significance. [4] The criteria for evaluating evidence are also spe- cifically mentioned in the Procedural legislation. For example, Article 145.1 of the Code of Criminal Proce- dure of the Republic of Azerbaijan states: “Each piece of evidence must be evaluated on the basis of relation, feasibility and reliability. All the evidence collected in the criminal prosecution must be assessed on the basis of their sufficiency to resolve the charge. It should be noted that a similar provision is pro- vided for in the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Re- public of Kazakhstan. According to Article 125.1 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakh- stan of July 4, 2014, "each piece of evidence must be evaluated in terms of relevance, feasibility, reliability, and all collected evidence - in terms of sufficiency to
  15. 15. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 15 resolve the criminal case." According to Article 125.5 of the Criminal Proce- dure Code of Kazakhstan, "during the inspection, the evidence that is true is considered reliable." According to Article 127.3 of the Code of Crimi- nal Procedure of the Republic of Azerbaijan, "an ex- pert's opinion is not binding on the investigator, prose- cutor or court, but it must be verified by the prosecuting authority as any other evidence and evaluated in all cir- cumstances of the case." N.S. Neretina rightly points out that in practice, in- vestigators and judges take a formal approach to the as- sessment of an expert opinion, by focusing on the ex- pert's findings, mainly assess the completeness of the opinion, checking whether the expert answered all questions and whether his answers were definite or probable. [5] K.G. Sarijalinskaya writes: “One of the main con- ditions for using an expert opinion as a source of evi- dence is its correct assessment. Like other evidence gathered in a criminal case, the expert's opinion is eas- ily evaluated by the investigator, the prosecutor and the court. By guiding the requirements of the law, the per- son evaluating the expert's opinion shall act through his / her inner conviction based on a thorough, complete and objective consideration of all cases. The expert opinion is not binding on the investigating authorities. [6] Pursuant to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on forensic examination, the expert's opinion should be based on provisions that allow verifying the validity and reliability of the conclusions achieved in the com- monly-accepted scientific and practical database. This provision is of particular importance for the study of micro- objects. Evaluating an expert opinion based on the results of a forensic examination of micro particles of fibrous materials is a complex process, as it is the result of an expert study conducted using special knowledge. Therefore, other participants involved in the process cannot adequately assess the opinion at all times, since they do not possess such knowledge. - E. R. Rossinskaya defined the successive stages of the expert opinion evaluation process as fol- lows: - verification of compliance with the require- ments of procedural law during the appointment of fo- rensic examination; - verification of the suitability and adequacy of the studied material evidence and samples; - Assessment of the scientific validity of the expert methodology and the legitimacy of its application in a particular case; - Verification and evaluation of the completeness and comprehensiveness of the opinion; - Verification the progress of the expert study and the logical validity of the results; - Verification the compliance of the results of the examination with the criminal case under investigation; - Verification of the compliance of the expert's conclusions with other evidence in the case. [7] In terms of content, the main criteria for evaluating expert opinions on the study of micro-objects are: Scientific validity of the methods and technical means applied in the experiment; legality and feasibil- ity of the applied methods and means of study; the property and effectiveness of the application of meth- ods and means of research; logic and sequence of expert study; accuracy and relevance of the intermediate and final results of the study; completeness and comprehen- siveness of the study. As noted, any evidence, including expert opinions, should be evaluated for relevance, certainty and relia- bility. N.V. Savelyeva writes that the formal assessment of the opinion is determined by the relevance and pos- sibility of the expert opinion and it depends on the ob- servance of examination appointment to the procedural rules, the relevance and probability of the objects pre- sented to the disposal of expert, the correct and accurate submission of the questions to the expert, the compli- ance of the facts established by the expert on the basis of expert initiative, compliance of the expert opinion form with the requirements established by the proce- dural legislation [8]. Feasibility means that the characteristics of meth- ods of obtaining, study, procedural compilation of fac- tual information established by the criminal procedure legislation which allow to include the collected evi- dence in the system of criminal proceedings, to deter- mine the facts of the criminal case and to use them to determine whether a person is guilty or not. It creates more difficulties to determine the valid- ity of opinion during the evaluation of the expert's opin- ion based on the results of the examination proceedings of micro particles of fibrous materials, as such an eval- uation involves study and verification the content of the opinion. I.A. Grigoriev notes that currently the criteria for reliability in the accurate interpretation and application of the results of forensic activities have not been fully developed. The author states that the individual criteria of reliability are procedurally expressed by criteria such as "compliance", "possibility", "validity", "comprehen- siveness", "completeness", "objectivity", "adequacy", "accuracy".[9 ] Determining the reliability of an expert's opinion in criminal proceedings is a complex cognitive activity that involves both study and evaluation of such evi- dence. [10] Evaluation of reliability of opinion includes the scientific validity of the applied methods, means and research methodology; the correctness and legality of the use of these methods; completeness and compre- hensiveness of the conducted study; verification the correctness of the signs uncover by the expert and as the result - the scientific validity of the results of exam- ination study [11]. By emphasizing that the assessment of the rele- vance of the expert opinion, amongst others, is related to the problem in assessment of the possibility of ap- plied methods and methodology of expert in the course of study, F.M. Javadov states: « “The main point in de- termining the feasibility of a method in expert research is its scientific substantiation, its scientificity. In this
  16. 16. 16 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) case, the scientific nature of the method should be un- derstood as its substantiation by the latest achievements in this field of knowledge. The feasibility of an expert method of examination method is determined not only by its scientific validity, but also by the feature of its impact on the object. For example, safety (harmless- ness) (preservation of the object in the appearance and condition in which it is included in the study) within such a condition may include. From this point, it comes clear that it is possible to apply only non-destructive re- search methods. It is possible that other requirements may be set against the method: the obviousness of the results achieved with its help to the participants of the process, the possibility of admission, the opportunities of their verification in a given situation, etc. [12] In a number of western countries, reliability is as- sessed on a variety of grounds. For example, in French criminal proceedings, the reliability of the examination results is assessed in terms of the expert's personal qual- ities (research skills, understanding of his/her role in the process, professional impartiality, authority) and the validity of the methods used. In assessing the relia- bility of an expert opinion in a German court in criminal proceedings, the factual grounds, methods and content of the expert opinion should be examined, the compli- ance of opinion with the standards approved in the rel- evant field of knowledge and described in the special- ized literature, and it also requires an assessment in terms of style and the logical validity of the research [13] One of the most important structural elements in assessing the reliability of expert opinions on the study of micro-objects is the assessment of the reliability of expert methods and techniques. We consider that the certification of expert meth- ods, the establishment of a fund of forensic methods will greatly facilitate the assessment of the methodo- logical scientific validity of expert opinions, the relia- bility from scientific and methodological aspects. Referring to the issue of certification of forensic methods, H.A. Musayev states: "Improvement of meth- odological support, which is one of the most important components of information-analytical support of foren- sic activities, is related to the certification, establish- ment of catalogs, computerization of expert methods and certification of methodological support." [14] It should be noted that the necessity and im- portance of certification on expert methods, the estab- lishment of a methodological fund for each type of ex- amination has long been noted in the special literature In connection with this necessity, new items for which provisions are established related to the estab- lishment of methodological fund on conducting expert study and register of expert proceedings methods were included in the amendment and annex made by the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated 29 November to the Law on Forensic Examination. Thus, according to Article 11-4 of the Law on Fo- rensic Activity (State Register of Forensic Research Methods), during forensic examination experts use re- search methods included in the State Register of Foren- sic Research Methods. An expert may use a method that is not included in the State Register of Forensic Re- search Methods only if it is substantiated in the expert opinion that the method meets all of the following con- ditions: 1) does not contradict the norms and principles provided by law; 2) scientifically substantiated; 3) safe for human life, health and environment. In accordance with Article 11-5 of the Law, enti- tled "Methodological Fund of Forensic Examination", a special fund consisting of scientific and methodolog- ical materials of forensic examinations is established. Electronic copies of these materials are included in the fund. In modern conditions where acceleration of glob- alization and the scientific and technological progress, as well as the emergence of new forms and types of criminal activity with high social danger, one of the ac- tual problems of forensic theory and practice is to unify the methodology of forensic science activity, develop the scientific and methodological basis of forensic pro- ceedings, to establish a modern methodological frame- work that fully meets the requirements of the practice of crime prevention. In our opinion, the expediency of the choice of this or that special method by the expert is determined by: the scientific validity of the method within the frame- work of the relevant fundamental scientific and general theory of forensic science; the amount of information that can be obtained using this method; specific court - the degree of compliance with the specific require- ments for expert research methods; incurred time, ma- terial and labor, etc. associated with the application of the method. One of the most complex and complicated issues facing the investigator and the expert in assessing of expert opinions on the study of small-objects is the as- sessment of the expert opinion in terms of scientific va- lidity. Having regard this, H.A. Musayev notes: “The expert opinion is considered valid if it contains con- vincing facts and evidence confirming the results of the study. Generally, it would be more accurate to talk about the scientific validity of the expert opinion, rather than the general validity of it. The scientific validity of the expert opinion means that the examination was con- ducted on a scientific basis, in accordance with modern capabilities and approved research methods. [15] We consider that acquaintance with special scien- tific literature and research methods, expert advice, ex- pert interrogation, peer review of expert opinion, all of these in general helps to clarify the scientific validity of expert opinions reflecting the results of research of small - objects. As a result, having regard the above, the investi- gator or judge should pay special attention to the fol- lowing by taking into account other criteria while eval- uating the expert opinion: - Validation of methods used by the expert; - certification of methods and techniques of foren- sic proceedings, whether they are included in the regis- ter of forensic methods and in the fund of methodolo- gies (note that in the amendments made to the Law on Forensic Activities in 2019 were also considered expe- dient the inclusion of the methods used in the course of forensic examination in the register of forensic research
  17. 17. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 17 methods, establishment of the fund of expert research methods); - Accreditation of a specific type of expert study as well as the methods and technology, algorithms used in this case that approved by an international expert or- ganization; - Indicators related to the calibration of devices and equipment, units, other technical means used in the course of expert examination, as well as, along with other areas, the purpose for their use in conducting re- search in the field of forensic examination; References 1. Jhdanova Y.V. Problems of probable and relia- ble in criminally-remedial evidence and their influence on the adoption of individual procedural decisions by the investigator. Abstract of the dissertation for the de- gree of candidate of legal sciences. İjevsk, 2004, p.16 2. Commentary on the Code of Criminal Proce- dure of the Republic of Azerbaijan. J.H. Movsumov, B. J. Kerimov, A.H. Huseynov 3. Savelyeva N.V. Evaluation of the expert's opin- ion. Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of candi- date of legal sciences. Krasnodar, 2007, p.6 4. Petrukhina A.N. The conclusion of the expert and his assessment in the criminal process. Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of candidate of legal sci- ences. M., 2012, p.4-5 5. Neretina N.S. Methodological, legal and organ- izational aspects of the formation and development of new genera and types of forensic examinations. Disser- tation for the degree of candidate of legal sciences. M., 20156 p.140 6. Sarijalinskaya K.G, Javadov F.M, Mahmudov A.M, Aliyev B.Y. Forensic examination. Textbook. Baku 2003, p.4-5 7. Rossinskaya E.R. Judicial examination in civil, arbitration, administrative and criminal proceedings. M., 2006, pp. 269-273. 8. Savelyeva N.V. Evaluation of the expert's opin- ion. Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of legal sciences. Krasnodar, 2007, p.6-7 9. Grigoriev I. A. Reliability as a legal principle of forensic activity. Dissertation for the degree of candi- date of legal sciences. M., 2020, p.4-5 10. Nemira S. B. Reliability of expert opinion in criminal proceedings. Dissertation for the degree of candidate of legal sciences. Krasnodar, 2016, p.9 11. Prokopenko N. A. Peculiarities of assessing the examination of micro-objects by the subjects of proof // Ambassador of the Taganrog Institute of Man- agement and Economics. 2017. No. 2, p.59 12. Javadov F.M Special theory of forensic expert opinion, their current state and development trends / Actual issues of forensic examination, criminology and criminalistics; Baku 1999, p.9 13. Samuticheva E. Yu. Expert opinion and its as- sessment in criminal proceedings (comparative legal research). Dissertation for the degree of candidate of le- gal sciences. M., 2015, p.123 14. Musayev. H. A. Non-traditional study methods in forensic proceedings (scientific - theoretical, organizational-methodological and legal aspects) Baku 2012, p.223 15. Musayev. H. Y. Some issues of forensic and judicial evaluation of forensic examination opinions, which involve the application of mathematical modeling. Study guide. Baku 1997, p.15 THE ROLE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGISLATION IN THE EFFECTIVE FIGHT AGAINST CRIME Gadirov A. Associate Professor of Law, Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Azer- baijan, Doctor of Philosophy in Law DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6532837 ABSTRACT The author of the article examined the role and importance of procedural regulation in the fight against crime. The article focuses on the analysis of the concept of crime itself in the fight against crime, and touches on the question of the appropriateness of the application of a number of procedural institutions in this fight. Along with punishment, the importance of coercive procedural measures, which are one of the main institutions of criminal procedure legislation, was noted in the fight against crime. Keywords: crime, criminal procedure, coercive procedural measures, arrest, detention, hostage, criminal pro- cedure legislation, restrictive measures. In order to properly study the role and importance of procedural regulation in the effective fight against crime, it is first necessary to clarify the nature of crime and the fight against crime. Crime is relatively massive, changing throughout history, criminal in nature, definiteis a negative social event characterized by quantitative and qualitative in- dicators, consisting of a set of crimes committed in the relevant state during the same period [9, p.25]. As crime is characterized as a negative social phenomenon for society, its expansion poses great obstacles to the protection and enforcement of human rights and free- doms. Since Article 12 of the Constitution of the Re- public of Azerbaijan states that ensuring human and civil rights and freedoms, a decent standard of living for the citizens of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the highest goal of the state, the state must fight crime and take effective measures to reduce it. According to Chingiz Mustafayev, the effective- ness of crime prevention depends, first of all, on the correct identification of the causes and conditions that cause it. Prevention means the prevention of a social
  18. 18. 18 Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) phenomenon caused by specific causes and conditions, rather than an abstract existing phenomenon. In this re- gard, it should be noted that the prevention of crime should be assessed as the elimination of these causes and conditions[10, p.90]. It should be noted that crime prevention is a multi- level system of state and public measures aimed at eliminating, weakening or neutralizing its causes and conditions. Improving the effectiveness of crime prevention requires the correct and timely identification of nega- tive traditions that significantly increase the burden on society and the creation of possible social, economic, political, cultural, organizational and legal opportuni- ties for their elimination.requires ensuring efficiency, systematization, consistency and consistency in the im- plementation of relevant measures. Effectiveness means that prevention is focused on concrete results [10, p.98]. In general, an indicator of the effectiveness of preventive measures is the reduction, stabilization or slowdown in the level of crime and its various types. In addition, the quality of social and preventive activity of the population, state and non-state economic and edu- cational structures, the protection of prevention work by public opinion are also included in the system of in- dicators. At the end of the last century, the fight against crime in the republic was going through very difficult and complicated times. One of the main reasons for this was that before gaining independence, the Republic of Azerbaijan, being a part of the USSR, had almost no ability to independently formulate its methods of com- bating crime. Other reasons include the crisis of power, economic backwardness, Armenian aggression and so on. was. For such reasons, crime at that time created problems for the transition of society from control to a new system of normal socio-economic relations. There- fore, the elimination of the factors that led to the aggra- vation of the criminogenic situation was the main task of the state. Jafarguliyev noted that the investigation, prosecu- tion and judicial authorities have their ownThey should help strengthen the rule of law, prevent and eradicate crime, protect the interests of society, the rights and freedoms of citizens, adhere to the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and educate citi- zens to respect the rules of coexistence [11, p.7]. We partially agree with the views of the author. What we can't agree on is the task of eradicating crime. This is mainly due to the traditions of the Soviet criminal pro- cess. It is known that the classics of Marxism-Leninism claimed the possibility of eradicating crime and linked it with the end of human exploitation [12, p.129]. The followers of this training wrote in the textbook "Crimi- nology": "As socialist society develops, the social roots of crime will be cut off, but some of the causes of crime will continue. They are not related to the nature of so- cialism, but to the specific historical conditions of the establishment of socialism, which is facing certain dif- ficulties and contradictions and is struggling with in- tense class struggle at the international level. Crime will be sentenced to death in the face of communism ”[16, p.54]. Almost all Soviet scientists were in this po- sition. Therefore, criminologists set themselves the task of "eliminating" or even "destroying" crime, while Western scholars believed that "socialism could not prevent crime." but some of the causes of the crime will continue. They are not connected with the nature of so- cialism, but with the specific historical conditions of the establishment of socialism, which is facing certain difficulties and contradictions and is struggling with in- tense class struggle at the international level. Crime will be sentenced to death in the face of communism ”[16, p.54]. Almost all Soviet scientists were in this po- sition. Therefore, criminologists set themselves the task of "eliminating" or even "destroying" crime, while Western scholars believed that "socialism could not prevent crime." but some of the causes of the crime will continue. They are not related to the nature of social- ism, but to the specific historical conditions of the es- tablishment of socialism, which is facing certain diffi- culties and contradictions and is struggling with intense class struggle at the international level. Crime will be sentenced to death in the face of communism ”[16, p.54]. Almost all Soviet scientists were in this position. Therefore, criminologists set themselves the task of "eliminating" or even "destroying" crime, while West- ern scholars believed that "socialism could not prevent crime." It is connected with the specific historical con- ditions of the establishment of socialism, which is fac- ing certain difficulties and contradictions and is strug- gling with intense class struggle at the international level. Crime will be sentenced to death in the face of communism ”[16, p.54]. Almost all Soviet scientists were in this position. Therefore, criminologists set themselves the task of "eliminating" or even "destroy- ing" crime, while Western scholars believed that "so- cialism could not prevent crime." It is connected with the concrete historical conditions of the establishment of socialism, which is facing certain difficulties and contradictions and is struggling with intense class struggle at the international level. Crime will be sen- tenced to death in the face of communism ”[16, p.54]. Almost all Soviet scientists were in this position. Therefore, criminologists set themselves the task of "eliminating" or even "destroying" crime, while West- ern scholars believed that "socialism could not prevent crime." Many prominent scholars have commented on the persistence of crime. Philosopher E. Pozdnyakov claims that crime is "one of the beautiful and all-round elements of human nature, that is, of all humanity."[17, p.502]. That is, the more people there are, the more crime there will be. AI Aleksandrov wrote the follow- ing about it: “It is practically impossible to completely destroy the crime. This is the case, at least in the socio- economic formations known to us. This is only an ideal to be pursued ”[18, p.148]. It is impossible to disagree with the position of the authors. The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the basis for the procedural regulation of the fight against crime. Thus, many articles of the Constitution directly state that the security of the people must be en- sured and that state bodies must carry out this work.
  19. 19. Sciences of Europe # 92, (2022) 19 According to Article 12 of the Constitution, ensur- ing the human and civil rights and freedoms, a decent standard of living for the citizens of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the highest goal of the state. Providing constitutional guarantees of human and civil rights and freedoms is one of the most important features of the rule of law. Recognition of human and civil rights and freedoms as a supreme value means giving priority to rights and freedoms in the activities of all state bodies. Ilgar Jafarov notes that the state's trust in its citizens and citizens' trust in the state is determined by the degree to which they faithfully fulfill their responsibilities to each other. It is clear that a state that does not serve the interests of its citizens is unreliable and weak.[13, p.69]. It is impossible to disagree with the position of the author. The political significance of the criminal proceedings is also connected with this. Thus, when the law enforcement agencies effectively fight crime, peo- ple develop a sense of trust and confidence in govern- ment agencies. This is a very important factor for citi- zens to feel safe. Part IV of Article 27 of the Constitution stipulates that the necessary protection provided by law, as a last resort, is to prevent the arrest and detention of a crimi- nal, to prevent a prisoner from escaping from custody, to suppress a revolt or a coup d'etat, or to invade the country. The use of weapons against humans is not al- lowed. The fact that the Constitution makes exceptions for the use of weapons against human beings is clear evidence of the state's recognition of the supreme value of human life. However, this is an exceptionIt is clear from the circumstances that the use of weapons against a person is carried out mainly for the purpose of pre- venting the perpetrator or new crimes. It is important to understand the importance of using weapons against a criminal who is particularly relevant to our research ob- ject. The arrest of the perpetrator helps to fulfill the re- sponsibilities of the judiciary, prevents recidivism. While it is the right of all citizens to apprehend a per- petrator, it is a duty of service for police officers. In the performance of this duty, he may also use a weapon if necessary. According to Article 31 of the Constitution, eve- ryone has the right to a safe life. According to this right, the relevant state bodies are responsible for ensuring the safety of people. Undoubtedly, one of the main threats to human beings is the increase in crime in so- ciety. Therefore, the effective fight against crime by government agencies serves constitutional law. Pursuant to Part IV of Article 58 of the Constitu- tion, associations pursuing the purpose of forcible over- throw of the legitimate state power, pursuing other criminal purposes or using criminal methods in the en- tire territory or in any part of the Republic of Azerbai- jan are prohibited. Although the free operation of all associations is guaranteed, the ban on the establishment of associations for criminal purposes stems from the need for a more effective fight against crime. The crea- tion of such associations leads to responsibility. It is also clear that the provision defining the cases in which the right to association is prohibited is directly related to Part III of Article 24 of the Constitution. Thus, the article states thatCovers. Abuse of rights is not allowed. That is, the abuse of the right to equality granted to peo- ple (exercise for criminal purposes) is not allowed. Article 71 of the Constitution is dedicated to en- suring human and civil rights and freedoms. It is the duty of the legislative, executive and judicial authori- ties to observe and protect the human and civil rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution. Undoubt- edly, one of the directions for the fulfillment of this duty is to take an active part in the effective fight against crime. One of the most important legal bases for the fight against crime is the Criminal Procedure Code of the Re- public of Azerbaijan. A number of articles of this nor- mative legal act directly define specific requirements for the fight against crime. First of all, it should be noted that the criminal procedure legislation of the Re- public of Azerbaijan is aimed at exposing and prosecut- ing any person who has committed a criminal act, which is of particular importance for the performance of a general warning function. Thus, the non-prosecu- tion of perpetrators leads to mistrust of the prosecuting authorities and, most importantly, to the perception that the penal system is weak. Therefore, it is important to accept one of the goals in this way. According to Iering, the goal is the creator of all rights[14, p.225]. Cesare Beccaria writes in his famous book, Crimes and Punishments, that it is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the basic purpose of a good written law[15, p.201]. It is in this direction that the provisions established in the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan to combat crime are envisaged. Now let's move on to the analysis of those provisions. One of the tasks of criminal proceedings under Ar- ticle 8 of the CPC is to protect the individual, society and the state from criminal conspiracies. Pursuant to Article 123 of the CPC, when the pros- ecuting authority discovers that the victim, witness, ac- cused or other person involved in the criminal proceed- ings is or may be in need of protection from attacks pro- vided for by criminal law, at the request or on its own initiative, take security measures by making an appro- priate decision for their state protection. Security measures for the protection of persons participating in criminal proceedings shall be carried out in cases and in accordance with the procedure provided for by the legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan. This timeThe Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan of 11 December 1998 on State Protection of Persons Participating in Criminal Proceedings plays an important role. This ar- ticle of the CPC is aimed at protecting the victim, wit- nesses, the accused and other persons involved in the criminal proceedings from the dangers they may face in connection with their criminal activities. Even the dis- semination of information about such security measures by a person entrusted or known to him in con- nection with his official position is subject to criminal liability under Article 316 of the Criminal Code. Given the sensitivity of the activities of persons involved in criminal proceedings, the application of such state pro- tection appears to be an indispensable means of pre- venting new attacks on those persons. The authors of the commentary note that the threat of assassination of

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