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WELCOME
Differential diagnosis of
rectal bleeding
By
Dr. Dharmendra Narain Singh
2nd yerar P.G Scholar
Dept. of Shalya tantra
K.V....
Contents
Introduction
History of rectal bleeding
Rectal examination
Etiology
investigation
Diseases causing rectalbl...
Introduction
The rectum is the last portion of the large bowel (colon) that ends
just before the anus. Bleeding from this ...
RECTAL BLEEDING
Blood on its own or streaking the stool:
Rectum: polyps or carcinoma, prolapsed
Anus : Haemorrhoids, Fissu...
COLOUR OF BLOOD/ DISCHARGE
Bright red/ Fresh blood: Rectum and anus.
Dark blood:Upper GIT to above rectum.
Drugs eg: iron ...
•Previous perianal disease
•Inflammatory bowel
disease
•Peptic ulcer disease
•Liver disease
•Coagulopathy
HISTORY TAKING
•...
Common causes of rectal bleeding
• Benign anorectal disease:-
Haemorrhoids
Anal fissure
Fistula-in-ano
• Diverticular dise...
Less common causes of rectal bleeding:-
• Infectious gastroenteritis
• Coagulopathy
• Arteriovenous molformation(angiodysp...
Special Investigations
• Proctoscopy
• Sigmoidoscopy
• Colonoscopy
• X Ray
• Barium enema X Ray
• CT scan
• Ultrasonography
Proctoscopy
A proctoscope is a hollow, tube-
like speculam that is used for visual
inspection of the rectum. The
proctosco...
Colonoscopy
 With the advent of fibre optic colonoscope,the whole of the colon upto the
caecum can be vieved for practica...
X-ray
• Straight X-ray of the abdomen may
indicate evidence of intestinal obstruction
due to annular growth at the rectosi...
Barium enema X Ray
• The importance of this examination in a case of bleeding per
anum and in pathologies of the rectum an...
Haemorrhoids
Varicosities of the veins of the anal canal are
known as haemorrhoids.It may be internal or
external dependin...
HEMORRHOIDS-Types
INTERNAL HAEMORRHOIDS:
-develops above the dentate line.
-covered by anal mucosa.
-lacks sensory innerva...
Internal H. drains into sup. Rectal veins 
portal system
External H. drains into inf. Rectal veins I.V.C.
HEMORRHOIDS
Grading for Internal type
Internal H. are classified by the degree of tissue
prolapse into the anal canal.
GRA...
HEMORRHOIDS -Symptoms
Grade 1 usually are asymptomatic or with
minimal bright red bleeding on defecation.
1-bleeding: -the...
HEMORRHOIDS-Signs
INSPECTION:
-1st degree H. show no outward abnormality
-2nd degree H. may show the skin covered componen...
Investigation
1-sigmoidscopy: essential to exclude co-
exclude rectal pathology as carcinoma or
polyps.
2-barium enema: in...
Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer
(AHRU)
Clinical features of AHRU are as follows:
–Most common in elderly women;
–Accompanie...
Clinical characteristics of the
patients with AHRU (III)
• Endoscopic appearances of
AHRU are as follows:
– Shallow and ir...
Fissure in ano
• Fissure is a longitudinal ulcer in the anal canal posteriorly
situated in majority of cases.
• Fissure ma...
SYMPTOMS
1-Pain:
fissures are the commonest cause of pain in the anal verge
both acute and chronic fissures are very painf...
4- Because of the pain, the pt. is usually constipated.
5-the fibrosis around the chronic fissure prevents a good seal
aro...
Fistula in ano
• A fistula is a track lined with epith. Or granulation tissue,
connecting two epithelial surfaces. It may ...
Fistula in ano
LOW LEVEL FISTULAS:
The internal opening is below the anorectal ring.
They could be of the following:
1-tra...
Fistula in ano
SYMPTOMS:
• Watery or purulent discharge from the external opening
of the fistula
• Pain is episodic as the...
Fistula in ano
GOODSALL’S RULE:
• The internal opening of an anterior fistula lies along a
radial line drawn from the exte...
Fistula in ano
ON PR EXAMINATION:
• The external opening is visible anywhere around the anus usually close to
the anal mar...
Fistula in ano
• INVESTIGATIONS:
fistulogram, endoanal ultrasound, MRI
• DDx:
pilonidal sinus, hidradenitis, suppurative,
...
PERI-ANAL HEMATOMA
It is not a true hematoma but a thrombosis of a vein in the
subcutaneous plexus.
SYMPTOMS:
1-Pain: usua...
SYMPTOMS:
3-Bleeding: this happens only if:
*the lump bursts
*the skin over the lump ulcerates
4- The skin around the lump...
SIGNS ON EXAMINATION:
*Colour: if it is close to the overlying skin which is not edematous,
it is deep red-purple. But if ...
CARCINOMA OF THE
RECTUM
• 75% occur in the lower part of the rectal ampulla papilliferous
or a simple ulcer with everted ...
MICROSCOPIC APPEARANCE:
• *90% are adenocarcinoma
• *9% are colloid – adenocarcinoma with mucous production-
• *1% highly ...
CARCINOMA OF THE RECTUM
Symptoms
Rectal bleeding: small dark red streak on the stool. If a
lot of blood accumulates it ca...
Symptoms
Tenesmus  tumour in the lower part of the rectum is
large to fool the sensory mechanisims into thinking it is
f...
CARCINOMA OF THE RECTUM
SIGNS ON EXAMINATION
On Rectal Examination:
• More commonly, only the lower edge of a malignant ul...
PR is not reliable in fat people.
On general examination: the liver is the most common site for
metastasis.
Other sites fo...
• SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS
1-Sigmoidscopy: to inspect and take a biopsy.
2-Barium Enema: the indications for this procedure ...
Colorectal polyps
• Adenomatous polyps and adenomas
• Has malignant potential
• Morphology:
-polypoid and pedunculated
-do...
TYPES OF COLORECTAL POLYPS
1.Tubular adenomas
- small pedunculated / sessile lesions
-retain a tubular form similar to nor...
SIGN AND SYMPTOM
• Rectal bleeding
• Iron deficiency anaemia
• Mucus
• Hypokalaemia
• Tenesmus
• Prolapse
• Obstructive sy...
INVESTIGATION
• Sigmoidoscopy
• Colonoscopy -gold standard
-visualize, biopsy, remove
• CT pneumocolon
• Double contrast b...
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Signs
• Abdominal Mass
– Ulcerative Colitis: No abdominal mass
– Crohn's Disease: Mass often at...
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Symptoms
• Pain
– Ulcerative Colitis
• Lower abdominal cramps
• Relieved with Bowel Movement
– ...
Investigation
Fecal Occult Blood Testing
• Normally lose 0.5-1.5mL blood/day from GIT
• Three types of test
(a)Guaiac-base...
Fecal Occult Blood Testing
(c)Heme-porphyrin test
• Very sensitive
• High false positive rate
• Lab processing required
• ...
Investigation
• Colonoscopy
• Diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities
• Can be used even with ongoing massive bleeding
– A...
DIVERTICULAR DISEASE
This disease may present in one of the following
manners:
1-chronic left sided abdominal pain + chang...
Causes of bleeding are:
Eroded artery in the mouth of the
diverticulum
The disease is incidental and the bleeding
is due...
Crohn’s Disease
• inflammatory disease of the intestines that
may affect any part of the gastrointestinal
tract from mouth...
Symptoms
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
Vomiting
Weight loss
Skin rashes
Arthritis
Inflammation of t...
Causes
genetics (mutations in CARD15)
environmental factors
immune system
microbes (Mycobacterium avium
subspecies par...
Diagnosis
endoscopy
radiologic tests
blood tests
comparison with ulcerative colitis
Inflammatory bowel disease-cause swelling in the intestines.
symptoms similar to other intestinal disorders, such as IBS...
Anorectal trauma
Solitary rectal ulcer
syndrome
–Young adults with a history of constipation,
self-digitation, anorrectal prolapse.
–Fibrou...
Discussion
Enquire about the amount of bleeding,the colour of the blood lost-
Bright red- coming from the rectum or anal c...
(ii)Blood on the surface of the faeces usually come from
the rectum or anal canal.
(iii)Blood separate from the faeces may...
.
 Bleeding per rectum with pain:-
Fissure-in-ano,Fistula-in-ano,Carcinoma of the anal canal,
Ruptured perineal haematoma...
Conclusion
• Bleeding perrectum is very common symptom
• It is often attributed by patient to haemorrhoids and they are a
...
THANK YOU
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Rectal bleeding

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. Differential diagnosis of rectal bleeding By Dr. Dharmendra Narain Singh 2nd yerar P.G Scholar Dept. of Shalya tantra K.V.G.A.M.C
  3. 3. Contents Introduction History of rectal bleeding Rectal examination Etiology investigation Diseases causing rectalbleeding Discussion Conclusion Reference
  4. 4. Introduction The rectum is the last portion of the large bowel (colon) that ends just before the anus. Bleeding from this area may result in the appearance of blood in stools. Rectal bleeding can take any of these forms: bright red blood coating the stools or in the stools blood in the toilet bowl after motion dark or black tarry stools, maroon stools blood on the toilet paper. Despite the name ‘rectal bleeding’ blood in the stools does not always originate within the rectum. The source of the bleed could be anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract (even as far up as stomach).
  5. 5. RECTAL BLEEDING Blood on its own or streaking the stool: Rectum: polyps or carcinoma, prolapsed Anus : Haemorrhoids, Fissure-in-ano, Anal carcinoma. Stool mixed with blood: GIT above sigmoid colon. Sigmoid carcinoma or diverticular disease. Blood separate from the stool: Follows defaecation: Anal condition eg: Haemorrhoids. Blood is passed by itself : Rapidly bleeding carcinoma, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, or passed down from high up in the gut. Blood is on the surface of the stool: suggest a lesion such as polyp or carcinoma further proximally either in the rectum or descending colon Blood on the toilet paper: Fissure-in-ano, Heamorrhoids. Loose, black, tarry, foul smelling stool: from the proximal of DJ flexure
  6. 6. COLOUR OF BLOOD/ DISCHARGE Bright red/ Fresh blood: Rectum and anus. Dark blood:Upper GIT to above rectum. Drugs eg: iron tablets- appear as greenish black formed stool. Discharge apart from blood:- Mucus- irritable bowel syndrome Copious mucus- villous adenoma, frank cancer of the rectum Mucus and pus- IBD, diverticular disease
  7. 7. •Previous perianal disease •Inflammatory bowel disease •Peptic ulcer disease •Liver disease •Coagulopathy HISTORY TAKING • Laxative agent • Anti-parkinson agent • Anti-coagulant therapy eg: warfarin • NSAID’s-risk factor of PUD • Low fiber diet • Smoking PREVIOUS HISTORY •History of malignancy •Familial Adenomatous Polyposis FAMILY HISTORY DRUGS HISTORY SOCIAL HISTORY
  8. 8. Common causes of rectal bleeding • Benign anorectal disease:- Haemorrhoids Anal fissure Fistula-in-ano • Diverticular disease. • Inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis • Colonic polyps • Colorectal or anal cancer
  9. 9. Less common causes of rectal bleeding:- • Infectious gastroenteritis • Coagulopathy • Arteriovenous molformation(angiodysplasia) • Radiaton proctitis. • Ischaemic colitis(mesentric vascular insufficiency) • Solitary rectal ulcer. • Meckel’s diverticulum. • Rectal varices. • Trauma(possible sexual abuse) • STD
  10. 10. Special Investigations • Proctoscopy • Sigmoidoscopy • Colonoscopy • X Ray • Barium enema X Ray • CT scan • Ultrasonography
  11. 11. Proctoscopy A proctoscope is a hollow, tube- like speculam that is used for visual inspection of the rectum. The proctoscope is inserted into the anal canal with the patient in Sims' position. Fibre optic proctoscopes are now available which cause less discomfort to the patient. The proctoscope is used in the diagnosis of hemorrhoid ,carcinoma of anal canal or rectum and rectal polyp. It is used therapeutically for polypectomy and rectal biopsy.
  12. 12. Colonoscopy  With the advent of fibre optic colonoscope,the whole of the colon upto the caecum can be vieved for practical puposes.This instrument is preferred to sigmoidoscope by majority of the patients.  Colonoscopy and the contrast enema are complementary procedures.  It is used when (i) X ray study negative,but the symptoms persist including occult blood and anaemia. (ii) X ray study positive yet for confermation. (iii)X-ray study positive for cancer,but for taking biopsy. (iv) X-ray study positive for cancer yet to exclude synchronous cancer or associated polyps. (v)X-ray study positive for polyp,but to exclude malignant change or for additional polyps. (vi)X-ray study positive for infammatory disease,but to know the extent of disease and for biopsy.  It is also used in – • Ulcerative colitis,Diverticulitis,Radiation necrosis,Recent bowel anastomosis etc.
  13. 13. X-ray • Straight X-ray of the abdomen may indicate evidence of intestinal obstruction due to annular growth at the rectosigmoid junction. • Chest X-ray is performed in an established case of carcinoma of the rectum to exclude pulmonary metastasis.
  14. 14. Barium enema X Ray • The importance of this examination in a case of bleeding per anum and in pathologies of the rectum and anal canal cannot be over-emphasised. • In any case of internal haemorrhoid barium enema X-ray must be performed to exclude any carcinoma above the rectum to be the cause of this condition. • In case of rectal polyp,this polyp may be one of the multiple polyps in the colon which should be excluded by barium enema. • Other pathologies like Crohn’s disease,ulcerative colitis etc.
  15. 15. Haemorrhoids Varicosities of the veins of the anal canal are known as haemorrhoids.It may be internal or external depending on the position of the varicosity.If it is above the Hilton’s line it is called ‘internal haemorrhoid’ and if it is below the Hilton’s line it is called ‘external haemorrhoid’.So internal haemorrhoid is covered by mucous membrane whereas the external haemorrhoid is covered with skin.
  16. 16. HEMORRHOIDS-Types INTERNAL HAEMORRHOIDS: -develops above the dentate line. -covered by anal mucosa. -lacks sensory innervation (painless) -bright red or purple in color. EXTERNAL HAEMORRHOIDS: -arise below the dentate line. -covered by St. sq. epith. -innervated by the inferior rectal nerve.
  17. 17. Internal H. drains into sup. Rectal veins  portal system External H. drains into inf. Rectal veins I.V.C.
  18. 18. HEMORRHOIDS Grading for Internal type Internal H. are classified by the degree of tissue prolapse into the anal canal. GRADE 1:they are confined to the anal canal with minimal bleeding or maybe asymptomatic but do not prolapse. GRADE 2: they prolapse on defecating or straining then reduce spontaneously. GRADE 3: prolapse with or without straining and require manual reduction. GRADE 4: chronically prolapsed and if reducible fall out again. Others fall out of the anus and are irreducible (strangulated) surgical emergency.
  19. 19. HEMORRHOIDS -Symptoms Grade 1 usually are asymptomatic or with minimal bright red bleeding on defecation. 1-bleeding: -the main and earliest symptom -starts as bright red bleeding on the surface of the stool or on the toilet paper. 2-prolapse: -a much later symptom -starts transiently on defecation, but occurs with increasing frequency until 3rd degree H. develop. 3-discharge: -a mucous discharge accompanies a prolapsed pile. 4-pruritis 5-pain
  20. 20. HEMORRHOIDS-Signs INSPECTION: -1st degree H. show no outward abnormality -2nd degree H. may show the skin covered components when the buttocks are separated or piles may prolapse when the pt. strains. -3rd degree H. shows the red anal mucosa in their position (3,7,11) DIGITAL EXAMINATION: internal H. can’t be felt unless they are thrombosed or in the long standing thickened piles. And should not apply PR
  21. 21. Investigation 1-sigmoidscopy: essential to exclude co- exclude rectal pathology as carcinoma or polyps. 2-barium enema: indicated when sigmoidscopy and proctoscopy can’t explain the symptoms. 3-CBC: anemia, rarely happen in longstanding piles.
  22. 22. Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU) Clinical features of AHRU are as follows: –Most common in elderly women; –Accompanies serious underlying disorders –Onset is sudden, painless, and accompanied by massive rectal bleeding –Most of the patients are bed-ridden
  23. 23. Clinical characteristics of the patients with AHRU (III) • Endoscopic appearances of AHRU are as follows: – Shallow and irregular or circumferential ulcer, which is situated in the terminal rectum immediately proximal to the dentate line, occupying from one third to the entire circumference of the rectum
  24. 24. Fissure in ano • Fissure is a longitudinal ulcer in the anal canal posteriorly situated in majority of cases. • Fissure may be of two varieties:- (a)Acute Fissure:- It is a deep tear in the anal canal with surrounding oedima and inflammatory induration.It is always association with spasm of the anal sphincters. • Bright streak of blood with the passage of stool and pain after defaecation are the characteristic feature. (b)Chronic Fissure:- When acute fissure fails to heal,it will gradually develop into a deep undermined ulcer with continuing infection and oedima.This ulcer stops above at the pectinate line.Below,there is hypertrophied papilla and skin tag known as ‘sentinel pile’.
  25. 25. SYMPTOMS 1-Pain: fissures are the commonest cause of pain in the anal verge both acute and chronic fissures are very painful it begins at defecation and is described as tearing it persists for minutes to hours after defecation it is throbbing or aching in nature 2- Bleeding: acute fissures may streak the stool with blood and stain the toilet paper Chronic fissures bleed less and may produce little blood stain of the toilet paper if any. 3-a small skin tag called sentinel tag or sentinel pile may form at the lower end of a chronic fissure. This tag may be felt by the pt.
  26. 26. 4- Because of the pain, the pt. is usually constipated. 5-the fibrosis around the chronic fissure prevents a good seal around the anus leading to small amounts of mucous leak on the peri-anal skin pruritus –could be the presenting symptom of a chronic fissure- 6-the symptoms are slow to develop and become long standing, there may be periods of remission
  27. 27. Fistula in ano • A fistula is a track lined with epith. Or granulation tissue, connecting two epithelial surfaces. It may connect two body cavities or one cavity and the body’s external surface. • A fistula-in-ano connects the lumen of the rectum or anal canal with the external surface. It is usually lined by granulation tissue.
  28. 28. Fistula in ano LOW LEVEL FISTULAS: The internal opening is below the anorectal ring. They could be of the following: 1-trans sphincteric 2-inter sphinteric 3-subcutaneous or submucous HIGH LEVEL FISTULAS: The internal opening is above the anorectal ring. They could be of the following: 1-extra sphincteric (pelvirectal supralevator) 2-trans sphincteric 3-inter sphincteric
  29. 29. Fistula in ano SYMPTOMS: • Watery or purulent discharge from the external opening of the fistula • Pain is episodic as the fistula fills with pus. If the pus doesn’t discharge pain is more intense and throbbing • The discharge causes pruritus ani. • There may be minor bleeding from the external opening • The symptoms in general are episodic but the condition hardly ever cures itself
  30. 30. Fistula in ano GOODSALL’S RULE: • The internal opening of an anterior fistula lies along a radial line drawn from the external opening to the anus, whereas the internal opening of a posterior fistula lies in the mid line posteriorly.
  31. 31. Fistula in ano ON PR EXAMINATION: • The external opening is visible anywhere around the anus usually close to the anal margin but sometimes a few centimetres away. • The opening is not tender but the thickened tissue around it may be. • The serous or purulent discharge may be visible. • Rectal examination is not painful. • The internal opening may be felt. 2/3 are posterior, 1/3 are anterior. • Sigmoidscopy and protoscopy are essential to exclude underlying disease as chron’s or carcinoma or TB. • The inguinal LN are not enlarged except if there is inflammation or secondary infiltration by carcinoma. • Don’t forget general examination if there is a suspected systemic underlying cause.
  32. 32. Fistula in ano • INVESTIGATIONS: fistulogram, endoanal ultrasound, MRI • DDx: pilonidal sinus, hidradenitis, suppurative, incontinence, chron’s, trauma.
  33. 33. PERI-ANAL HEMATOMA It is not a true hematoma but a thrombosis of a vein in the subcutaneous plexus. SYMPTOMS: 1-Pain: usually due to the tension *it begins gradually increasing in severity over a few hours and subsiding gradually over few days *it is continuous. *made worse by sitting, moving and defecating *localized to the lump 2-Swelling: *appears at the same time as the lump *First it is small and spherical * Then it may enlarge and become more painful
  34. 34. SYMPTOMS: 3-Bleeding: this happens only if: *the lump bursts *the skin over the lump ulcerates 4- The skin around the lump is itchy and moist due to the leakage of the mucous because the lump doesn’t allow the anus to close properly.
  35. 35. SIGNS ON EXAMINATION: *Colour: if it is close to the overlying skin which is not edematous, it is deep red-purple. But if the skin is edematous then its colour can’t be seen. *The lump is tender especially if it ulcerates. *Shape and size: initially the lump is spherical and up to 1cm in diameter. If the skin is lax or edematous then the lump is polypoid. *Surface: covered by skin and the surface beneath it is smooth *Composition: solid, hard hemispherical mass *Relations: the lump is superficial to the external sphincter. Not fixed to the skin or other structures. Cannot be reduced to the anal canal.
  36. 36. CARCINOMA OF THE RECTUM • 75% occur in the lower part of the rectal ampulla papilliferous or a simple ulcer with everted edges. • 25% in the upper part of the rectum annular in shape. • 90% or rectal cancers can be felt with a finger during PR. MACROSCOPIC APPEARANCE: It may be as follows: • papilliferous • ulcerating commonest • stenosing at rectosigmoid • colloid
  37. 37. MICROSCOPIC APPEARANCE: • *90% are adenocarcinoma • *9% are colloid – adenocarcinoma with mucous production- • *1% highly anaplastic carcinoma simplex • *at the anus, sq. cc occur but, a malignant tumour protruding through the anal canal is more likely to be an adenocarcinoma of the rectum invading the anal skin. • Rectal ca is common in middle and old age (50-70 yrs) but can occur in young adults. • It is equally common in both sexes.
  38. 38. CARCINOMA OF THE RECTUM Symptoms Rectal bleeding: small dark red streak on the stool. If a lot of blood accumulates it can pass as such but this is uncommon. The surface of the tumour produces mucous which is expressed in a more liquid motion – diarrhea like- but if it pools it can be passed as liquid faeces. There may be change in bowel habit usually towards constipation. High annular cancers at the rectosigmoid junction may cause partial obstruction  presenting as alternating constipation and diarrhoea.
  39. 39. Symptoms Tenesmus  tumour in the lower part of the rectum is large to fool the sensory mechanisims into thinking it is faeces. Wight loss: this is common even if there isn’t any metastasis. Small primary lesions maybe symptom less but associated with multiple metastasis especially to the liver. Here the pt. has upper abdominal pain, malaise and a palpable mass. Pain is an uncommon symptom.
  40. 40. CARCINOMA OF THE RECTUM SIGNS ON EXAMINATION On Rectal Examination: • More commonly, only the lower edge of a malignant ulcer can be felt. It feels hard and bulges into the lumen of the rectum, the edges are everted and the base is irregular and friable. • Upon withdrawal of the finger, you will have blood and mucous on the gloved finger. • If the tumour is in the upper part of the rectum, only the lower edge is felt. • This position of the lesion makes it hard to decide if the tumour is in the rectum or out of it  sigmoidscopy is the answer.
  41. 41. PR is not reliable in fat people. On general examination: the liver is the most common site for metastasis. Other sites for metastasis are: supraclavicular lymph glands, the lungs and the skin. Lung metastasis is uncommon, a chest x-ray is mandatory. The inguinal LN are involved only if the tumour is below the Hiltons line to involve the skin. If the pt. has palpable inguinal LN, the tumour is most likely to be sq cc. of the anal skin
  42. 42. • SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS 1-Sigmoidscopy: to inspect and take a biopsy. 2-Barium Enema: the indications for this procedure are: * The growth isn’t visualized by sigmoidscopy *if a second tumour is suspected *ulcerative colitis *familial polyposis 3-ultrasound of the abdomen to check liver metastasis and ascites.
  43. 43. Colorectal polyps • Adenomatous polyps and adenomas • Has malignant potential • Morphology: -polypoid and pedunculated -dome-shaped and sessile • Histology: -degree of epithelial dysplasia is highly variable -carcinoma in situ -early invasive cancer:- invasion of tumour cells through basement membrane→muscularis mucosa→submucosa
  44. 44. TYPES OF COLORECTAL POLYPS 1.Tubular adenomas - small pedunculated / sessile lesions -retain a tubular form similar to normal colonic mucosa -least potential for malignant transformation 2. Villous adenomas -sessile and frond like lesions -secrete mucus -more dysplastic -greater potential for malignant change 3. Tubulo-villous adenoma -intermediate between tubular and villous adenoma -pedunculated, stalk is covered with normal epithelium
  45. 45. SIGN AND SYMPTOM • Rectal bleeding • Iron deficiency anaemia • Mucus • Hypokalaemia • Tenesmus • Prolapse • Obstructive symptoms
  46. 46. INVESTIGATION • Sigmoidoscopy • Colonoscopy -gold standard -visualize, biopsy, remove • CT pneumocolon • Double contrast barium enema
  47. 47. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Signs • Abdominal Mass – Ulcerative Colitis: No abdominal mass – Crohn's Disease: Mass often at Right lower quadrant • Gastrointestinal Tract Affected – Ulcerative Colitis • Affects only colon • Continuous from rectum – Crohn's Disease • Mouth to anus potentially affected • Discontinuous, "Skip" lesions • Bowel Tissue affected – Ulcerative Colitis: Mucosal disease (no granuloma) – Crohn's Disease: Transmural disease (granulomas)
  48. 48. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms • Pain – Ulcerative Colitis • Lower abdominal cramps • Relieved with Bowel Movement – Crohn's Disease • Constant pain often in right lower quadrant • Not relieved with Bowel Movement • Stool Blood – Grossly bloody stool in Ulcerative Colitis
  49. 49. Investigation Fecal Occult Blood Testing • Normally lose 0.5-1.5mL blood/day from GIT • Three types of test (a)Guaiac-based (Haemoccult II, Haemoccult II Sensa) • Good for detecting large, more distal lesions • Inconsistent – Need >10mL daily blood loss for +ve test 50% of the time – Can detect as little as 1mL of blood in stool • Affected by dietary factors – Foods which darken stool make it harder to read – False positives from dietary iron (b)Immunochemical • Do not detect bleeding from upper GIT - localizes to the colon • Can detect as little as 0.3mL of blood in stool • Lab processing required
  50. 50. Fecal Occult Blood Testing (c)Heme-porphyrin test • Very sensitive • High false positive rate • Lab processing required • Sensitivity 60-80% • False positive rate 5-13% • If test is positive patients require a colonoscopy or double- contrast Barium Enema + sigmoidoscopy • If test is positive and the colon has been “cleared” unless iron deficiency is present no further Ix is necessary
  51. 51. Investigation • Colonoscopy • Diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities • Can be used even with ongoing massive bleeding – Active bleeding - focal adherent clots – Nonbleeding visible vessels • Timing ideally 6-24 hours post presentation – Patient must be in stable condition – Allows bowel prep – This is the time when recurrent bleeding usually occurs
  52. 52. DIVERTICULAR DISEASE This disease may present in one of the following manners: 1-chronic left sided abdominal pain + change in bowel habits 2-acute abdominal symptoms 3- Rectal bleeding: acute, massive and fresh blood  Elderly pt. with this disease present with a little faint, lower abdominal pain, and a desire to defecate that when emptied pass large volume of fresh blood and clots.  The patients are rarely shocked and don’t require transfusion.  It is diagnosed via barium enema or colonscopy
  53. 53. Causes of bleeding are: Eroded artery in the mouth of the diverticulum The disease is incidental and the bleeding is due to angiodysplasia of the chronic mucosa . DIAVERTICULAR DISEASE
  54. 54. Crohn’s Disease • inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus
  55. 55. Symptoms Abdominal pain Diarrhea (which may be bloody) Vomiting Weight loss Skin rashes Arthritis Inflammation of the eye Rectal bleeding
  56. 56. Causes genetics (mutations in CARD15) environmental factors immune system microbes (Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis)
  57. 57. Diagnosis endoscopy radiologic tests blood tests comparison with ulcerative colitis
  58. 58. Inflammatory bowel disease-cause swelling in the intestines. symptoms similar to other intestinal disorders, such as IBS and ulcerative colitis it can be difficult to diagnose. Ulcerative colitis Inflammation occurs uniformly throughout an affected area. Crohn's disease can develop in several places simultaneously, with healthy tissue in between. Blood test  anemia-could indicate bleeding in the intestines.  high white blood cell count, which is a sign of inflammation somewhere in the body Colonoscopy-inflammation, bleeding large intestine upper gastrointestinal (GI) series view small intestine  Patient drinks barium, chalky solution that coats the lining of the small intestine, before x-rays are taken.  The barium shows up white on x-ray film, revealing inflammation or other abnormalities in the intestine.
  59. 59. Anorectal trauma
  60. 60. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome –Young adults with a history of constipation, self-digitation, anorrectal prolapse. –Fibrous obliteration of the lamina propria with disorientation of muscle fiber.
  61. 61. Discussion Enquire about the amount of bleeding,the colour of the blood lost- Bright red- coming from the rectum or anal canal Dark red-coming from the ascending, transverse, descending or sigmoid colon Black(i.e melaena)-from the small intestine or higher. Its relation with the faeces-unchanged blood may appear in four ways- (i)Blood mixed with faeces means that the blood has come from bowel higher than sigmoid colon where the softness of the stool remains giving chance to the blood to mix with the faeces.
  62. 62. (ii)Blood on the surface of the faeces usually come from the rectum or anal canal. (iii)Blood separate from the faeces may occur when bleeding occur at some other time than defaecation e.g bleeding carcinoma of the rectum when blood accumulates in the rectum and gives rise to desire to defaecate and only blood and mucus come out.Such bleeding may also occur in diverticulosis, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, polyp,prolapsed piles etc. (iv)Blood in the toilet paper is only seen in case of minor bleeding from the anal skin either due to fissure-in-ano or external haemorrhoids. When a child comes with bleeding per anum,a diagnosis of rectal polyp should be made until this is excluded by rectal examination.
  63. 63. .  Bleeding per rectum with pain:- Fissure-in-ano,Fistula-in-ano,Carcinoma of the anal canal, Ruptured perineal haematoma, Ruptured-anorectal abscess, endometriosis, Injury etc.  Bleeding per rectum without pain:- (i)Blood alone-Polyp,villous adenoma and diverticular disease (ii)Blood after defaecation-Haemorrhoid (iii)Blood with mucus-Ulcerative colitis,Crohn’s disease,intussusception,ischaemic colon etc. (iv)Blood streaked on stool-Carcinoma of the rectum.
  64. 64. Conclusion • Bleeding perrectum is very common symptom • It is often attributed by patient to haemorrhoids and they are a common cause of this symptom and it is important to know what the possible causes are and when and how to investigate this symptom further. • The type and amount of the bleeding as well as the age of the patient are important in initial assessment of the bleeding. • The majority of cases of rectal bleeding are due to benign causes,particularly haemorrhoids and anal fissure.However there are many other possible causes which are explained earlier. • The age of the patient gives a clue to aetiology and as a result ,under the age of 30 to have haemorrhoids,an anal fissure or inflammatory bowel disease.Over the age of 50,there should be a higher suspicion of colorectal cancer.
  65. 65. THANK YOU

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