The present study was undertaken to isolate, identify, and quantify Trichoderma species from different habitats of Rajshahi metropolitan area and the premises of the compost plant of the Nature Development Society (NDS].
Trichoderma: A bio-control agent for management soil born diseases
Trichoderma: A bio-control agent for management soil born diseases
1. Trichoderma: A bio-control agent for management soil born diseases
Prerana B. Abhang and Saurabh S. Kedar
Trichoderma species are free-living, cosmopolitan fungi, frequently present in all types of
soil, manure and decaying plant tissues. Trichoderma is a ver y effective biological control for
plant disease management especially the soil born. It is highly interactive in root, soil and foliar
environments. It reduces growth, survival or infections caused by pathogens by different
mechanisms like competition, antibiosis, mycoparasitism, hyphal interactions, and enzyme
secretion.Their dominance in soil may be attributed to their diverse metabolic capability may be
attributed to their diverse metabolic capability and aggressive competitive nature. These
characteristics make them significant decomposers of woody and herbaceous material.
Trichoderma species are also able to degrade domestic waste relatively quickly without emitting
bad odour. Among the various global environmental hazards, municipal solid waste (MSW) is
one of the greatest modern problems. Every day large quantities of domestic, kitchen, and
municipal waste are generated in developed and developing countries. Proper management and
safe disposal of MSW is a major, complex problem that can affect the air, land, and water.
Therefore, attention has been focused on non-hazardous, environmentally friendly, sustainable
techniques involving bioconversion or biologically based treatment of domestic waste to
overcome this serious problem. Microorganisms from relevant environments possess greater
degradation capabilities on related wastes in the biodegradation process. Thus, bioconversion or
biodegradation might be a potentially effective measure for proper management of municipal
solid waste. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to isolate, identify, and quantify
Trichoderma species from different habitats of Rajshahi metropolitan area and the premises of
the compost plant of the Nature Development Society (NDS].
Colonies, at first transparent on media such as cornmeal dextrose agar (CMD) or white on richer
media such as potato dextrose agar (PDA). Mycelium typically not obvious on CMD, conidia
typically forming within one week in compact or loose tufts in shades of green or yellow or less
2. frequently white. Yellow pigment may be secreted into the agar, especially on PDA. A
characteristic sweet or 'coconut' odor is produced by some species. Conidiophores are highly
branched and thus difficult to define or measure, loosely or compactly tufted, often formed in
distinct concentric rings or borne along the scant aerial hyphae. Main branches of the
conidiophores produce lateral side branches that may be paired or not, the longest branches
distant from the tip and often phialides arising directly from the main axis near the tip. The
branches may rebranch, with the secondary branches often paired and longest secondary
branches being closest to the main axis. All primary and secondary branches arise at or near 90°
with respect to the main axis. The typical Trichoderma conidiophores with paired branches
assume a pyramidal aspect. Phialides are typically enlarged in the middle but may be cylindrical
or nearly subglobose. Phialides may be held in whorls, at an angle of 90° with respect to other
members of the whorl, or they may be variously penicillate (gliocladium-like). Phialides may be
densely clustered on wide main axis (e.g. T. polysporum, T. hamatum) or they may be solitary
(e.g. T. longibrachiatum).
Conidia of most species are ellipsoidal, 3-5 x 2-4 µm. Conidia are typically smooth but
tuberculate to finely warted conidia are known in a few species.
Synanamorphs are formed by some species that also have typical Trichoderma pustules.
Synanamorphs are recognized by their solitary conidiophores that are verticillately branched and
that bear conidia in a drop of clear green liquid at the tip of each phialide. Chlamydospores may
be produced by all species, but not all species produce chlamydospores on CMD at 20° C within
10 days. Chlamydospores are typically unicellular subglobose and terminate short hyphae; they
may also be formed within hyphal cells. Chlamydospores of some species are multicellular (e.g.
Teleomorphs of Trichoderma are species of the ascomycete genus Hypocrea Fr. These are
characterized by the formation of fleshy, stromata in shades of light or dark brown, yellow or
orange. Typically the stroma is discoidal to pulvinate and limited in extent but stromata of some
species are effused, sometimes covering extensive areas. Stromata of some species (Podostroma)
are clavate or turbinate. Perithecia are completely immersed. Ascospores are bicellular but
disarticulate at the septum early in development into 16 part-ascospores so that the ascus appears
to contain 16 ascospores. Ascospores are hyaline or green and typically spinulose. More than 200
3. species of Hypocrea have been described but only few have been grown in pure culture and
fewer have been redescribed in modern terms.
Benefits of Trichoderma
Disease Control: Trichoderma is a potent bio control agent and used extensively for soil born
diseases. It has been used successfully against pathogenic fungi belonging to various genera, viz.
Fusarium, Phytopthara, Scelerotia etc.
Plant Growth Promoter: Trichoderma strains solubilize phosphates and micronutrients. The
application of Trichoderma strains with plants increases the number of deep roots, thereby
increasing the plant's ability to resist drought.
Biochemical Elicitors of Disease: Trichoderma strains are known to induce resistance in plants.
Three classes of compounds that are produced by Trichoderma and induce resistance in plants
are now known. These compounds induce ethylene production, hypersensitive responses and
other defense related reactions in plant cultivars
Transgenic Plants: Introduction of endochitinase gene from Trichoderma into plants such as
tobacco and potato plants has increased their resistance to fungal growth. Selected transgenic
lines are highly tolerant to foliar pathogens such as Alternaria alternata, A. solani, and Botrytis
cirerea as well as to the soil-borne pathogen, Rhizectonia spp.
Bioremediation: Trichoderma strains play an important role in the bioremediation of soil that
are contaminated with pesticides and herbicides. They have the ability to degrade a wide range of
insecticides: organochlorines, organophosphates and carbonates.
Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma:
4. The Trichoderma may suppress the growth of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere through
competition and thus reduce disease development. It produces antibiotics and toxins such as
trichothecin and a sesquiterpine, Trichodermin, which have a direct effect on other organisms.
The antagonist (Trichoderma) hyphae either grow along the host hyphae or coil around it and
secrete different lytic enzymes such as chitinase, glucanase and pectinase that are involved in the
process of mycoparasitism. Examples of such interactions are T. harzianum acting against
Fusarium oxyporum, F. roseum, F. solani, Phytophthara colocaciae and Sclerotium rolfsii. In
addition, Trichoderma Enhances yield along with quality of produce. Boost germination rate.
Increase in shoot & Root length Solubilizing various insoluble forms of Phosphates Augment
Nitrogen fixing. Promote healthy growth in early stages of crop. Increase Dry matter Production
substantially. Provide natural long term immunity to crops and soil.
Mass multiplication of Trichoderma
Take 200g of Rice/Wheat/Jower/Maize in the poly pack and add 200 ml of fresh water in the
pack (if grains contain dust then wash it twice before adding fresh water). Place the plastic
pipe/Bamboo in the middle of the plastic pack (opening end) in such a way that level of the pipe
and plastic remain equal. Tie it with the help of rubber band. Plug the opening end of the pipe
tightly with the help of the cotton. Cover the cotton plug with a paper using rubber band. Place
the thick paper inside the pressure cooker surrounding the cooker wall. Place the stone/wood in
the cooker and add water into the cooker just below the stone/wood. Place the plastic pack inside
the cooker and put it on heating system. Wait until 3 times gas release from the cooker (3
whistles). Remove the packet from the cooker until totally cool down.
Method of application:
Mix 4 - 10 g of Trichoderma powder per Kg of seed before sowing.
Nursery treatment: Apply 10 - 25 g of Trichoderma powder per 100 m2 of nursery bed.
Application of neem cake and FYM before treatment increases the efficacy.
Cutting and seedling root dip: Mix 10g of Trichoderma powder along with 100g of well rotten
FYM per liter of water and dip the cuttings and seedlings for 10 minutes before planting.
5. Soil treatment: Apply 5 Kg of Trichoderma powder per hector after turning of sun hemp or
dhainch into the soil for green manuring. Or Mix 1kg of Trichoderma formulation in 100 kg of
farmyard manure and cover it for 7 days with polythene. Sprinkle the heap with water
intermittently. Turn the mixture in every 3-4 days interval and then broadcast in the field.
Plant Treatment: Drench the soil near stem region with 10g Trichoderma powder mixed in a
liter of water
Important commercial formulations are available in the name of Sanjibani, Guard, Niprot and
Bioderma. These formulations contain 3x106 cfu per 1 g of carrier material. Talc is used as
carrier for making powder formulation.
Used in Damping off caused by Pythium sp. Phytophthora sp., Root rot caused by Pellicularis
filamentosa, Seedling blight caused by Pythium, Collar rot caused by Pellicularia rolfsii, Dry rot
caused by Macrophomina phaseoli, Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli, Loose smut
caused by Ustilago segetum, Karnal bunt diseases, Black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani,
Foot rots of Pepper and betel vine and Capsule rot of several crops. Effective against silver leaf
on plum, peach & nectarine, Dutch elm disease on elm's honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) on a
range of tree species, Botrytis caused by Botrytis cinerea, Effective against rots on a wide range
of crops, caused by fusarium, Rhizoctonia, and pythium, and sclerotium forming pathogens such
as Sclerotinia & Sclerotium
Cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum
and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent
6. Trichoderma, being a saprophyte adapted to thrive in diverse situations, produces a wide array of
enzymes. By selecting strains that produce a particular kind of enzyme, and culturing these in
suspension, industrial quantities of enzyme can be produced.
•T. reesei is used to produce cellulase and hemicellulase
•T. longibratum is used to produce xylanase
•T. harzianum is used to produce chitinase.
Trichoderma is most useful for all types of Plants and Vegetables such as cauliflower, cotton,
tobacco, soybean, sugarcane, sugarbeet, eggplant, red gram, Bengal gram, banana, tomato,
chillies, potato, citrus, onion, groundnut, peas, sunflower, brinjal, coffee, tea, ginger, turmeric,
pepper, betel vine, cardamom etc.
Don't use chemical fungicide after application of Trichoderma for 4-5 days.
Don't use trichoderma in dry soil. Moisture is a essential factor for its growth and survivability.
Don't put the treated seeds in direct sun rays.
Don't keep the treated FYM for longer duration.
Trichoderma is compatible with Organic manure Trichoderma is compatible with biofertilizers
like Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Bacillus Subtilis and Phosphobacteria.
Trichoderma can be applied to seeds treated with metalaxyl or thiram but not mercurials. It can
be mixed with chemical fungicides as tank mix.
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Lalithakumari, D. (2010). Aust. J. Basic and Appl. Sci., 4(10): 4701-4709.
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7. Harman, G.E. (2004). "Overview of mechanisms and uses of Trichoderma spp.". Phytopathology
96 (2): 190-194.
Samuels, Gary J. (2006). "Trichoderma: Systematics, the Sexual State, and Ecology".
Phytopathology 96 (2):195–206. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-0195. ISSN 0031-949X. PMID