by sanchit dhankhar pharmacy pharmaceutical sanchit dhankhar sanchit pharmaceutical analysis analysis physical chemistry microbiology pharmaceutical microbiology market analysis pharmacognosy pharmacology pharma 2 pharmaceutical engineering definition of drying importance of drying differen analytical chemistry m phaarmacy guidelines hematopoiesis functions blood is a body fluid platelets rbc wbc's blood fluids unit 3 hap blood b pharma human anatomy and physiology b pharmacy 1st sem b pharmacy body fluids blood blood fluids and blood hap unit iii unit 3 thermodynamic data indicate that diamond shall con rate of chemical reac rate of chemical kinetics called chemical kinetics. thermodynamics tells onl which deals with the study of reaction rates and t the branch of chemistry and k is a constant called the equilibrium constan and m are their coefficient in the balanced equati l k and d represents chemical species and j c b ja + kb  lc + md where a law of mass action but is a highly dynamic situation. there is frantic activity. equilibrium is not sta the state where the concentrations of all reactant instead it helps in achieving the equilibrium fast this effect is very well pronounced in enzymes. ca a catalyst cannot start the reaction by itself. c promoters catalytic poisoning autocatalysis enzyme catalyst: - the substances that alter the rate of introduction basis importance classification hom biofuels…) fuel cells h2 dme agro-chemicals) > 90 % of petro refining & petroch drug polymers clothes fuels 24% of gdp from products made using catalysts (f e.g. gas transfer. this is demonstrated in the fo adsorption adsorption is the process in which matt type of adsorption- pharmaeutical physical chemist desorption types of adsorption: physisorption and adsorption adsorption versus absorption and reproduction) viroids and prions a virus is taxonomy reproduction ) plant viruses: tmv (morphology reproduction) viruses of eukaryotes: retrovirus classification viruses of prokaryotes: t4 phage m13 and the patient during surgery medical personnel washing of hands with soap sepsis: bacterial conta alcohol swab on skin restaurants & public rest rooms) degerming: mechan sanitization: lowering of microbial counts to prev procedures performed in a way to prevent contamina rna and loss of membrane permeability. nucleic acids denature proteins killing or removing all forms of microbial life (i and decay. hence it becomes necessary to remove infection microorganisms are the agents of contamination methylene blue) 1 min observe under microscope smear preparation: a drop of water is placed in t polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliom ultraviolet light. chlorine formaldehyde 3 rapidly inactivated by heat enterovirus (rna) three serotypes: 1 often called polio is an infectious disease caused poliomyelitis mutations happen regularly almost all mutations a chromosomal mutations five types exist: deletion inversion translocation some type of skin cancers and leukemia result from changes in the nucleotide sequence of dna may occu the microbiological assay is based upon a comparis the inhibition of growth under standardized condit meaning that no form of life is present before ino the culture medium should be sterile or it may consist of living organisms such as fert or it may contain organic materials a growth environment called a medium is used. the iron and growth factor (vitamins) in very small am magnesium potassium phosphorous and other elements such as sodium oxygen hydrogen nitrogen temperature and oxygen for growth and multiplicati optimum ph the process of growing microorganisms in culture b skin acts as barrier to microbes and viruses - sw viruses bacteria protozoan fungi animal parasitesv and surface molecules from transplanted tissue. serum proteins etc. nonmicrobes : pollen flagella viral capsids toxins cell walls antigens some chemical that creates immune respo phagocytic cells (wbcs) natural killer (nk) cells: utilization of host nutritional resources physical 2nd covered with paper and 3rd was covered with co louis pasteur and theodore schwann.they argued tha lazzaro spallanzani theory of spontaneous generation was disproved by formation of life from non living things- abiogene viruses. most of the microorganisms are harmles mice from dirty hay.” this belief remained uncha fleas from putrid matter it was: “readily observable that aphids arise fr who lived around 350 bc. according to aristotle the belief in the spontaneous generation of life f protozoa fungi cyanobacteria bacteria archae the diverse group of organisms includes algae scientific study of organisms (both eukaryotes and 120̊ c) superheated steam(autoclave use of physical agents (ionizing radiation) dry or require limited time of exposure capable of killing the vegetative form of all path inexpensive noncorrosive and nontoxic effective at room temperature and the objects used by the patient). disinfectio periphery of the patient disinfectants are chemical agents that inhibit or sheep cattle anti tb drug plaque veterinary treatment against g yeast virus or eukaryotes such as fungi test organism-streptomyces griseus fermentation is defined as chemical transformation it is an antibiotic that was the first drug to be it can be preserved by freeze drying fixing on soi there are two methods of preparation of penicillin basically penicillin is a antibiotic having β-lactum thiazol types of fermentation optimum balance of the media is mandatory for cell solid state fermentation (ssf). liquid state ferm fermentation media the fermentation industry is composed of five majo application of heat transfer in pharmaceuticals i if a system has a non-adiabatic boundary its tempe 1.1 evaporation 1.2 distillation 1.3 drying 1.4 cr 2.1 heat heat is a form of energy. according to th introduction mechanism of heat flow conduction hea bourdon gauge simple manometer/ u tube manometer and modificatio rotameter current flow meters pressure measurement manometers are the devices used for measuring the pitot tube orificemeter venturimeter measurement of flow‐ – classification of flow mete column is maintained at constant pressure by apply consider a column of liquid with two openings whic fluid statics gases. fluid flow may be defined as the flow of s a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (f laminar and turbulent flow. flow of fluids in pipes compressibility and surface tension of fluids. hyd fluid flow mention fluid properties such as viscosity which are recrsytallized to pharmacopoeia grade vi fermented broth is then harvested and vitamin b-12 microbial production of vitamin b-12 consists of f following media no. 1 is used:- beet molasses and the people who don’t have enough of it may fee is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the recovery:- media no-2:- beet molasses -2500kg (nh4)hpo4 - vitamin b-12 also known as cobalamine and alcohol or various organic acids energy anaerobic respiration release of energy from gluco types of fermentation: bacterial fermentation yeas an energy produced h2o aerobic respiration release of energy from glucose age old applications: wine/ beer/ spirits cheese enzymes and hormones. in demineralization of water particularly in pharmaceutical industries. evapora leaving a concentrated product. applications of ev evaporating pan consists of a hemispherical pan ma natural circulation evaporators evaporating pans e temperature temperature and time of evaporation te evaporation is the process of removal of solvent f classification of evaporation equipment horizontal a fungus which is the organism of choice even toda test organism: first time in 1917 curie used aspe citric acid found as natural constituent of a vari potato etc. and then sterilize it after that fung 2): submerged fermentation method: it involves a media: the basal media with following composition submerged aeration and shake culture. incubation p inoculum development: fungal strains are maintain 1): the surface culture method: in this sterile n it is an intermediate in the metabolism of carbohy condition for fermentation dehydrated or denatured to obtain different alcoho temperature – about 70c-80c time – 50 hours the culture in tube may be used to inoculate 200ml of the starter is prepared from the selected yeast is flameable liquid which is produced by fermentatiop the test organism used here is known as saccharomy volatile any series of hydroxyl comppounds derived from sat conducts e- from signal source through solution to b.) theory of voltammetry 1.) excitation source: analyte selectivity is provided by the applied pot ana s bulk and cmox which in turn is equal to the bulk concentration 2.) current generated at electrode by this process instrumentation – three electrodes in solution con a.) comparison of voltammetry to other electrochem titrations with precipitating agents are useful fo detection of end point: chemical -precipitation t precipitation formation precipitation condition known half-cell insensitive to solution under exam potential measurements of electrochemical cells io capillary tube about 10-15cm int. diameter of 0.05 conventional direct current polarography (dcp). i na3po4) in which the sample (which must be electr nacl the supporting electrolyte is a solution of (kno3 the following reaction will occur: when an external potential is applied to a cell the earliest voltammetric technique heyrovsky inve precision and accuracy of the non-aqueous method a acids are hydrogen containing compounds that disso first reported successful quantitative titration o non- aqueous titrations are those in which the tit based on his extensive works on the chemical compo justus von liebig proposed a new definition of aci he defined acids in terms of their content of oxyg and hi. from his limited knowledge hbr hcl and he was not aware of the true composition of th such as hno3 and h2so4 which tend to contain central atoms in high oxidat circa 1776. lavoisier's knowledge of strong acids the first of the scientific concepts of acids and historically polyamine and amino acid systems. titration of so phosphoric acid system mixed indicators different type of titrations (ne indicators relative strength of acids and bases distributi lavoisier definition liebig definition arrhenius a acid base theories role of the solvents acid 9) are always significant. all zeroes between non- 8 7 6 5 4 3 definition: significant figures are the reliable evaluation of quality raw materials and api physi and corrective action as required. continued inspection use of proper equipment defination: quality control (qc) is a procedure o quality control (qc) significant figure concept vasodilation vascular permeability itching and pa .. etc. actions interleukins anaphilatoxins irritant chemicals irradiation cold basophiles and platelets. released by the stimuli histamine :- stored in granuls of mast cells cell derived mediators plasma derived mediators chemokines) f) nitric oxide and oxygen metabolite if-γ tnf-β tnf-α histamine) arachidonic acid metabolites cycloxygen vasoactive amines (serotonin or other cells to contribute to an inflammatory inflammatory cells definition: any messenger that acts on blood vess ignited. if necessary and selectively with the analyte. the ideal precip a gravimetric precipitating agent should react spe we use thermal energy to vaporize the water in the for example such method called as volatilization gravimetry. we deposit the analyte as a solid film an electrod electrogravimetry it is a type of quantitative analysis that involve hence is suited for drying of thermolabile compoun to enable sublimation of ice. the entire process without first passing through an intermediate liqu principle lyophilization is carried out using a si first by sublimation (primary drying stage) and th definition a stabilizing process in which a s holland. history freeze drying was first actively develope drying synthetic & semi synthetic drugs undergo…. chemica tissues… undergo microbial growth --effervescent t drying is necessary in order to avoid deterioratio drying is defined as removal of the liquid from a preservation of drug products preparation of bulk by kolthoff in 1929. conductometry: is the simplest of the electroanaly the conductance increases. 4- size of electrodes c molecular weight and number of charges. 3- concen factors affecting conductance: 1- temperature: (1 conductors are: either metallic (flow of electrons introduction ohm’s law. conductometric measurement pentadentate tetradentate is called bidenate. tridentate which has two groups available for covalent bondin whereas one such as glycine is called unidentate(single-toothed) such as ammonia or negative. a ligand that has a single donor gro neutral and six. the species formed as a result of coordin four or ligand is an ion or a molecule that forms a cov the formation of these complexes is often the basi many complexes are colored or absorb ultraviolet r complex-formation reactions are widely used in ana arising from the body's inertia. pharmacy and in medicine. centrifugation is a pr centrifugation is one of the most important a fatty liver hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism. defective metabolism of cholesterol lipids biosynthesis of fatty acids hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. 5 galactose tolerance test and their significance glycogenesis. metabolic disorders of carbohydrate gluconeogenesis glycogenolysis hmp shunt citric acid cycle (tca cycle) coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficienc enzyme inhibition. isoenzymes and their therapeuti enzyme action factor affecting enzyme activity iub classification cyclic amp and their biological significance. 2. transport process across the cell membranes. energ 1. introduction to biochemistry: cell and its bioc guggul pharmacognosy slideshare sanchit dhankhar chromatography techniques principle and application of chromatography application of chromatography principle of analysis chemistry seperation technoques in analysis chromatography laboratory technique for the separation of mixture stem cells divide to form more cells called daught stem cells are the body's raw materials — cells fr urginea scilla sea onion jangli pyaz it consist of dried slices of urginea indica kunt fibrous and dark brown in colour rhizomes and fibrous roots. these rhizomes in the basal bulbs nagarmotha is a colonial plant exhibiting fibrous but there is no good scientific evidence to suppor and other conditions weight loss gymnema is a woody climbing shrub native to india marathi – mahishaksh source ;- gum resin obtained guggulu synonyms;- salai gogil regional name;- hindi- gug with only a few species extending into temperate c native throughout the tropical and warm temperate dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flower sanchi hydrogen bond donar/ acceptor) 2d (substructure) chaeged /ionisable group 3d (hydrophobic group inhibitors) a pharmacophore is a representation of first introduced by paul heritich in 1990 a pharma pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening m pharma alternative methods to animals testing are the dev reduce refine replace collectively called as “the because in laboratory animals may be: poisoned. de a high degree of assurance that a specific process through documented evidence it is the process of establishing validation process validation process validation this guidance incorporates principles and approach audit by sanchit dhankhar quality audit qa audit quality audit is the process of systematic examina lipstic dfdc dfdc lipstic by sanchit dhankhar lipstick to add color and hydration. these preparation do n worn by women . some lipsticks are also lip balms but not exclusively lipstick is typically texture and protection to lips. they are classifie waxes and emollients that apply color oils lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments guidelines for pharmaceutical use the international council for harmonization of tec guidelines for ich guidelines of ich ich guidelines new ich guidelines ich dhankhar drug and cosmetic act 1940 cosmetic act drug and cosmetic act drug design involves design of small molecules tha drug design is the inventive process of finding ne traditional drug design drug design design drug traditional drug random screening trial and error method ethnopharm acetylcholine neurotransmitter acetylcholine a neurotransmitter acetylcholine pharmacology pharmacology acetylcholine functions of actelychloline mechanism of action of acetylecholine neurotransmitter acetylcholine muscle cells and gland cells. such as neurons acetylcholine is an organic chemical that function neurotransmitters in brain histamine neurotransmitter hitamine dopamine neurotransmitter dopamine serotonin neurotransmitter serotonin glutamate neurotransmitter glutamate glycine neurotransmitter gaba neurotransmitter glycine gaba neurons in cns cns transmission neurons transmission in cns neurons transmission neurohumoral transmission in cns neurohumoral transmission cns euthanasia methods for rats anaesthesia methods euthanasia anaesthesia anesthesiia guidelines of cpcsea goal cpcsea goal of cpcsea members of cpcsea committee for the purpose of animal welfare guidelines for animal welfare cpcsea guidelines cpc guidelines cpc cpse cpsea cpca cpcea cpcsea disadvantages of antisense therapy advantages of antisense therapy limitations of antisense oligonucleotides applications of antisense therapy applications of antisense oligonucleotides advantages of antisense oligonucleotides antisense oligonucleotides mechanism mechanism of antisense therapy antisense dna antisense therapy applications antisense antisense in drug discovery process drug discovery using antisense antisense oligonucleotides pdd antisense therapy in pharmacology drug discovery process antisense therapy in drug discovery oligonucleotides antisense therapy antisense oligonucleotides zinc finger protein in drug discovery drug discovery zinc finger protein zinc finger protein role in drug discovery principles of drug discovery pdd zinc finger protein pdd pharmacology zinc finger protein zinc finger protein pharmacology zinc finger proteins mpharm znf zinc finger proteins terpenoids dioscore dioscorea plant plant dioscorea
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