13. BIO MASS
• Biomass is the name given to all the Earth’s living
• Biomass is organic material that has stored
sunlight in the form of chemical energy
• Biomass provides a clean, renewable energy
• First, it is a renewable resource that could be
sustainably developed in the future.
• Second, it appears to have formidably positive
17. Introduction to Biofuels
Classification of Biofuels
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuel
18. • Biofuel is the fuel which is produced from biomass
organic products and wastes.
• The common commercially used biofuels are
bioethanol, biodiesel and biomethane.
Bioethanol is made from sugar, algae, wheat and sugar
beet.(50% that of gasoline)
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, algal lipids,
animal fats(about 90% that of petroleum diesel)
Biomethane can be produced from waste organic
material, sewage, agriculture waste and domestic
21. Classification of Biofuels
Also called conventional biofuels. It includes sugar, starch, or
known as advanced biofuels and can be manufactured from
different types of biomass. The biomass contains lignocellulosic
material like wood, straw and waste plastic
Extract from algae mostly marine algae
One of the widely used alternative
automotive fuel in the world
Bioethanol is produced by the
fermentation of carbohydrate rich
source which includes sugar cane,
sugar beet, corn ,etc
Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food
sources such as trees and grasses, is also being
developed as a feedstock for ethanol production
It is colorless and clear liquid
Milling ( sugarcane stem &
separation of juice and bagasse)
Fermentation (conversion of sugar
into alcohol, production of ethanol)
Distillation (separation of ethanol)
28. Ad-Disadvantages of Bioethanol
Ethanol is a renewable resource Large amounts leading to problems
such as soil erosion, deforestation.
Ethanol burns more cleanly in air than
Typical current engines would require
The use of ethanol reduce carbon
29. The top five ethanol producers in 2010
Brazil - 16500 billion liters
The United States -16270 billion liters
China - 2000 billion liters
The European Union - 950 billion liters
India - 300 billion liters
31. BIO- OIL
• Bio-oils are liquid or gaseous fuels made from
biomass materials, Via biochemical or
• Bio-oil has a higher energy density than biomass
• It can be obtained by quick heating of dried
biomass in a fluidized bed followed by cooling.
• it is more economical to convert bio mass into
bio-oil and then the transport the bio-oil
32. • Bio-oil can be used in vehicle engines – either
totally or partially in a blend.
BIO- OIL application
33. • Bio –oil can be used instead of bio mass in
remote area of bio mass this will make
BIO- OIL application
Reduce Handling Costs
Reduce Shipping Costs
Reduce Drying & Densifications Costs
• Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, is made from
renew able biological sources such as vegetable oils
and animal fats
• Similar to petroleum diesel fuel in structure
• reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions
• Biodiesel produces 100% less SOx than petroleum.
• Biodiesel reduces exhaust smoke (particulates)
• The Biodiesel can be prepared by Transesterification.
41. Biodiesel-Blended Fuels
• Can be used alone / blended
• B20: 20% biodiesel
• B99: 99% biodiesel
• B100: pure biodiesel
Property of DOE, reprinted with permission
42. ** B100 (100% biodiesel) with NOx adsorbing catalyst on vehicle
Relative emissions: Diesel and Biodiesel
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Total Unburned HCs
43. •Biodiesel is much easier to handle and does not cause
cracking or redness.
•Biodiesel is much less dangerous to put in vehicle fuel
tank as its flash point is ± 150°C (300°F) as opposed to
petroleum diesel ± 70°C (150°F).
• Biodiesel provides significant lubricity improvement
over petroleum diesel fuel so engines last longer, with
the right additives engine performance can also be
45. Application of Biodiesel
• Railway usage
• Aircraft use
• As a heating oil
• Cleaning oil spills
• Biodiesel in generators
46. Advantages-Disadvantages of Biodiesel
Can be used pure biodiesel B100. Biodiesel is significantly more expensive
compared to standard diesel (double
the price of petroleum diesel)
Biodiesel has shorter ignition delay
compared to standard diesel
Biodiesel can release nitrogen oxide
which can lead to the formation of
Biodiesel has no sulfur content, and
so it doesn't contribute to acid rain
Pure biodiesel has significant problems
with low temperatures
Biodiesel has good lubricating
properties better than standard
Food Shortage can be occurred
Job creation The cost of biodiesels varies depending
on the base stock,
Biodiesel is eco-friendly.
Biodiesel is clean burning alternative fuel.
Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but can be
blended with conventional diesel fuel.
These fuel can be used in any diesel engine
without any modification.
Biodiesel is degradable , non toxic and free from
sulphur and lead.
• A mixture of CH4 , CO2 and other gases
Carbon dioxide 25–50
Hydrogen sulfide 0–3
• Biogas is Obtained from animal waste, fruit and
• Anaerobic digestion in landfills occurs in a series of
stages by bacteria to produce Biogas
51. Advantages Biogas
• Reduce air and water pollution (clean)
• Environmentally friendly
• Reduced greenhouse gas emissions
• concerns about waste management in the
agriculture and food industry
• Hydrogen is not a primary fuel.
• It must be manufactured from water using energy from either fossil
or non-fossil sources.
• The use of hydrogen fuel has the potential to improve the global
climate and air quality.
• using a fuel cell, hydrogen can be utilized with high energy
• We can produce hydrogen from biomass
56. Advantages of Biofuels
• Easy to Source
• Fuel security
• Reduce Greenhouse Gases
• Economic Security
• Lower level of Pollution
• Job creation
• biofuels are growing rapidly
57. Advantages of Biofuels
• Biomass used as a fuel reduces need for fossil fuels for the production of heat,
steam, and electricity for residential, industrial and agricultural use.
• Biomass is always available and can be produced as a renewable resource.
• Biomass fuel from agriculture wastes maybe a secondary product that adds
value to agricultural crop.
• Growing Biomass crops produce oxygen and use up carbon dioxide.
• The use of waste materials reduce landfill disposal and makes more space for
• Carbon Dioxide which is released when Biomass fuel is burned, is taken in by
• Less money spent on foreign oil
58. Disadvantages of Biofuel
• High Cost of Production
• Future Rise in Price
• Shortage of Food
• Use of Fertilizer
• Food price increases will be neither open-ended nor
• Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other
purposes, such as farming, conservation, housing,
resort or agricultural use
• the risk of climate change has brought energy
conservation to the forefront of public discussion.
59. Disadvantages of Biofuel
• Agricultural wastes will not be available if the
basic crop is no longer grown.
• Additional work is needed in areas such as
harvesting methods .
• Biomass conversion projects are from animal
wastes and are relatively small and therefore
• Industrial Pollution
60. Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based
fuels. Its expensive and requires a lot of resources to convert the raw
materials to an energy source.
61. • Reduce wastes
• Cleaner air
• New agricultural markets
• global warming reduction
• Benefit developing nations
64. fuel versus food
• How large will be potential demand from energy markets for
agricultural products? Will it be large enough to reverse the secular
decline in real food prices?
• Land use impacts, fertilizer requirements and water use are other
important factors to be taken into account when considering the
potential of biofuels.
• Competition “fuel versus food” is a major issue to be circumvented
not to impact on the living of poorer mankind and on the prices of