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Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing

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Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

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Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing

  1. 1. Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing BY: RUSSELL RODRIGO
  2. 2. Lesson Outline  Describe the difference between quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing  Understand how to present a quotation  Describe the steps involved in paraphrasing and summarizing  Know how to avoid plagiarism Resource: UNE Academic Skills Online @ LMS
  3. 3. Direct Quotations When you use a direct quote, you copy and reference the exact word/s of the author into your writing. A direct quote may be: • One word • A phrase or part of a sentence • A sentence • A group of sentences Rules for direct quotations • Use to support your argument • Use sparingly • Write word for word • Distinguish from your own words • Reference the source • Give an explanation for its relevance For ALL quotes: • Use the exact words of the author • Make sure your quotation blends with the sentence • Use strong or weak author to acknowledge the source • Use reporting words or phrases to integrate the quote into your writing • Reference your source of information
  4. 4. Direct Quotations It takes practice and experience for students to learn how to use direct quotes effectively in their writing. According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for a “compelling” reason and that the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7). Students often misunderstand the role of quotes in writing and overdo the strategy. Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing, such as formatting, punctuation, verb tense and adding emphasis. Students, then, require information and training to assist them to use quotations appropriately and correctly in the academic writing. (188 words)
  5. 5. Short Quotations Short quotes are from one word to about 40 words. •Follow these conventions: •use double quotation marks "..." •include the quote in the text by using reporting words Example According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for “compelling” (one word) reason and the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7) (16 words) before you go on to analyze the statement.
  6. 6. Long Quotations Long quotes are more than 40 words OR three typed lines. • Follow these conventions: • leave no space above and below the long quote • make the text size the same as the essay text size • indent approximately one centimetre to the right • do NOT use quotation marks Example Students often misunderstand the role of quotations in writing and overdo the strategy: Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). (61 words) Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing.
  7. 7. Modifying Quotations Making a change Correct convention Leaving out some words (because you may not need all of the words in the middle of the quote) Use an ellipsis signal (three dots ... ). Leave a space either side of the 3 dots Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter Adding words to the quote (without changing the meaning) Use square brackets [ ] around the added words The following table gives you a few of the most common rules for modifying the words of authors in a direct quote:
  8. 8. Modifying Quotations [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). Shows a capital letter has been added to the original text. Shows a comment has been added to the original text. Shows some words have been left out of the original text.
  9. 9. Direct Quotations Don't do this! •Don't DUMP information into your paragraph. Blend the words of the author with your own words. •Don't use TOO MANY direct quotes in your writing (e.g. 2-3 long quotes and 4-5 short quotes is enough in a 2000 word essay). The lecturers prefer to see paraphrasing - writing quotes in your own words). •Don't change a couple of words from a direct quote and think that it is a paraphrase - either use the exact words or change the words of the author significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase.
  10. 10. Paraphrasing To paraphrase is to rewrite something 'in your own words'. •Lecturers like to see you using paraphrasing in your writing because it demonstrates what you know and understand about their subject (because it is in your own words). •Most of your academic reading texts are made up of paraphrases. Any information in a paragraph that does not have quotation marks and is referenced is either a paraphrase or a summary.
  11. 11. Paraphrasing Students often experience difficulties writing acceptable paraphrases. In their studies of student essay writing problems, Brown and Smith (2006) observe that the most common paraphrasing error made by students was that they only changed a few of the writer’s words. They also noted that this practice was a particular problem with internet users who copied and pasted information from web sites. Even if this paraphrased text is referenced, it is not an acceptable practice as the words and sentences are also almost the same as the original text (Johnson & Jackson, 2006). Therefore students who lack mastery in paraphrasing may experience problems with avoiding plagiarism. (106 words)
  12. 12. Paraphrasing Successful paraphrasing depends on the writer’s ability to rephrase the original author’s words into their own, but also maintain the same meaning. Two simple ways of rephrasing are to use synonyms and the passive voice. • A) A group of US researchers has carried out trials on a new vaccine. • B) An unhealthy lifestyle can be the cause of many diseases. Examples of original text: • A) A team of American scientists has conducted tests on a new vaccine. • B) An unhealthy way of living can result in a multitude of illnesses. Using synonyms: • A) Trials on a new vaccine were carried out by a group of US researchers. • B) Many diseases can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. Using passive voice: • A) Tests on a new vaccine were conducted by a team of American scientists. • B) A multitude of illnesses can be caused by an unhealthy way of living. Using both synonyms and passive voice:
  13. 13. Paraphrasing  Practice paraphrasing these sentences in your own words by using synonyms and/or passive voice. 1. We need more proof that active learning really works.  Additional evidence is required to show the benefits of active learning. 2. They will build a huge medical center on the old site in the near future.  A large hospital will soon be constructed in the former location. 3. The organizers cancelled the talk because the main speaker was ill.  The key presenter had taken ill, which resulted in the speech being cancelled by the event planners.
  14. 14. Paraphrasing For ALL paraphrases: • Keep the meaning the same as the original writing • Change most of the words except for technical terms • Restructure the sentence patterns • Blend with the sentence (use reporting words) • Use strong/weak author to acknowledge the source • Reference the source/s of information
  15. 15. Paraphrasing Don't do this! • Don't just change a couple of words from your information source and think that it is an acceptable paraphrase—adding a reference makes no difference! Either use a direct quote (the author's EXACT words) or change the words of the author significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase. • Don't just switch around sentence parts from your information source and add a reference, then think that it is an acceptable paraphrase—adding a reference makes no difference! Either use a direct quote (the author's EXACT words) or change the sentences significantly so that it a correct paraphrase. • Avoid patchworking (cutting and pasting and copying bits of information from a variety of sources and connecting it all together in a paragraph, usually without references). It is a GOOD strategy to use information from different sources in a paragraph but you must paraphrase and reference each and every piece of evidence correctly.
  16. 16. Summarizing Summaries of material may be used to give an overview of an author’s work. • Because they are very brief outlines of arguments made, they are very useful when you want to indicate the support given for and/or against some position you are taking in your argument. • In your writing you may make a summary from: • one or more paragraphs • an entire article, chapter or complete work • a combination of readings with similar ideas • You can get an idea from your reading as to whether an author has used a direct quote, paraphrase or summary to support their argument.
  17. 17. Summarizing
  18. 18. Summarizing For ALL summaries: • Keep the meaning and degree of certainty the same as the original writing • Put the main idea and key points into your own words • Expect that length of your summary will be very short compared to the original writing • Blend with the sentence (use reporting words) • Use strong/weak author to acknowledge the source • Reference the source/s of information
  19. 19. Summarizing Don't do this! • Don't sacrifice CLARITY (clear writing) by clogging your writing up with too many details. You need to get to the essence of what the writer has to say in as few words as possible. • Don't do a one-off summary. You need to have several tries at a good summary. Keep checking against the original to ensure that you have maintained the message and captured the surety of the writer (how committed the writer is to their opinion).
  20. 20. Lesson Review  Describe the difference between quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing  Understand how to present a quotation  Describe the steps involved in paraphrasing and summarizing  Know how to avoid plagiarism Resource: UNE Academic Skills Online @ LMS

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