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Leadership management chapter 7

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Leadership management chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter -7 Leadership and Motivation
  2. 2. Learning Topics 1. Concept Of leadership 2. Function and Importance Of Leadership 3. Difference Between Leader and Manager 4. Leadership Style 5. Approaches of Leadership 6. Qualities of Good Leadership 7. Group Formation and Types Of Group 8. Group Formation Process 9. Team Management 10. Types of Team 11. Conflict 12. Types of Conflict 13. Managing Conflict by organization 14. Concept of Motivation 15. Importance of Motivation 16. Motivation Theories 17. Emerging Issue of Motivation 18. Motivation through Employee Participation
  3. 3. Introduction According to Peter Drucker, “ Leadership is shifting of own vision to higher sights,the raising of man’s performance to higher standards, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations.” - Leadership is the one of the most important function of management. -Leading involves directing, influencing & motivating employees to perform.
  4. 4. Features Of Leadership 1.Leaders and Followers : Relationship between Leaders and Followers. 2.Ability to influence: Leadership is the ability to influence the behavior, effort of followers. 3. Common Objectives: 4.Regular Process 5. Situational Activity : 6. Motivational Functions: 7. Reciprocal influence:
  5. 5. Who is leader?  One that leads or guides. One who is in charge or in command of others. One who heads of an organization. One who has influence or power, especially of a political nature.
  6. 6. Importance/Functions of Leadership 1.Goal Determination: Leadership set up the Vision, mission, objectives and goals of an organization. They also changes the policies of the organization to cope with the change in environment. 2. Environmental Adaption: Business environment is complex and dynamic so Leaders are responsible for monitoring, scanning and predicting the environmental changes and the probable effects. 3. Directing : Leadership direct to their followers(Subordinates for the maximum effort that leads to achieve the organizational goal. 4. Motivating: Financial and non-financial benefits scheme. 5. Communication: Leaders set proper channel of Communication, leaders influences the followers.Two- way of communication is better to build the trust among them. 6. Supervising and Controlling : 7. Encouraging Network:
  7. 7. Difference Between Manager And Leader MANAGER Oversees the current process well Must achieve balance Thinks execution Comfortable with control Problems are just that & need resolution ASAP Procedure is King Instructs as to technique & process Impersonal, remote LEADER Wants to create the future Needs to make change Thinks ideal Welcomes risks Sees problems as opportunities is patient Substance thumps the King Your best college professor High emotional intelligence
  8. 8. Leadership Style Leadership style is the manner and approach of Directing, Implementing plans and motivating the People involved in organization. 1. Autocratic Leadership Style 2. Democratic 3. Lassies Faire
  9. 9. 1. Autocratic Leadership Style -Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision- making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictator leaders. -They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. -It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to himself until he feels it is needed to be shared with the rest of the group. High degree of dependency on the leader
  10. 10. Features of Autocratic Leadership 1. All the Decisions are made by leaders without any consultation of the followers. 2. Leaders control the information and communication Channel. 3. Leaders expect the desired output at the desired time in any cost from their followers. 4. Negative motivational techniques like the threatening, Suspension, Demotion etc.
  11. 11. Benefits of Autocratic Leadership Style 1. All the employees work in strict discipline 2. Employees need not to be involved in decision making process. 3. Employees are not supposed to reject or suspect the order. 4. This style is most appropriate in the organizations having new, unskilled and less experienced employees. 5. Job division in this style becomes more clear and easy to understand.
  12. 12. Disadvantages Of Autocratic Leadership Style 1. Employees do not participate in decision making. 2. Job Turnover ratio is high, because of Low career Opportunity. 3. One way communication, employee satisfaction and Performance may be below the expectation. 4. Succession planning becomes very poor because of lack Opportunity to improve the decision making power in employees. 5.Employees commitment will be low. 6. This leadership style is not suitable for the large and diversified organization.
  13. 13. 2. Democratic Style of Leadership The democratic leadership style favors decision- making by the group . They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct.
  14. 14. Features of Democratic Leadership Style 1.Subordinates are encouraged to participate in decision making. 2.This style follow two-way communication. 3.Employees are highly encouraged for creativity. 4.Employees are consider as a important members of an organization. 5. Team effort is encouraged. 6.Positive motivational tools are used to encourage employees.
  15. 15. 3. Laissez-Faire Style Laissez –Faire or free rein style A free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates, i.e. they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life Can make coordination and decision making time- consuming and lacking in overall direction Relies on good team work
  16. 16. Features Of Lassies Faire Leadership Style 1.Decisions regarding personal goals, performance standard, working process etc. 2. Leaders only coordinate and facilitate for resources. 3. Employees are self directed and guided. 4.Every employees holds the rights to use own intellectual freedom.
  17. 17. Advantage of Lassies Faire Leadership 1.Decisions are made by employees themselves. 2.It helps to create and fulfill common goal of Orgn. 3.Employees become highly creative. 4.Employees evaluate their performance themselves. 5.This style is appropriate to modern and big organizations. 6.Employees have chance of Career development.
  18. 18. Disadvantages of Lassies Faire Leadership 1.This style is not appropriate to organizations having majority of unskilled and semi skilled manpower. 2.Every employees may concentrate to the individual goal and effort. 3.There may be serious problem of discipline. 1.Coordination between employees can decrease gradually
  19. 19. Approaches Of Leadership 1.Trait Approach of Leadership 2.Behavioral Approach of Leadership 3.Transformational Leadership 4.Coaching Leadership 5.Entrepreneurial Leadership
  20. 20. 1. Trait Approach Of Leadership Trait theory of leadership differentiates leaders from non leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. Trait theory of leadership sought personality, social, physical and intellectual traits. Trait theory assumes that leaders are born.
  21. 21. Trait Theory 1. Intelligence and scholarship, Physical traits like age, height, weight, strength etc. 2.Social status and experience Task Orientation 3. Personality characteristics: 4. Ambition and energy Desire to lead 5. Honesty and integrity 6. Self confidence 7. Job relevant knowledge etc.
  22. 22. Trait theorist refers to people like Father of nation M.K. Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Margrat Thracher, Nelson Mandela, Virgin Group CEO Richard Branson, Apple Co-founder Steve Jobs, Ratan Tata of the Tata Group, Azim Premji of Wipro, Narayana Murthy of Infosys, Binod Chaudhary of CG etc.
  23. 23. - The trait theory arose from the the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders . It was believed that through this theory critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such trait could then be recruited ,selected and installed into leadership positions. This theory was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions.
  24. 24. 2. Behavioral Approach The theory concerned about what a leader actually does and how she/he does it. The assumption under this theory was; i. The behavior of effective leader would be different from the behavior of less effective leader. ii. The behavior of effective leaders would be the same across all situations.
  25. 25. Behavioral Approach There are three important research studies, which attempted to analyze the leadership behaviors. They are: a. Ohio State Studies. b. Michigan Studies. c. Management Grid.
  26. 26. Ohio State Model A team of Research were undertaken in the 1945 AD at Ohio State University to find what behaviors make leadership effective? From their study, two dimension of leadership behavior were identified.
  27. 27. Ohio State Approach of Leadership Ohio State University model narrowed description of leader behavior into two dimensions: Initiating Structure Behavior: The behavior of leaders who define the leader-subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected, establish formal lines of communication, and determine how tasks will be performed. Consideration Behavior: The behavior of leaders who are concerned for subordinates and attempt to establish a warm, friendly, and supportive climate.
  28. 28. Behavioral Approach
  29. 29. Behavioral Approach
  30. 30. 2. Michigan University Studies
  31. 31. a. Job(production) Centered Leadership production-centered Leadership: Managers using job- centered leader behavior pay close attention to subordinates’ work, explain work procedures and are keenly interested in performance.
  32. 32. c. Emloyee Centered Leadership Employee-centered Leadership: Managers using employee-centered leader behavior are interested in developing a cohesive workgroup and ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs. The Michigan Leadership Studies found that both the styles of leadership led to an increase in production, but it was slightly more in case of production of job-centered style.
  33. 33. Criticized of Michigan Studies These ‘studies are criticized on the following grounds: The Michigan Leadership Studies failed to suggest whether leader behavior is a cause or effect. They did not clarify whether the employee-centered leadership makes the group productive or whether the highly productive group induces the leader to be employee-centered. The Michigan Leadership Studies did not consider the nature of the subordinates’ tasks or their characteristics. Group characteristics and other situational variables were also ignored. The behavioral styles suggested by Michigan Leadership Studies have been termed as static. A leader is supposed to follow either of the two styles, viz., task orientation and employee orientation. But in practice, a practical style may succeed in one situation and fail in another.
  34. 34. Managerial Grid Model of Leadership Explained Developed by R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton, the Managerial Grid Model helps Managers to analyze their leadership styles through a technique known as grid training.
  35. 35. Also, Managers can identify how they concerning their concern for production and people with the Managerial Grid Model. The two dimensions of leadership, viz. concern for people on ‘vertical’ axis and concern for production on the ‘horizontal’ axis have been demonstrated by R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton in the form of Managerial Grid Model.
  36. 36. Managerial Grid Approach
  37. 37. Concern for people: This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. Concern for production: This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency, and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
  38. 38. (1,9) Country Club Style Leadership (High People and Low Production) (1,9) Country Club Style Leadership style of leader is most concerned about the needs and the feelings of members of his or her team. In this environment, the relationship- oriented manager has a high concern for people but a low concern for production. He pays much attention to the security and comfort of the employees. He hopes that this will increase performance. He is almost incapable of employing the more punitive, coercive and legitimate powers. The organization will end up to be a friendly atmosphere but not necessarily very productive. The (1,9) boss mainly uses reward power to preserve discipline and to support his subordinates in accomplishing their goals.
  39. 39. (9,1) Task Management - High Production and Low People (9,l) Produce or Perish Leadership management style is characterized by a concern for production as the only goal. Employees are viewed as obstacles to performance results unless obedience to the manager’s wishes is explicitly granted. In this style, the manager is authoritarian or compliance. A task-oriented manager, he has a high concern for production and a low concern for people. He finds employee needs unimportant and simply a means to an end. He provides his employees with money and expects performance back. There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. He pressures his employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals.
  40. 40. (1,1) Impoverished Leadership-Low Production and Low People: (1,1) Impoverished Leadership is a delegate-and-disappear management style and a lazy approach. The manager shows a low concern for both people and production. He or she avoids getting into trouble. His main concern is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. Managers use this style to preserve job and job seniority, protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble.
  41. 41. (5,5) Middle-Of-The-Road Leadership-Medium Production and Medium People (5,5) Middle-Of-The-Road Leadership is a kind of realistic medium without ambition. It is a balanced and compromised style. The manager tries to balance the competing goals of the company and the needs of the workers. The manager gives some concern to both people and production, hoping to achieve acceptable performance. He believes this is the most anyone can do. Consequently, compromises occur where neither the production nor the people’s needs are fully met. The supervisor views it as the most practical management technique. It is also an outcome when production and people issues are seen as in conflict.
  42. 42. (9,9) Team Leadership-High Production and High People At (9,9) Team Leadership, the manager pays high concern to both people and production. Motivation is high. This soft style is based on the propositions of Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. The manager encourages teamwork and commitment among employees. This style emphasizes making employees feel part of the company- family and involving them in understanding the organizational purpose and determining production needs. This method relies heavily on making employees feel they are constructive parts of the company. And this will result in a team environment organization based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production.
  43. 43. Limitations of the Managerial Grid The model ignores the importance of internal and external limits, matter and scenario. There is some more aspect of leadership that can be covered but are not. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Model was one of the most influential management models to appear in the 1960s, it also provided a foundation for even more complex contingency approaches to leadership.
  44. 44. Advantages of the Managerial Grid Model Managers help to analyze their leadership styles through a technique known as grid training. Managers identify how they for their concern for production and people.
  45. 45. Group & Team Groups & Teams Group - two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction Work Team - a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
  46. 46. Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group - Comfortable, informal atmosphere Task well understood & accepted Members listen well & participate People express feelings & ideas Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or methods Group aware of its operation & function Consensus decision making Clear assignments made & accepted
  47. 47. Difference Between Groups and Teams
  48. 48. 5 Stages Of Group Development
  49. 49. Stage 1 : Forming Definition: Stage 1 teams are generally new teams that are learning how to work together — Characteristics : Members tend to be tentative and polite and to have little conflict — Critical skills and activities: Stage 1 teams need to identify their purpose, develop group norms, identify group processes, define roles, build relationships and trust — Role of facilitator/leader: Stage 1 teams usually need a strong leader who can help the team go through its forming activities
  50. 50. Stage 2 : Storming Definition: Stage 2 teams have moved past the early forming stages and are now encountering some disagreements and/or conflict. This is natural, but teams need to find effective ways to handle conflict before they can move on to stage 3. — Group characteristics: Members of stage 2 teams tend to exhibit increased conflict, less conformity and “jockeying” for power. — Critical skills and activities : Stage2 teams need to learn how to resolve conflict; clarify their roles, power, and structure; and build consensus through re-visiting purpose. — Role of leader(s):Stage2 teams need leaders and other team members who are willing to identify issues and resolve conflict.
  51. 51. Stage 3: Norming Definition: Stage 3 teams have successfully moved out of the storming stage and are ready to move to a higher level of communication and problem- solving. Group characteristics: Members of stage 3 teams demonstrate an improved ability to complete tasks, solve problems, resolve conflict. Critical skills and activities: Stage 3 teams need to learn to engage in more sophisticated problem-solving and decision-making, continue the use of effective strategies for conflict resolution and take greater levels of responsibility for their roles Role of leader(s): In stage 3, leaders become less directive, team members feel empowered, and multiple leaders emerge
  52. 52. Stage 4 : Performing Definition:Stage4 teams are at the highest level of performance and can process their strengths and weaknesses while accomplishing their goals. Group characteristics: In stage 4,the team takes a flexible approach to roles and structures depending on the task at hand. The team is able to evaluate its effectiveness and views conflict is viewed as an opportunity. Stage 4 teams tend to be energetic, creative, and fun! — Critical skills and activities: Stage 4 teams need to hold high expectations for their performance. They often use sub-groups as well as the large group for decision- making and task completion. Teams also recognize the need to ensure that all members are in agreement with the role and purpose of sub-groups. — Role of Leader: In a stage 4 team, it’s often difficult to identify the leader, because everyone is sharing in leadership.
  53. 53. 5th stages: Adjouring In this final stage of group development, members prepare to say goodbye. The main goals of the Adjourning stage are to achieve closure and end on a positive note. Group members need time to reflect on their individual participation and growth. It is also important to recognize the growth, progress, and achievements of the group as a whole.
  54. 54. Types Of Group/Team 1. Formal groups refer to those which are established under the legal or formal authority with the view to achieve a particular end result and The group is designated by the organizational structure, having work assignments establishing tasks. E.g People making up the airline flight crew, trade unions.
  55. 55. Classification Of Formal Group a. Standing Task / Command Group The Standing Task group are formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager and are determined by the formal organizational chart. E.g. an assistant regional transport officer and his two transport supervisors form a command group. b.Task Group The task groups are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve a cross- command relationship. Its boundaries are not located within its immediate hierarchical superior. E.g. for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order would require liaison between ward in charge, senior sisters and head nurse.
  56. 56. 2. Informal Group a. Interest Group — The interest group involves people who come together to accomplish a particular goal with which they are concerned .Office employees joining hands to go to vacation or get vacation schedule changed form an interest group . b. Friendship group — The friendship group are formed by people having one or more common features . The people coming from a same college ,martial status, political views or having same language to speak belong to a friendship group. c. Reference Group — Base of Interest & Friendship. — Have in common race, gender, religion, social class, educational level, profession.