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Byzantine Empire Architecture

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Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine Empire Architecture

  1. 1. The Byzantine Empire Ruba AbuGheith Tasneem AbdElal Meron Nasser Supervised: dr. Omar Yousef and arch. Renad.
  2. 2. Beginnings • In 27 AD. Jesus started spreading christianity • In 33 AD. Jesus was nailed to a cross • According to Christianity Jesus resurrected and he was the son of god • Christianity remained a secret for 3 centuries
  3. 3. Early Christianity
  4. 4. Construction and influences • Influenced by Roman architecture • Use of king and queen post trusses
  5. 5. Construction of roofs King post roof spans 5-8m Queen post roof spans 8-12m
  6. 6. Basilican churches • Similar to Roman basilicas • Dedicated to a certain priest
  7. 7. 460s AD480s AD 515AD
  8. 8. St. Peter’s basilica ca. 320 CE
  9. 9. • Atrium built post Constantine Mausoleum
  10. 10. Interior
  11. 11. In the 16th century old st. Peter was torn down and replacedwith the new st.Peter
  12. 12. Tombs and catacombs Christian built arae or tombs to bury their dead, and catacombs where built to hide them in the early times
  13. 13. Catacombs of st. Callixtus 2nd-4th century
  14. 14. Tombs or Mausoleums 4th century
  15. 15. Tomb of Lazarus
  16. 16. Baptisteries Symbolic christian architecture
  17. 17. Lateran Baptistery Built by pope Sixtus III in 440 ce.
  18. 18. Byzantine Architecture – Influences 1. Geographical (Constantinople) • located at the junction of the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmora • It was also at the intersection of two great highways of commerce, the water highway between the Black Sea and Mediterranean, and the trade route between Europe and Asia
  19. 19. Walls of Constantinople
  20. 20. • Walls of Constantinople were initially built by Constantine the great • As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls were built in the 5th century. • These walls were the last great fortification system of antiquity • Lime stone mortar protected the city from any possible threats • Its construction allowed the walls to absorb earthquake shock without shattering
  21. 21. 2. Geological • Constantine possessed no good building stone, and local Materials such as clay for bricks and rubble for concrete were employed. • Other materials were imported: marble was brought from the quarries in the islands and along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean to Constantinople. Hagia Irene Materials used: Bricks, Stones, and Mortar Byzantine Marble floor
  22. 22. Marble, an expensive material, was generally reserved for columns, capitals, cornices, architraves, and decorative features such as door frames, window grills, and paving. more attention was paid to building interiors where generally all the walls were covered in plaster, stucco, thin marble plaques, paintings and mosaics. Roofing in churches and houses was most often made from timber. Many more buildings liberally reused the high- quality stone blocks and column drums of Roman-era structures. Materials San vitale church ,ravenna
  23. 23. Climate The climate was rather Hot, therefore small windows at high level and few openings were used. open courtyards surrounded by sheltering arcades features are predominant.
  24. 24. Reconstruction of Byzantine house from Bet She-an (Palestine)
  25. 25. The Venetian "courtyard house" type of the byzantine period (ninth centurytwelfth century) that formed the groups of houses placed near a church and constituted the ancient parochial nuclei at the origin of Venice (Source: Maretto, 1978).
  26. 26. Development of the Venetian "courtyard house" typology: the court was occupied by individual houses placed in line on two floors, located both along the "calle corte" and along the canal front (Source: Maretto, 1978).
  27. 27. Religious Influence Constantine established Christianity as the state religion of Roman Empire (313 AD), and it followed that the chief erected in byzantine is new capital were churches for new region. Eastern church/ Western church the " Iconoclastic movement"
  28. 28. Map of eastern-western allegiances in 1054 with former country borders. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons.
  29. 29. Iconoclasm vs art Destroyed by those opposing religious imagery Byzantine art usually depicts holy figures
  30. 30. An illustrated layout of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church
  31. 31. Urban Planning
  32. 32. Byzantine social structure Through a carefully orchestrated continuity of dynasties, ritual, costume & names, the institution of the byzantine emperor was able to last for 12 centuries.
  33. 33. Aqueducts
  34. 34. Aqueducts of Valens 368 AD. • Constantinople didn't have a reliable source of water • The aqueduct built by emperor Valens • Material: stone and brick • Distance covered: 644 km • Longest aqueduct in ancient history
  35. 35. Basilica cistern completed in 6th century AD • a huge space to store water under constantinople • Most elaborate build in the ancient world • 336 columns • Fills 27 olympic size swiming pools.
  36. 36. The foundation Byzantine Empire 324 C.E.- 527 C.E.
  37. 37. By the time Constantine became the Caesar of the Roman empire, the Empire had split in half: • The Western Roman Empire centered in Rome, speaking Latin • the Eastern Roman Empire of Byzantium (Constantinople), today Istanbul.
  38. 38. 527 C.E.- 641 C.E. The personalization of power
  39. 39. Baptism of Christ, squinch mosaics, Katholikon church, Hosios Loukas monastery, Boeotia province, Greece Dome On SquinchesDome On Pendentives Hagia Sophia church
  40. 40. San Vitale was Built in the 6th century
  41. 41. Domed Octagon plan
  42. 42. HAGIA SOPHIA Completion date: 537 ac
  43. 43. LOCATION The Hagia Sophia located in the heart of the city. The building, facing east, facing the Blue Mosque and one of the side streets The Topkapi Palace is just a few meters.
  44. 44. Pantheon Hagia Sophia
  45. 45. Cross-Domed Church
  46. 46. piers
  47. 47. Basket Capital, Hagia Sophia (photo: William Allen, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Ionic Capital, North Porch of the Erechtheion (Erechtheum), Acropolis, Athens, marble, 421-407 B.C.E., British Museum (photo: Steven Zucker CC:BY-NC-SA 2.0) Materials: The interior columns were brought from temples in Baalbek, Heliopolis, Ephesus, Miletus and Delphi, while other pillars and capitals were made of white marble and ancient quarries, in the Sea of ​​Marmara, Thessaly green, golden Libya, Phrygia and ivory roses of Cappadocia.
  48. 48. 641 C.E.- 1025 C.E. The Growth and expansion AS KNOWN AS ‘The Golden Age’
  49. 49. The medieval walls, Jerusalem Rebuilt in sixteenth century. The old city of Jerusalem is A fine example of a completely walled town of the late middle Ages. The walls have at their base a wide, sloping talus against mining — a Saracen invention.
  50. 50. Cutaways and conceptional plans of sub-types of cross-in-square churches based on Kalopissi-Verti and Panayotidi-Kesisoglou. (redrawn by Ryo Higuchi; Figure 1-A: Simple four-column; Figure 1-B: Simple four-pier; Figure 1-C: Transitional Greek; Figure 1-D: Two-column; Figure 1-E: Twopier; Figure 1-F: Transitional eight-support; Figure 1-G: Semi-complex four-column; Figure 1-H: Complex four-column; and Figure 1-I: Athonite threeconch) The cross-in-square was one of the most common church types during the Middle Byzantine period (9th– 12th centuries).
  51. 51. Saint Marco church it begun in 1036
  52. 52. 1071 C.E.- 1453 C.E. Stagnation and Decline
  53. 53. On May 29th, 1453 AD, after two months of siege the Theodosian walls were breached and Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks.
  54. 54. The Byzantine legacy
  55. 55. The Kremlin And the cathedral square
  56. 56. Church of Annunciation Built in 1489 ce.
  57. 57. Church of Assumption Built in 1479 ce.
  58. 58. Cathedral of the archangel Built in 1508ec.
  59. 59. • Ground plan could be basilican, cruciform, circular or polygonal • Main entrance from the west • Altar at the eastern end of the church • Principal building material was brick, arranged in decorative patterns or covered in plaster • Brilliant mosaic work in the interiors (most recognizable feature) • Predominant colours of mosaics - blue and gold • Domes supported on pendentives • Subject depicted - scenes from the holy Bible or the imperial court • Magical impression of light and depth conveyed by mosaics - How to recognize a Byzantine Church
  60. 60. • Columns and capitals - classical prototypes • Dome - structural feature • No human figures in Byzantine decoration • Decorative features - scrolls, circles and other geometric forms or by depicting leaves and flowers
  61. 61. https://www.britannica.com/place/Moscow/The-Kremlin https://www.ancient.eu/article/1205/early- christianity/?fbclid=IwAR1ZgUB0hXOpHuDGwMGVFa7NnOzBBynYo9wy0j7Gyau9 7J4-K5mI6rjuqnA https://www.britannica.com/place/Byzantine- Empire?fbclid=IwAR3XRjSan3W1JtUyj19BhObX0jyNvpUbzkKhx5gZFDXTgRKuGZ1E oiRPWnM https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/medieval-world/early-christian- art/beginners-guide-early-christian-art/a/early-christianity-an- introduction?fbclid=IwAR2wscgR5WHdjF6Y- eqyhP6XYZpdHkfwV_AM7jpwEKsMf0yxM76aSkJdmMI https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ancient.eu%2FByzantin e_Empire%2F%3Ffbclid%3DIwAR3mHWJ0QHrsJjl3ylDDCvfpKDfGslYsEYvdBfiFqfQ MCDa2o6MbhTFgEYU&h=AT1XgjmullrhENEsgFFh_SmQ6sQBcyBcl8cgQIG5jeMFf -ifgsgnUf0gELb- SD0ss2KHUtllWTkrqn46e8nt32HKQixJzxhfj26Lk99ZQfd8mUP41hz8YGSWKWmcQ DyVmFSZuRKqmlsmzxg References Eastern Medieval Architecture- The Building Traditions of Byzantium and neighbouring land/ Robert G. Ousterhout

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire.

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