2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Learning Theories are conceptual
frameworks describing how information is
absorbed, processed, and retained during
Learning theories allow teachers to better
understand the process of learning.
There are several learning theories, however in this
presentation we focus on BEHAVIORISM,
COGNITIVISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM, and
A learning theory based on the idea that behavior
can be controlled or modified according to the
antecedents and consequences of a
A behavior will only occur if given the right
environment or antecedent.
The behavior is more or less likely to reoccur
according to the reinforcements or
consequences that follow, such as rewards
For examples: receiving a sticker for a correct
answers, students who arrive late will receive
4. The theory originates from the works of Ivan Pavlov’s,
classical conditioning, and B. F. Skinner’s, operant
Classical Conditioning is when an unconditioned
stimulus and response is manipulated with a conditioned
stimulus to create a conditioned response.
Operant Conditioning is a controlled response with a
reward/ punishment system according to the
The learner needs reinforcements to keep interest.
Stimuli are effective in controlling behavior.
As a result, the behaviors can be measured to record learning
- Come to class on time
- Have materials out when
- Participate in class
Getting good mark
Getting bad mark
Come to class on time
Have materials out when bell rings
Participate in class discussion
Application in the classroom
A Learning theory that focuses on“How information
is received, organized, stored, and retrieved
by the mind.”
Using the mind as information processor.
The use of Instruction should be organized,
sequenced, and presented in a manner that is
understandable and meaningful to the learners.
7. Cognitivism emphasizes Retention and
Recall through the use of quality teaching practices.
Learning is attained through rehearsal and
consistent use of the information.
Retention strategies such as breaking down information
and comparing the information to long term storage are
8. The best way for a teacher to apply cognitivism in
the classroom is to ask questions to help students
Visual aids are extremely effective when teaching a
lesson but they must encourage the connection
with the student’s background knowledge.
The use of flashcards, puzzles or sorting-
games can be presented in the classroom
Application in the classroom
A theory that views learning as a process in
which the learner constructs knowledge based on
their past experiences.
The teacher only acts as a facilitator who
encourages students to explore within a given
The students may collaborate with others to
organize their ideas and learn from each other to
construct their own knowledge.
10. Constructivism focuses on knowledge
construction, not knowledge reproduction.
Constructivism utilizes interactive teaching
strategies to create meaningful contexts that help
students construct knowledge based on their own
Constructivism can help engage and motivate
the students by making them take a more active
role in the learning process.
11. Inquiry and Problem-based Learning
Problem launches students’ inquiry
The problem presented – has ‘yes’ or ‘no’
Group Work and Cooperation in learning
Several students working together
All members in group must be cooperative
Evolving constructivist perspectives on learning
APPLICATION IN THE CLASSROOM
12. Making Cooperatives Learning Work
5 elements that define true cooperative learning group (David &
Johnson, 1999) :
i) Face-to-face interaction
ii) Positive interdependence
iii) Individual accountability
iv) Collaborative skills
v) Group processing
e.g.: Jigsaw – an early format for cooperative learning that
emphasizes high interdependence
Dialogue and Instructional Conversations
Instructional conversations because they are designed to
promote learning but it includes conversations not lectures.
Teacher’s goal – to keep everyone cognitively engaged in a
a method of beliefs concerned with the needs of
people and not with the religious ideas.
Learning is a personal act.
Learning is student-centered and personal, the
teacher as facilitator of the learning process.
The goal / aim is to develop self-actualized in
cooperative / supportive environment.
14. The basic objectives of humanistic approach in
education are to encourage students to :
• Be self-directed and independent
• Take responsibility for their learning
• Be creative and interested in the arts
• Be curious about the world around them
15. There are 5 principles of Humanistic Approach
in education :
(ii) Wanting and knowing how to learn
(iii) Self –evaluation
(iv) The importance of feelings
(v) Freedom from threat
16. • Students can choose and decide what they want to
• The teachers should not interfere or determining
• Let the students initiate the activity they want and
then ask teachers simply to provide information and
equipments for them to use in their activities.
17. Learning how to learn is more important than acquiring factual
Teachers can play their role as facilitator to help the students find
the way of their learning.
It should emphasize more on thinking process rather than teaching
Humanistic educators believe that grading systems are irrelevant
The students will not achieve their personal satisfaction
18. # Humanistic educators believe that both feelings and
knowledge are important to the learning process.
# As teachers, we should concern about our students’
# The learning can be easiest and meaningful if it takes
place in a non-threatening situation
# Non-threatening situation is when the students feel
unstressed and able to overcome their pressure
19. (1) Teacher as a facilitator
# teacher guides the activity which has been done by the
(2) Enhance critical thinking
# the whole class will take part in the activity by having
critical thinking process
# by practicing critical thinking system, we’ll produce
students who are able to express their views and able to
think deep beyond
(3) Establish privacy files
# privacy files so that the students will know their level
# can only be opened by the individual itself
20. (4) Fair learning
# teachers should apply a fair learning process which every
student is given chance to show their ability and free to express
# everything being taught by us must be explain to all and not to
particular person only
(5) Provide non-threatening environment
# instead of giving the task individuality, the teacher can set the
task in group but evaluate individually
Audiolingual Method (ALM)
There are three crucial elements in learning
1. Stimulus which serves to elicit behavior
2. Response triggered by a stimulus
3. Reinforcement which serves to mark the response as
being appropriate and encourage the repetition in the
23. AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (ALM)
T : I go to school students repeat this statement
T : I go to school in the morning
T : I buy the ticket S : I buy the tickets
T : He reads a book S : She reads a book
T : Thank you S : You are welcome
T : May I take one S : Certainly
T : What is your name? S : My name is Smith
Its priciples formed the basis of widely used series such as Lado
English Series, English 900, and English 901 (British English)
24. Cognitive Code learning
Classroom procedures based on cognitive theories of learning
Emphasize understanding rather than habit formation.
All learning is to be meaningful, the teacher can do the following :
1. Bulid on what the students already know
2. Help the students relate new material themselves, their life
experiences, and their previous knowledge
3. Avoids rote learning
4. Use graphic and scematic procedures to clarify relationships
Genre Based Instruction
The learners construct knowledge for themselves. They construct
knowledge from their experiences that they get in the world.
1. Vygotsky’s Concept
Zone of Proximal Development
29. No Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Humanism
1 Founders and
B. Watson, B.F.
Skinner and Ivan
Piaget, John Dewey,
2 Basic idea:
Basic idea: Mental
function can be
Basic idea: Learning
is an active,
Learning is a
3 Learners viewed
Learners viewed as:
as: one with
4 Behavior may
focuses on inner
create their own