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Outline
 Introduction
 History
 Definition
 Persuasion vs. Manipulation
 Persuasion vs. Propaganda
 Persuasion vs. negotiation
 Means of Persuasion
 Writing
 speaking
Outline
 Persuasion in writing and speaking
 Factors affecting persuasive communication
source credibility, rational and emotional appeal
 Modes of communication
Aristotle’s three basic elements for persuasive communication
 Strategies for Persuasion
using logic, avoiding hesitation, using positive language, being subtle, showing
gratitude
 Resistance to Persuasion
Psychological reactance, inoculation
 Desired Effects of Persuasive Communications
Call to Action, Convince, Stimulate
 End Results of Persuasive Communications
Introduction
Communication is defined as the transfer of information. We,
humans, are social animals. In our life, we have to communicate
with other humans. We can say a communication successful, which
makes our listener do agree with us, or be convinced. So the art of
convincing someone, having an influence on it, and making it
believe that you are right could be said as persuasion and the
communication that let us persuade our audience could be said as
persuasive communication. In other words, it is communication
that convinces someone to do or think something that they might
not think otherwise.
Persuader and persuaded
These are two important terms to be discussed
Persuader and persuaded
A persuader is a person who try to persuade a person or group of them
A persuaded is one who need to be persuade or convinced.
History of persuasion
If we check back in history, we get the first clue about persuasion from the
Greeks as they were the first to study it in detail. But we can say persuasion is
as old as we humans, and Satan was the first who convinced Adam to eat
from the forbidden plant, which made Adam leave heaven and stay on the
earth.
A lot of Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and Protagoras
have worked on persuasion.
Greeks and persuasion
 It was Greeks who first studied persuasion in detail, during mid of fourth and
fifth century B.C.
 Greek realized how important these skills are so in the second half of the fifth
century B.C.E., a band of Greek intellectuals and professional teachers,
known as Sophists, began to frequent Athens and other Greek cities with the
intention of offering young wealthy Greek men an education on how to
influence people or groups of people.
 Aristotle identified three basic elements to every persuasive argument, which
are using evidence (logos), personal characteristics (Ethos), and emotions
(pathos).
Definition
According to the encyclopedia Britannica,
 Persuasion is the process by which a person’s attitudes or behavior are,
without duress (threats, violence, constraints), influenced by
communications from other people.
 One’s attitudes and behavior are also affected by other factors, such as
verbal threats, physical coercion, and physiological state.
Persuasion by Richard Perloff
American scholar Richard Perloff, in his book “Dynamics of
persuasion” defined persuasion as
“Symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people
to change their own attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through
the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice”.
Means of Persuasion
We can communicate with someone by
 speaking
 writing
Persuasion in communication could be achieved by using some simple
methods as
 the seven C’s of effective communication with some simple strategies and
getting rid of different barriers (environmental, psychological, physiological,
and semantic) to communication.
Persuasion in writing
 When we communicate with someone through writing, everything the next
person is having is from our words. He judges, notice, feel, and understand us
through our words and we can only have an impact on him by being logical,
credible, positive, and evident.
 In our professional life, generally communication is done by mean of writing.
So we should work on our writing skills to be persuasive in our professional
life.
Persuasion in speaking
 Persuasion in speaking is not much different from Persuasion in writing but we
can use non-verbal language in it. For Persuasion in speaking, all we need is
to use our verbal and non-verbal language relatively and effectively. There
are some tips for it like, one should be confident and right, should use
pauses, and should be easily accessible, etc.
 In our daily life, we use this mean of communication more than writing so we
should work on our speaking skills to persuade others around us.
Some important terms
 There are some terms which leads to convincing someone but that is not
persuasion. They and persuasion differ from each other in many ways.
 They are
 Propaganda
 Negotiation
 Manipulation
Persuasion vs. Propaganda
 The word propaganda has an origin in the Latin language
that means spreading ideas around.
 Propaganda is the promotion of a specific agenda, which
is mostly biased.
 Propaganda is playing a critical role for a long period of
time in history.
 These days, propaganda is mostly used for political
purposes and advertisement.
 It is hiding all bads of you and hiding all your opponents
goods.
 Compared to persuasion, propaganda is biased, covering
a long audience and the truth about it is discovered after
a long period of time.
Persuasion vs. Manipulation
 According to the Cambridge dictionary, manipulation is the act of
influencing or controlling someone (or something) to your
advantage, often without anyone knowing it.
 The manipulated is tricked by the manipulator and thus
manipulation has negative effects.
 The main difference between persuasion and manipulation is that
being right is not necessary for manipulation which is must in
persuasion.
Persuasion vs. negotiation
 Negotiation is a method of settling differences between communicators.
 The term negotiation refers to a strategic discussion that resolves an issue
in a way that both parties find acceptable.
 It is a bit closer to persuasion but the main difference in both of them is
that there is a persuader and persuade in persuasion but everyone plays
the role of a persuader in the negotiation process.
 Negotiation is a long process and generally, a large group of people takes
part in it.
Modes of Persuasion
 Aristotle gave three principles of persuasive communication.
 Which are
 Ethos
 Logos
 Pathos
Ethos
 Ethos is all about trust. It tells that persuader must have developed his
credibility and trust.
 It relates to presenting the argument ethically and the word ethics is derived
from ethos.
 Thus according to this principle, the persuader must be credible,
knowledgeable, expert, and authorized person.
 Ethos is the bedrock of a conversation, no one is going to pay head to a lair or
some false information.
Logos
 Logos involves the appeal of logic, reason, and cognitive thinking.
 It rests on logical appeals like comparisons, reasoning, and thinking.
 The word logic is derived from logos.
 Thus according to this principle,
 the persuader must be using logical thoughts and ideas
 along with proper reasoning
 because people enjoy illogical things only in comedy.
Pathos
 The word pathos refers to “compliment to the soul” according to Greek
ideologies.
 It appeals to emotions.
 The persuader makes his audience feel pride, anger, joy, and happiness using
pathos in his conversation.
 To use pathos in its conversation, the persuader must involve consideration
and courtesy.
 No one will listen to you if you don’t care about them, their feelings, and
their emotions.
Resistance to Persuasion
Resistance to persuasion is not just one single thing. One encounters four
types of resistance which are
1. skepticism
2. reactance
3. Inertia
4. Inoculation
And some factors and barriers
Types of resistance
1. Skepticism: Skepticism is resistance to the content of the message.
 Skepticism focuses on the logic and evidence of the arguments in the
message and produces a desire to critically evaluate and refuse those
arguments if they are not logically right.
 For example, if a person is skeptical about claims made by their government
about anything then the person doubts that these claims are accurate.
2. Reactance: Reactance refers to the negative reaction people have to
someone else telling them what to think or do.
 it is a psychological behavior and common example is the students that don’t
do same as ordered by teacher.
Types of resistance
3. Inertia: Inertia is an objection to change itself.
 With inertia, people don’t pay attention to the message.
 They aren’t interested in the change.
 They just want to keep things the way they are.
4. Inoculation :The inoculation theory was proposed by McGuire in response to
a situation where the goal is to persuade someone not to be persuaded by
another.
 The theory is a model for building resistance to persuasion attempts.
 The theory offers mechanisms by which communication is used to help people
 in defending their beliefs and
 win debates.
Barriers of communication
 Barriers of communication are also a reason of resistance in
persuasion.
 There are different types of barriers of communication such as
 Environmental barriers
Noisy background, uncomfortable seating, poor lighting or acoustics
 Semantic barriers
Being unfamiliar to language of persuasion
 Social and cultural barriers
Religious or cultural taboos, different social, cultural values,
norms, and behaviors
 Physiological barriers
Illness, memory or hearing problem, lack of attention
Strategies for Persuasion
Persuasion doesn’t happen with a click of a switch, it takes effort and time
and if we try to get conclusion from above data we can see that in order to
get better and early results, we need to follow some techniques, that all
originated from Aristotle’s principle.
 Some of these techniques are
 Using logic
 Being well prepared
 Use positive language
 Showing gratitude
 Avoiding hesitation
 Being confident
Strategies for Persuasion
 Using logic: Logic is a very effective tool for persuading an audience about
the accuracy of an argument.
 Logic helps your reader follow and make sense of your points.
 Being well prepared: Prepared what you want to say and make sure you have
everything clear in your own mind before starting a conversation.
 Using positive language: your words can have a significant impact on
perceptions. Using descriptive favorable connections can produce positive
reactions and influence behavior.
Strategies for Persuasion
 Showing gratitude: Expressing your gratitude can be rewarding as well as
healing. Plus, a gratitude practice can help boost your mood especially if you
express that gratitude to others.
 Avoiding hesitation: avoid hesitation while you speak to your audience. Else it
will take your confidence and distract you from your target point. To speak up
right things right at the moment.
 Being confident: if you speak confidently, clearly and concisely people are
more likely to listen to you what you have to say seriously and to agree with
you.
William McGuire
• William McGuire (1925-2007) was an
American social psychologist known
for his work on the psychology
of persuasion.
• He developed the inoculation theory
which explains how an attitude or
behavior could be protected against
persuasion.
William McGuire’s model of persuasion
 William McGuire presented a
model for persuasive
communication which was
adopted everywhere.
 According to William McGuire
model of persuasive
communication
• A persuasive communication
has major six steps
Steps of William McGuire’s model of
persuasion
1. Exposure / Presentation
Persuader should first introduce its audience to the message through some
medium. It is the easiest step of persuasion.
2. Attention / Awareness
The audience will see the message and give response, which is the beginning
of communication.
3. Comprehension / Understanding
The audience will understand the message and get the point from it. And it
is where persuasion begins.
Steps of William McGuire’s model of
persuasion
4. Acceptance
The audience will start believing the message and here you will get the
reward for your efforts.
5. Retention
The audience will remember the message and it will make our
communication, effective communication.
6. Action
It is the hardest step to achieve. The audience changes their behavior and
attitude if resistance to persuasion like inoculation and physiological
reactance etc. are not involved.
Desired Effects of Persuasive Communications
 There are three main objectives of persuasive communications such as
1. Stimulate
2. Convince
3. Call to Action
techniques
Stimulate
 Stimulate - In order to strengthen beliefs of your audience and bring
them to the foreground, facts need to be presented.
 This way, the issue is delivered to the surface. You can keep in mind
the common ground and shared beliefs, and then introduce information
that the audience may not be aware of, or they don’t agree to that.
 The common ground serves as a strategy to stimulate interest.
Convince
 The objective of persuasion is to bring change in beliefs, judgments and values of your audience.
 As the audience may involve their bias or one-sidedness in judgment, plan a few valid points for
them to listen to and understand your topic (common ground method).
 If the audience agrees with you mind that scarcity or a problem exists, they will look for solutions,
towards you mostly and you just have to give them a solution.
 So, let them know they have a problem and present a solution of it.
Call to Action
 When you have to call your audience to perform an action by getting their
attention.
 First stimulate them, then convince them well and when both of these steps
are done, then invite them to action.
 As said above in William McGuire’s model of persuasion, it is the hardest
step or objective but this step shows result of persuasion.
End Results of Persuasive Communications
 Persuasion always bring fruitful results, some of them are mentioned below.
 Adoption - Persuaded start thinking differently, as the persuader and adopt a
new habit or action.
 Deterrence - Persuader could persuade the audience not to start something if
they have not already begun.
 Discontinuation - Persuader could persuade the audience to stop doing
something that they have been doing for a while such as smoking.
 Continuance - Persuader could persuade the audience to keep doing what
they have been doing such as re-electing a candidate or continuing their
education.
Some other Results of Persuasive
Communications
 Increased Consideration - You would want to increase the consideration of
the audience who hold hostile views or are neutral and curious.
 Their support for your argument increases the consideration of your position.
 Tolerance of Alternative Perspectives - As a speaker, you would want your
audience to develop an understanding of the alternate point of view and
perspectives, but not necessarily, the acceptance of alternate viewpoints.
 By starting from a common point of interest and by introducing a similar
idea, you are persuading the audience to consider another perspective.
There is a lot written and said about persuasion
and also in our mind but……………………
Reference
 Dynamics of persuasion by Richard Perloff
 Websites from Google
 Wikipedia
 Encyclopedia Britannica
 And some other websites

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persuasive communication.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Outline  Introduction  History  Definition  Persuasion vs. Manipulation  Persuasion vs. Propaganda  Persuasion vs. negotiation  Means of Persuasion  Writing  speaking
  • 3. Outline  Persuasion in writing and speaking  Factors affecting persuasive communication source credibility, rational and emotional appeal  Modes of communication Aristotle’s three basic elements for persuasive communication  Strategies for Persuasion using logic, avoiding hesitation, using positive language, being subtle, showing gratitude  Resistance to Persuasion Psychological reactance, inoculation  Desired Effects of Persuasive Communications Call to Action, Convince, Stimulate  End Results of Persuasive Communications
  • 4. Introduction Communication is defined as the transfer of information. We, humans, are social animals. In our life, we have to communicate with other humans. We can say a communication successful, which makes our listener do agree with us, or be convinced. So the art of convincing someone, having an influence on it, and making it believe that you are right could be said as persuasion and the communication that let us persuade our audience could be said as persuasive communication. In other words, it is communication that convinces someone to do or think something that they might not think otherwise.
  • 5. Persuader and persuaded These are two important terms to be discussed Persuader and persuaded A persuader is a person who try to persuade a person or group of them A persuaded is one who need to be persuade or convinced.
  • 6. History of persuasion If we check back in history, we get the first clue about persuasion from the Greeks as they were the first to study it in detail. But we can say persuasion is as old as we humans, and Satan was the first who convinced Adam to eat from the forbidden plant, which made Adam leave heaven and stay on the earth. A lot of Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and Protagoras have worked on persuasion.
  • 7. Greeks and persuasion  It was Greeks who first studied persuasion in detail, during mid of fourth and fifth century B.C.  Greek realized how important these skills are so in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E., a band of Greek intellectuals and professional teachers, known as Sophists, began to frequent Athens and other Greek cities with the intention of offering young wealthy Greek men an education on how to influence people or groups of people.  Aristotle identified three basic elements to every persuasive argument, which are using evidence (logos), personal characteristics (Ethos), and emotions (pathos).
  • 8. Definition According to the encyclopedia Britannica,  Persuasion is the process by which a person’s attitudes or behavior are, without duress (threats, violence, constraints), influenced by communications from other people.  One’s attitudes and behavior are also affected by other factors, such as verbal threats, physical coercion, and physiological state.
  • 9. Persuasion by Richard Perloff American scholar Richard Perloff, in his book “Dynamics of persuasion” defined persuasion as “Symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their own attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice”.
  • 10. Means of Persuasion We can communicate with someone by  speaking  writing Persuasion in communication could be achieved by using some simple methods as  the seven C’s of effective communication with some simple strategies and getting rid of different barriers (environmental, psychological, physiological, and semantic) to communication.
  • 11. Persuasion in writing  When we communicate with someone through writing, everything the next person is having is from our words. He judges, notice, feel, and understand us through our words and we can only have an impact on him by being logical, credible, positive, and evident.  In our professional life, generally communication is done by mean of writing. So we should work on our writing skills to be persuasive in our professional life.
  • 12. Persuasion in speaking  Persuasion in speaking is not much different from Persuasion in writing but we can use non-verbal language in it. For Persuasion in speaking, all we need is to use our verbal and non-verbal language relatively and effectively. There are some tips for it like, one should be confident and right, should use pauses, and should be easily accessible, etc.  In our daily life, we use this mean of communication more than writing so we should work on our speaking skills to persuade others around us.
  • 13. Some important terms  There are some terms which leads to convincing someone but that is not persuasion. They and persuasion differ from each other in many ways.  They are  Propaganda  Negotiation  Manipulation
  • 14. Persuasion vs. Propaganda  The word propaganda has an origin in the Latin language that means spreading ideas around.  Propaganda is the promotion of a specific agenda, which is mostly biased.  Propaganda is playing a critical role for a long period of time in history.  These days, propaganda is mostly used for political purposes and advertisement.  It is hiding all bads of you and hiding all your opponents goods.  Compared to persuasion, propaganda is biased, covering a long audience and the truth about it is discovered after a long period of time.
  • 15. Persuasion vs. Manipulation  According to the Cambridge dictionary, manipulation is the act of influencing or controlling someone (or something) to your advantage, often without anyone knowing it.  The manipulated is tricked by the manipulator and thus manipulation has negative effects.  The main difference between persuasion and manipulation is that being right is not necessary for manipulation which is must in persuasion.
  • 16.
  • 17. Persuasion vs. negotiation  Negotiation is a method of settling differences between communicators.  The term negotiation refers to a strategic discussion that resolves an issue in a way that both parties find acceptable.  It is a bit closer to persuasion but the main difference in both of them is that there is a persuader and persuade in persuasion but everyone plays the role of a persuader in the negotiation process.  Negotiation is a long process and generally, a large group of people takes part in it.
  • 18. Modes of Persuasion  Aristotle gave three principles of persuasive communication.  Which are  Ethos  Logos  Pathos
  • 19.
  • 20. Ethos  Ethos is all about trust. It tells that persuader must have developed his credibility and trust.  It relates to presenting the argument ethically and the word ethics is derived from ethos.  Thus according to this principle, the persuader must be credible, knowledgeable, expert, and authorized person.  Ethos is the bedrock of a conversation, no one is going to pay head to a lair or some false information.
  • 21. Logos  Logos involves the appeal of logic, reason, and cognitive thinking.  It rests on logical appeals like comparisons, reasoning, and thinking.  The word logic is derived from logos.  Thus according to this principle,  the persuader must be using logical thoughts and ideas  along with proper reasoning  because people enjoy illogical things only in comedy.
  • 22. Pathos  The word pathos refers to “compliment to the soul” according to Greek ideologies.  It appeals to emotions.  The persuader makes his audience feel pride, anger, joy, and happiness using pathos in his conversation.  To use pathos in its conversation, the persuader must involve consideration and courtesy.  No one will listen to you if you don’t care about them, their feelings, and their emotions.
  • 23. Resistance to Persuasion Resistance to persuasion is not just one single thing. One encounters four types of resistance which are 1. skepticism 2. reactance 3. Inertia 4. Inoculation And some factors and barriers
  • 24.
  • 25. Types of resistance 1. Skepticism: Skepticism is resistance to the content of the message.  Skepticism focuses on the logic and evidence of the arguments in the message and produces a desire to critically evaluate and refuse those arguments if they are not logically right.  For example, if a person is skeptical about claims made by their government about anything then the person doubts that these claims are accurate. 2. Reactance: Reactance refers to the negative reaction people have to someone else telling them what to think or do.  it is a psychological behavior and common example is the students that don’t do same as ordered by teacher.
  • 26. Types of resistance 3. Inertia: Inertia is an objection to change itself.  With inertia, people don’t pay attention to the message.  They aren’t interested in the change.  They just want to keep things the way they are. 4. Inoculation :The inoculation theory was proposed by McGuire in response to a situation where the goal is to persuade someone not to be persuaded by another.  The theory is a model for building resistance to persuasion attempts.  The theory offers mechanisms by which communication is used to help people  in defending their beliefs and  win debates.
  • 27. Barriers of communication  Barriers of communication are also a reason of resistance in persuasion.  There are different types of barriers of communication such as  Environmental barriers Noisy background, uncomfortable seating, poor lighting or acoustics  Semantic barriers Being unfamiliar to language of persuasion  Social and cultural barriers Religious or cultural taboos, different social, cultural values, norms, and behaviors  Physiological barriers Illness, memory or hearing problem, lack of attention
  • 28. Strategies for Persuasion Persuasion doesn’t happen with a click of a switch, it takes effort and time and if we try to get conclusion from above data we can see that in order to get better and early results, we need to follow some techniques, that all originated from Aristotle’s principle.  Some of these techniques are  Using logic  Being well prepared  Use positive language  Showing gratitude  Avoiding hesitation  Being confident
  • 29. Strategies for Persuasion  Using logic: Logic is a very effective tool for persuading an audience about the accuracy of an argument.  Logic helps your reader follow and make sense of your points.  Being well prepared: Prepared what you want to say and make sure you have everything clear in your own mind before starting a conversation.  Using positive language: your words can have a significant impact on perceptions. Using descriptive favorable connections can produce positive reactions and influence behavior.
  • 30. Strategies for Persuasion  Showing gratitude: Expressing your gratitude can be rewarding as well as healing. Plus, a gratitude practice can help boost your mood especially if you express that gratitude to others.  Avoiding hesitation: avoid hesitation while you speak to your audience. Else it will take your confidence and distract you from your target point. To speak up right things right at the moment.  Being confident: if you speak confidently, clearly and concisely people are more likely to listen to you what you have to say seriously and to agree with you.
  • 31. William McGuire • William McGuire (1925-2007) was an American social psychologist known for his work on the psychology of persuasion. • He developed the inoculation theory which explains how an attitude or behavior could be protected against persuasion.
  • 32. William McGuire’s model of persuasion  William McGuire presented a model for persuasive communication which was adopted everywhere.  According to William McGuire model of persuasive communication • A persuasive communication has major six steps
  • 33. Steps of William McGuire’s model of persuasion 1. Exposure / Presentation Persuader should first introduce its audience to the message through some medium. It is the easiest step of persuasion. 2. Attention / Awareness The audience will see the message and give response, which is the beginning of communication. 3. Comprehension / Understanding The audience will understand the message and get the point from it. And it is where persuasion begins.
  • 34. Steps of William McGuire’s model of persuasion 4. Acceptance The audience will start believing the message and here you will get the reward for your efforts. 5. Retention The audience will remember the message and it will make our communication, effective communication. 6. Action It is the hardest step to achieve. The audience changes their behavior and attitude if resistance to persuasion like inoculation and physiological reactance etc. are not involved.
  • 35. Desired Effects of Persuasive Communications  There are three main objectives of persuasive communications such as 1. Stimulate 2. Convince 3. Call to Action techniques
  • 36. Stimulate  Stimulate - In order to strengthen beliefs of your audience and bring them to the foreground, facts need to be presented.  This way, the issue is delivered to the surface. You can keep in mind the common ground and shared beliefs, and then introduce information that the audience may not be aware of, or they don’t agree to that.  The common ground serves as a strategy to stimulate interest.
  • 37. Convince  The objective of persuasion is to bring change in beliefs, judgments and values of your audience.  As the audience may involve their bias or one-sidedness in judgment, plan a few valid points for them to listen to and understand your topic (common ground method).  If the audience agrees with you mind that scarcity or a problem exists, they will look for solutions, towards you mostly and you just have to give them a solution.  So, let them know they have a problem and present a solution of it.
  • 38.
  • 39. Call to Action  When you have to call your audience to perform an action by getting their attention.  First stimulate them, then convince them well and when both of these steps are done, then invite them to action.  As said above in William McGuire’s model of persuasion, it is the hardest step or objective but this step shows result of persuasion.
  • 40. End Results of Persuasive Communications  Persuasion always bring fruitful results, some of them are mentioned below.  Adoption - Persuaded start thinking differently, as the persuader and adopt a new habit or action.  Deterrence - Persuader could persuade the audience not to start something if they have not already begun.  Discontinuation - Persuader could persuade the audience to stop doing something that they have been doing for a while such as smoking.  Continuance - Persuader could persuade the audience to keep doing what they have been doing such as re-electing a candidate or continuing their education.
  • 41. Some other Results of Persuasive Communications  Increased Consideration - You would want to increase the consideration of the audience who hold hostile views or are neutral and curious.  Their support for your argument increases the consideration of your position.  Tolerance of Alternative Perspectives - As a speaker, you would want your audience to develop an understanding of the alternate point of view and perspectives, but not necessarily, the acceptance of alternate viewpoints.  By starting from a common point of interest and by introducing a similar idea, you are persuading the audience to consider another perspective.
  • 42. There is a lot written and said about persuasion and also in our mind but……………………
  • 43. Reference  Dynamics of persuasion by Richard Perloff  Websites from Google  Wikipedia  Encyclopedia Britannica  And some other websites