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Serbia presentation

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Serbia presentation

  1. 1. The State of Forest Roads in Serbia Dr. Milorad Danilović MSc Dušan Stojnić University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization BEST PRACTICES IN FOREST ROAD ENGINEERING: Building Sustainable Roads and Minimizing Environmental Impact 30.08.-05.09.2015. Lviv, Ukraine
  2. 2. • Total forest area amounts to about 2,252,400 ha • 29.1% of Serbia is forest covered • Ownership structure of forests: – 53% state forests – 47% private forests • Forest conditions by origin: The state of forests in Serbia University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 64.7 27.5 7.8 Coppices High forests Forest plantations and cultures 2
  3. 3. • Averrage volume – 161 m3/ha – Coppice forests – 124 m3/ha – high forests – 254 m3/ha – forest cultures – 136 m3/ha • Annual volume increment – 4 m3/ha – Coppice forests – 3,1 m3/ha – high forests – 7,1 m3/ha > 40,000 ha 40,000 – 30,000 ha 30,000 – 20,000 ha 20,000 – 10,000 ha 10,000 – 5,000 ha 5,000 – 1,000 ha <1,000 ha The state of forests in Serbia University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 3
  4. 4. • PE “Srbijašume” (901.053 ha) • PE “Vojvodinašume” (130.452 ha) • PE National parks (cca. 80.000 ha) • PE “Borjak” (8.260 ha) • Faculty of Forestry (5.700 ha) • Church and other organization Origin Total gross Net Total net Industrial wood Firewood 1 PE „Srbijašume“ 1,391 505 677 1,182 2 PE „Vojvodinašume“ 634 385 154 539 3 National Parks 202 68 104 172 4 PE „Borjak“ 21 7 11 18 5 Other users 89 25 51 76 Total state forest: 2,338 990 997 1987 Private forest: 826 149 595 743 Total: 3,164 1,139 1,592 2,731 Table: Volume of executed loggings (in thousands): Forest management University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 4
  5. 5. • Forest roads are classified into two categories (Official Gazete RS 22/1998): – Basic (primary) network: • forest roads with gravel surface (hard roads) • forest roads with earth surface (soft roads), – Additional (secondary) network: • tractor roads – skid trails Classification of forest roads University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 5
  6. 6. • Primary forest roads are permanent infrastructural objects and Main (operational) projects are necessary for their construction. • Secondary forest roads are temporary roads and they are built for the needs of production (tree cutting, wood processing, hauling) Skid trail Forest road Classification of forest roads University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 6
  7. 7. • Forest roads density in two largest public enterprises: – PE “Srbijašume” – 7.23 m/ha – PE “Vojvodinašume” – 5.30 m/ha Density of forest road network University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 7
  8. 8. Forest road network planning Preliminary design Laying out (routing) Main project Road construction Road maintenance Development of forest road network University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 8
  9. 9. • minimum radius in horizontal curves - 20 m (except in serpentines - 12 m), • minimum carriageway width - 3,0 m for single-lane roads and 5,0 m for double-lane roads (required extension of carriageway in curves of radius of less than 70 m), • minimum shoulder width - by 1 m on both sides, • maximum longitudinal slope - 10% (exceptionally 12% on short distances), • minimum radius in vertical curves - for convex curves - 600 m and for concave curves - 400 m, • passing places – every 300 - 500 m on single-lane roads Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 9
  10. 10. • Compartments are square shaped (750 x 750 m) or rectangular shaped (750 x 450 m). • Distance between main skid trails is 60 m, and 150 m between auxiliary skid trails. • Auxiliary skid trails are perpendicular to the main skid trail. Forest roads in lowland area PE “Vojvodinašume” University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 10
  11. 11. CARRIAGEWAY 3.60 m DITCH depth=0.75 m The most common technical elements in lowland areas Forest roads in lowland area PE “Vojvodinašume” University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 11
  12. 12. • Tree types of forest roads: – valley roads -------------- – slope roads -------------- – ridge roads -------------- • Spatial distribution of primary and secondary forest roads depend of terrain configuration. Forest roads in mountainous areas PE “Srbijašume” University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 12
  13. 13. CARRIAGEWAY 3.00 m The most common technical elements in mountainous areas Forest roads in mountainous areas PE “Srbijašume” University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 13
  14. 14. Superelevation - toward the center of the curve Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 14
  15. 15. Cut/Fill Slope – depends of terrain stability Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 15
  16. 16. Cut/Fill Slope – depends of terrain stability Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 16
  17. 17. Cut/Fill Slope – depends of terrain stability Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 17
  18. 18. Installation of concrete culverts Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 18
  19. 19. Installation of PVC culverts Forest road standards University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 19
  20. 20. • The network of forest roads is adjusted to the purpose of an area. • Determining the future routes is by the method of variants. • Route selection is conducted on the basis of economically justified and environmentally friendly principles. • During the planning of forest roads networks, modern tools such as GIS, are used, but without multi-criteria decision-making. Forest road network planning University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 20
  21. 21. • Forest road design – direct method of projecting forest roads – all phases are conducted in field • The content of Main project: – Topographic maps, – Plan (Situation) – Longitudinal profil – Cross sections – Bill of quantities – Preliminary calculation... Forest road design University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization 21
  22. 22. • Road design softwares: – SURVEY – Trace – Modul for road design (in AutoCAD) – System for road desing – Softree RoadEng 22 Forest road design University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization
  23. 23. • Projects of forest roads and short-span wooden bridges can be done by forest engineers. • Education – there is only one Faculty of Forestry in Serbia. • Forest roads design and short-span bridges designing are studied through four subjects in Undergraduate and Master studies. 23 Who can design forest roads? University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization
  24. 24. • The average cost of road construction: – for forest roads in mountainous areas – 35,000 €/km – for forest roads in lowland areas – 60,000 €/km • Construction of forest roads: – with own machinery – selection of contractors through public procurement. 24 Forest road construction and maintenance University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization
  25. 25. • POSITIVE FACTORS: • Ministry of agriculture and environment co-financed the construction and reconstruction of forest roads and bridges on forest roads: – 15,000 € for construction of new forest roads, – 12,000 € for reconstruction of old roads with low technical standards , – 700 €/m for bridges on forest roads. • There is interest in the improvement of the state of forest roads in all structures (government, public enterprises, private forest owners...) • National and international projects provide support to forest road network development – the lastest project: Assistance for the development of forest infrastructure planning and construction in Serbia – FAO – 2014-2015. 25 Factors affecting the development of forest road networks University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization
  26. 26. • NEGATIVE FACTORS: • There are no licenses for the designers of forest roads. • There aren't Programs of forest opening for many management units. • Public enterprises do not have sufficient technical equipment. • Small investments in the maintenance of forest roads. 26 Factors affecting the development of forest road networks University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention. University of Belgrade Faculty of Forestry The Chair of Forest Utilization

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