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Presentaton by nasir

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Programmed instruction
Programmed instruction
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  1. 1. PRESENTATON PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION DESIGNATED BY : RESHIE NASIR NAZIR B.SC. NURSING 2ND YEAR
  2. 2.  PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION  Programmed Instruction Is A New Innovation Which Is The Result Of The Experimental Study Of Learning Process In The Psychological Laboratory .  It Is A Self- Teaching Technique For Acquiring Factual Learning .  It Is An Integrated Instructional System Which May Employ Programmed Books ,Teaching Machines , Films In Various Forms Of Audio- Visual Devices .  Programmed Instruction Is A Self Instruction Whereby Learner Proceeds Through Instructional Materials In Short Steps At His Own Pace Receiving Immediate Knowledge For Correctness Of His Answers .
  3. 3.  TYPES :  There Are Two Types In Programmed Instruction As Below :  Linear Programming  Branching Programming  Linear Programming : It Is Based Strictly Upon A Linear Theory of Conditioning . The Primary Objective Is To Bring The Behaviour Of The Learner Under The Control Of A Variety Of Stimuli Through The Use Of Easy Steps ,, Once At Aa Time. Each Step Requires The Student To Participate Actively By Making A Response .
  4. 4.  BRANCHING PROGRAMMING  Branching Programming Is Not Committed To Any Theory Of Learning .  It Is Considered To Be A Technique For Preparing Written Materials That Will Accommodate A Wide Range Of Educational Purposes .  It Is Primarily Used For Diagnostic Purposes , So That The Student Can Be Provided With Specific Remedial Material Needed As She Selects Response.
  5. 5.  ADVANTAGES 1. It Enables Student To Work At His Own Pace. 2. It Helps To Develop High Efficiency. 3. It Facilitates Self -Evaluation . 4. It Gives Individual Instruction . 5. The Student Is Actively Involved . 6. The Student Proceeds At His Own Pace. 7. The Student Is Provided With Immediate Knowledge Of Results. 8. The Physical Presence Of The Teacher Is Not Required . 9. It Permits Mass Teaching . 10. It Can Lead To High Availability . 11. It Facilitates Decision Taking In Complex Problems 12. It Decreases Risk For Patient Or Society .
  6. 6.  DISADVANTAGES 1. It Requires Expert On Programmed Instruction . 2. Preparation Is Difficult And Time Consuming . 3. Material Is Not Available . 4. It Necessitates Special Educational Competence . 5. It Costs High Additional Investment , Cost In Teacher `s Time And Money . 6. There Will Be No Group Discussion .
  7. 7.  TECHNIQUE : INFORMATION BROKEN DOWN IN SMALL STEPS STUDENT MUST TAKE A RESPONSE (ANSWER QUESTION , WORKOUT PROBLEM , MAKE A CHOICE ) REPONSE IS CHECKED IMMEDIATELY RIGHT WRONG NEXT QUESTION PREVIOUS QUESTION
  8. 8.  PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION : A Good Programmed Instruction Is Based On Principles Of Learning Which Are ;  SMALL STEPS  ACTIVE RESPONDING  IMMEDIATE CONFIRMATION  SELF – PACING  STUDENT TESTING
  9. 9.  ASSUMPTIONS OF PROGRAMMING INSTRUCTION :  A Student Learns Better By Active Learning .  A Student Learns Better If He Is Motivated To Learn By Confirming His Responses .  A Student Learns Better If The Content Matter Is Prescribed In Small Steps .  A Student Learns Better If He Commits Minimum Error In Learning  A Student Learns Better If The Sequence Of Content Is Psychologically Valid .  The Learning May Be Effective If The Pre-requisites Are Specified
  10. 10.  OBJECTIVES OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION :  The Objectives Of Strategy Have Been Summarized As Under ;  To Help Students To Learn By Doing .  To Provide The Situation To Learn At His Own Pace .  To Help Students To Learn Without The Presence Of A Teacher .  To Present The Content In A Controlled Manner And In A Logically Related Steps .  To Study By Himself And Assess His Own Performance By Comparing It With The Given Answer .
  11. 11.  CHARACTERISITICS OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION : I. It Is Not An Audio-visual Device Rather It Is The Part Of Education Technology, I.E, Instructional Technology . II. It Is Not A Test Rather It Is New Strategy For Teaching And Learning . III. It Is Not The Solution Of Educational Problems Rather It Is A New Instructional Strategy For The Modification Of Behaviour Of Learners . IV. It Can Not Replace The Teacher From The Field Of Teaching But The Effective Teacher Can Prepare A Good Programme . V. It Requires More Creativity And Imaginative Efforts To Develop Highly Individualized Instruction .
  12. 12.  STEPS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION :  Selection Of The Topic To Be Programmed .  Identifying The Objectives .  Content Analysis For Developing The Instructional Procedure.  Writing Objectives (Emerging & Terminal) In A Behavioural Term .  Construction Of Criterion Test .  Deciding Appropriate Paradigm And Strategy Of Programme.  Writing Programme Frames And Individually Try Out.  Group Try Out , Revising And Editing The Programme And Preparing Final Dealt .  Master Validation Or Evaluation Of Programmed Instruction In Terms Of Internal Or External Criteria .  Preparation Of A Manual Of The Programme .
  13. 13.  PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AS FEEDBACK DEVICE :  The Procedure Of Development Of Programmed Instruction Provides The Deep Insight And Understanding About The Elements , Structure And Their Sequence .  During Teaching Practice , The Pupil – Teachers Are Asked To Teach A Lesson By Following The Traditional Lesson Planning . The Classroom Teaching Is Recorded Or Evaluated . After That They Are Asked To Develop The Programmed Instruction Frames On The Same Topic And Reteach The Same Topic To Another Class Of Same Level .The Same Criterion Is Used To Record And Evaluate .  The Preparation Of Programmed Frames Provides The Awareness About Content Structure And Function As Feedback To The Trainee .
  14. 14.  SKILL DEVELOPMENT  The Following Skills Are Developed By Giving The Training Of Programmed Instruction :  The Skill Of Content Analysis & Arranging Content In Learning Sequence Are Developed .  The Pupil-teachers Are Able To Present The Content Into Small Steps .  They Are Able To Provide The Reinforcement To Learn By Confirming The Responses .  The Pupil-teachers Are Able To Develop The Situation For Achieving The Desired Learning Objectives .  The Pupil-teachers Are Able To Consider The Individual Variation And Generate The Learning Situation That They Can Learn .  The Pupil-teachers Are Able To Identify The Objectives And Are Able To Write Them In Behavioural Term.

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