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ASSIGNMENT
Topic:
Department Of Seed Science and Technology
B.A.College of Agriculture
Anand Agricultural University,Anand
Submitted to:
Prof.Anilkumar
Ravat
Submitted by:
Chandera rahul-67
Chaudhary Kirpal-68
Inroduction
● BN: Ricinus communis L.
● Family: Euphorbiaceae
● Chromosome: 2n=20
 Castor is a cross pollinated crop, protogynous and wind
pollinated.
 Inflorescences are borne terminally on the main and lateral
branches.
 India is the largest producer of castor in the world. In India,
Gujarat is the leading state followed by Andhra Pradesh.
•The racemes of castor are monoecious
with the pistillate flowers on the upper
30-50% and staminate flowers on the
lower part of the inflorescence.
Basic Sex form in Castor/Flowering Pattern
1.Monoecious
2.Pistillate
3.Interspersed staminate flower
4.Sex revertant
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
Pistillate mechanism
 In addition to monoecism a sub form of dioecism exists in castor,
which has led to the identification of 3 different pistillate mechanisms.
1) N type or conventional mechanism:
 It is governed by a recessive sex switching gene.
 This can be maintained by sibmating.
 The progeny from seed produced on pistillate plants segregates in 1: 1
ratio of pistillate and monoecious plants.
 In the production of F1 hybrid seed using the N pistillate line,the
producer is required to rogue out normal monoecious plants before
anthesis to obtain 100% production of pistillate plants in the female
rows.
 This has proved difficult to for 3 reasons.
 Uneven emergence
 Variation in time of flowering
 Higher percentage of monoecious plant than expected 50 percent.
2) S type or non conventional mechanism:
• It is derived from reversals, which start out as female and then revert to normal
monoecism any time after the first raceme.
• Use of this pistillate line is beset with the problems of lack of stability of the
expression of pistillate character as large number of revertants as well as
monoecious plants was observed in the population.
• Eg. VP1. This problem was successfully overcome with the exploitation of the
NES system.
3) NES system:
• This line is normally pistillate under moderate temperature but produces
interspersed staminate flowers under high temperature (above 32 ).
• In crossing fields (hybrid seed production plot) usually one or two rouging of
the female line are sufficient to ensure that all flowering plants are pistillate to
remove off types that appear.
• E.g.The original population of VP 1 was thoroughly screened under high
temperature to eliminate the monoecious plants as well as early revertants.
• The seed setting in the selected totally pistillated lines is facilitated by the
production of interspersed male flowers under the influence of environment
sensitive genes.
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
Field Preparation
1.land requirement:
• Well drained fertile soil should be selected.
• The crop cannot tolerate alkalinity and salinity.
• It performs well with medium to deep sandy loam and heavy loam
soils are highly suited for seed production.
• It should be free from volunteer plants.
2. Isolation:
• Castor is cross-pollinated crop.
• Cross-pollination by wind varies from 5-36% according to the
prevailing climatic condition.
 Isolation distance
• Foundation seed: 600 m
• Certified seed: 300 m
3. Season:
 Rabi/Winter - Hybrid seed production.
 Summer and kharif provide ideal male promoting environment for
undertaking seed production of the variety, male and female parents of
hybrids.
 It encourages good expression of less productive plant which could be easily
eliminated through timely roguing.
 Female parents when raised in male promoting environment produce
environmentally sensitive staminate flowers, which are very essential for self-
production of the female parents.
4. Seed rate:
 2 kg/ha male and
 5 kg/ha female
5. Spacing:
 90 x 40 to 90 x 60 cm
6. Planting ratio:
 3:1
7.Fertilizer application:
 Basal- 40:60:40 NPK / ha
 Top- 1st 20 kg N/ha (40-50 DAS)
2nd 20 kg N/ha (After 1st picking)
8. Bloom:
 Presence of white waxy coating on leaves which protects it from
chilling and jassid attack.
 Four types of bloom:
1.Zero bloom
2.Single bloom - Bloom only on stem
3.Double bloom- On stem, petioles, and lower sides of leaves
4.Triple bloom - On all parts.
9. Irrigation:
 Critical stages are primordial initiation and flowering stage in
differential segmental order branches.
 Moisture stress in sensitive crop growth stages may lead to production
of more male flowers in monoecious varieties.
10. Stages of inspection: Four stages.
 1st - 10 days prior to flowering -Stem colour, inter-node length.
 2nd - During flowering - No. of nodes upto primary raceme.
 3rd- Before 1st picking-Spike and capsule character, reversion to
monoecious in second order raceme.
 4th- After 1st picking -Reversion to monoecious or flower initiation in
third order raceme.
11. Roughing:
 Remove all offtypes from male and female parents.
 Identify the monoecious plants in female rows before flower initiation as
well as the deviants for node number upto primary raceme uproot and
destroy them.
 Continue this process everyday till all plants in female rows commence
flowering.
 Rogue out male parent for variants depending on node number upto
primary raceme.
 Reversion in female rows to monoecism in 3rd or 4th order racemes
should not be uprooted but nipped off.
12. Harvesting:
 Castor produces 4 or 5 sequential order spikes,
which can be harvested in 3-4 pickings starting
from 90-120 days at 25-30 days interval.
 Premature harvesting leads to reduced seed
weight, oil content and germination.
 If shattering is not a problem then harvesting can
be delayed until all capsules are fully dried.
 Harvest the male rows first and remove them
from the field. Then harvest the female rows
picking wise.
 Care should be taken to avoid mechanical
mixtures during harvesting, threshing and
drying.
13. Grading:
The seeds are size graded using round perforated
metal sieve of 8/64".
14. Seed storage:
 Seed treatment with Thiram @ 2 g / kg
 Storability in Pervious container- 1 year
 Storability in Moisture vapour proof container-2 year
Field standards:
 Off types:
-Foundation seeds - Certified seeds
0.5% 1%
Seed standards:
Parameter Standards for each class
Foundation
Seed
Certified Seed
Physical purity (min.) % 98 98
Inert matter (max.) % 2 2
Other crop seed (max.) % None None
Germination (min.) % 70 70
Other distinguishable variety seeds 5/kg 10/kg
Moisture content:
a) Open storage
b) Moisture vapour proof storage
8
5
8
5
 Introduction:
 Maize is common millet of India with wider industrial and household
utility.
 It is used a feed, food and raw material in soft drink industry.
 Botanical name : Zea mays
 Chromosome number : 2n=20
 Botanical Family : Poaceae
 Pollination : Cross pollination
 Special character : Protandry
 Inflorescence : Panicle cob, crop monoceious in nature.
 Type of flowers :
 Female-Cob (axillary inflorescence )
 Male-Tassel (terminal inflorescence)
 Flowering pattern : Top to bottom (Tassel)
Bottom to top (Cob)
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
Types of hybrids:
1) Single cross hybrid:
2) Double cross hybrid:
3) Three way cross:
 It is a cross between a single cross and an inbred.
 It is first generation resulting from the crossing of on approved
inbred line and a certified open pollinated variety.
 A will be detasseled and allowed for crossing in the variety.
 Example :
 Ganga -5 : (CM 202 x CM 111) x CM 500.
 COH (M) 4 : (UMI 90 x UMI 285) x UMI 112
4) Double top crosses :
 The first generation resulting from the controlled crossing of a
certified single cross and a certified open pollinated variety.
 (A x B) x variety
 (A x B) will be detasseled and crossed with a variety.
4) Top cross Hybrid:
seed production technology:
1) Season:
November- December & Mid July
2) Isolation distance:
Seed type Foundation
seed
Certified
seed
Same kernal color & texture 400 200
Different kernal colour & texture 600 300
•In hybrid seed production (certified seed stage) alone the isolation
distance (less than 200 meter) can be modified by increasing the
border rows of male parent, if the kernal colour and texture of the
contaminant are the same as that of the seed parent.
•For every addition of one border row the isolation distance can be
reduced 12.5 m ,only for hybrid certified seed production.
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
•The number of border rows to be planted all around the seed field
to modify isolation distance less than 200 m shell also be
determined by the size of the field and its distance from the
contaminant as shown below.
Area in ha. Isolation distance (m) Border rows
< 4 ha 200 1
< 4 ha 150 5
< 4 ha 100 9
< 4 ha 50 13
10-12 ha 180 1
10-12 ha 130 5
10-12 ha 80 9
10-12 ha 30 13
> 16 ha 165 1
> 16 ha 115 5
> 16 ha 65 9
> 16 ha 15 13
3) Spacing:
•Seeds are sown in ridges and furrows.
•Hybrids : 60x 25 cm
•Female : 60 x 20 to 75 x 30 depending on the area.
•Male :45 x 30 cm
4) Seed rate :
•Female : 7 -10 kg/ ha
•Male : 3-4 kg /ha
5) Planting ratio:
Single cross : 4:2
Double cross : 6:2
3 way cross : 6:2
6) Border rows :
 Inbreds & single cross - 4 rows
 Others - 3 rows
7) Fertilizer dose:
NPK (kg / ha) 200 : 100 : 100
 Basal 100 : 100 : 50
 1st Top 50 : 0 : 0 (20th days -vegetative phase)
 2nd Top 50 : 0 : 50 (Boot leaf stage at 45 days)
Foliar DAP 2% at 50% flowering
In Zn deficient soil ZnSO4
@ 25 kg /ha
ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha
8) Detasseling:
 Detasseling is the removal of tassel from female parent.
 Detasseling is done when the tassel emerged out of the boot leaf,
but before anthesis have shed pollen.
 Anthers take 2-4 days to dehisce after complete emergence.
 Only in few cases, the anthers start dehisce before its complete
emergence. In such case detasseling should be done earlier.
 Detasseling is done every day from the emergence of tassel upto
14 days.
 Time for detasseling :
 The time taken for shedding of pollen from the tassel in 1-2 days
after emergence.
 Hence the tassel should be removed before the shedding of
pollen.
 Method:
 Hold the stem below the boot leaf in
left hand and the base of the basal in
right hand and pull it out in a single
pull.
 Grasp entire tassel so that all the
pollen parts are fully removed.
 Do not break or remove leaves as
removal will reduce yields and will
result in lower quality of seed.
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
 Precautions to be adopted during detasseling
 No part should be left on the plant as it causes contamination.
 Detassel only after the entire tassel has come out and immature
detasseling may lead to reduced yield and contamination.
 Improper detasseling: A portion of the tassel is remaining in the
plant while detasseling.
 Immature detasseling: Carrying out detasseling work when the
tassel is within the leaves.
 Incomplete detasseling: The tassel is remaining in lower or
unseen or unaccounted in within the whole of leaves.
 It should be uniform process done daily in the morning in a particular
direction.
 Do not break the top leaves as the field may be reduced due to the earning
of source material to accumulate in sink [seed ] as removal of 1 leaf course
1.5% loss,2 leaves 5.9% loss and 3 leaves 14% loss in yield.
 Mark the male rows with marker to avoid mistake in detasseling. Look out
for shedders [shedding tassel] in female rows as the may cause
contamination.
 After pulling out the tassel drop it there itself and bury in soil. Otherwise
late emerging pollen from detasseled tassel may cause contamination.
 Do not carry the tassel through the field as any fall of pollen may lead to
contamination.
 Do not practice, improper, immature and incomplete detasseling.
 There should not be any shedding tassel.
 Shedding tassel: Either full or part of tassel remain in female line after
detasseling and shedding pollen which may contaminate the genetic purity
of the crop.
9) Rouging:
 Should be done periodically based on position of cob, colour of
silk, arrangements of seeds in cob, leaves etc.
 Shedding tassels to be removed in rouging .
 It refers to the tassels in female parents rows, shedding pollen or
that has shed pollen in hybrid maize plots.
 During field inspection a tassel whose main spike or any side
branch or both have shed pollen or shedding pollen in more than
5 cm of branch length is counted as a shedding tassel which are
taken into count for acceptance or rejection of production plot.
10) Field inspection :
 Four stages
1st –vegetative stage
2nd&3rd-flowering stage
4th-maturity stage
11) Harvesting:
 Harvest when the moisture content falls to 20-25%.
 Harvest male first and remove from the field and then harvest
female.
12) Threshing:
 Dehusking - The husks are removed manually.
 Cob sorting - Remove ill filled, diseased cobs and cobs having
kernel colour variation.
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize
14) Drying:
 Seeds are dried to 12% moisture content.
15) Grading:
 Grade the seeds using 18/64" (7.28 mm) sieve.
16) Seed treatment:
 Slurry treat the seeds with 8% moisture content
either with captan or thiram 75% W.P. @ 70
g/100 kg with 0.5 litre of water.
 Treated seeds can be stored for 1 year in cloth
bag.
17) Seed yield :
 2.5 - 3.6 t/ha
Schematic representation of the scale-up of maize hybrid seed
from breeder’s seed through basic seed and certified seed
production for commercial production in farmer’s fields
Field standard (%)
FS CS
Off types : 0.5 0.2
Shedding tassel : 0.5 1.0
Inseparable other crop : Nil (both stage)
Objectionable weed : Nil (both stage)
Designated diseases : Nil (both stage)
A: Seeds at the base of the cob indicate early
male pollen or late female silks.
B: Seed at the tip of the cob indicate late
male pollen or early female silks.
C: Scattered few seeds indicate inadequate
pollen supply.
Seed standard inbred, varieties and hybrids
Parameters Inbreds FS CS
1. Physical purity (%) (min) 98 98 98
2. Inert matter (%) (max) 2 2 2
3. Other crop seed (max) 5 /kg 5 /kg 10/ kg
4. ODV seeds (max) 5/kg 5/ kg 10/ kg
5. Germination % (min) 80 80 90
6. Moisture content (%) (max)
a. Moisture pervious 12 12 12
b. Moisture vapour proof 8 8 8
Hybrid seed production in castor and maize

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Hybrid seed production in castor and maize

  • 1. ASSIGNMENT Topic: Department Of Seed Science and Technology B.A.College of Agriculture Anand Agricultural University,Anand Submitted to: Prof.Anilkumar Ravat Submitted by: Chandera rahul-67 Chaudhary Kirpal-68
  • 2. Inroduction ● BN: Ricinus communis L. ● Family: Euphorbiaceae ● Chromosome: 2n=20  Castor is a cross pollinated crop, protogynous and wind pollinated.  Inflorescences are borne terminally on the main and lateral branches.  India is the largest producer of castor in the world. In India, Gujarat is the leading state followed by Andhra Pradesh.
  • 3. •The racemes of castor are monoecious with the pistillate flowers on the upper 30-50% and staminate flowers on the lower part of the inflorescence. Basic Sex form in Castor/Flowering Pattern 1.Monoecious 2.Pistillate 3.Interspersed staminate flower 4.Sex revertant
  • 5. Pistillate mechanism  In addition to monoecism a sub form of dioecism exists in castor, which has led to the identification of 3 different pistillate mechanisms. 1) N type or conventional mechanism:  It is governed by a recessive sex switching gene.  This can be maintained by sibmating.  The progeny from seed produced on pistillate plants segregates in 1: 1 ratio of pistillate and monoecious plants.  In the production of F1 hybrid seed using the N pistillate line,the producer is required to rogue out normal monoecious plants before anthesis to obtain 100% production of pistillate plants in the female rows.  This has proved difficult to for 3 reasons.  Uneven emergence  Variation in time of flowering  Higher percentage of monoecious plant than expected 50 percent.
  • 6. 2) S type or non conventional mechanism: • It is derived from reversals, which start out as female and then revert to normal monoecism any time after the first raceme. • Use of this pistillate line is beset with the problems of lack of stability of the expression of pistillate character as large number of revertants as well as monoecious plants was observed in the population. • Eg. VP1. This problem was successfully overcome with the exploitation of the NES system. 3) NES system: • This line is normally pistillate under moderate temperature but produces interspersed staminate flowers under high temperature (above 32 ). • In crossing fields (hybrid seed production plot) usually one or two rouging of the female line are sufficient to ensure that all flowering plants are pistillate to remove off types that appear. • E.g.The original population of VP 1 was thoroughly screened under high temperature to eliminate the monoecious plants as well as early revertants. • The seed setting in the selected totally pistillated lines is facilitated by the production of interspersed male flowers under the influence of environment sensitive genes.
  • 8. Field Preparation 1.land requirement: • Well drained fertile soil should be selected. • The crop cannot tolerate alkalinity and salinity. • It performs well with medium to deep sandy loam and heavy loam soils are highly suited for seed production. • It should be free from volunteer plants. 2. Isolation: • Castor is cross-pollinated crop. • Cross-pollination by wind varies from 5-36% according to the prevailing climatic condition.  Isolation distance • Foundation seed: 600 m • Certified seed: 300 m
  • 9. 3. Season:  Rabi/Winter - Hybrid seed production.  Summer and kharif provide ideal male promoting environment for undertaking seed production of the variety, male and female parents of hybrids.  It encourages good expression of less productive plant which could be easily eliminated through timely roguing.  Female parents when raised in male promoting environment produce environmentally sensitive staminate flowers, which are very essential for self- production of the female parents. 4. Seed rate:  2 kg/ha male and  5 kg/ha female 5. Spacing:  90 x 40 to 90 x 60 cm 6. Planting ratio:  3:1
  • 10. 7.Fertilizer application:  Basal- 40:60:40 NPK / ha  Top- 1st 20 kg N/ha (40-50 DAS) 2nd 20 kg N/ha (After 1st picking) 8. Bloom:  Presence of white waxy coating on leaves which protects it from chilling and jassid attack.  Four types of bloom: 1.Zero bloom 2.Single bloom - Bloom only on stem 3.Double bloom- On stem, petioles, and lower sides of leaves 4.Triple bloom - On all parts. 9. Irrigation:  Critical stages are primordial initiation and flowering stage in differential segmental order branches.  Moisture stress in sensitive crop growth stages may lead to production of more male flowers in monoecious varieties.
  • 11. 10. Stages of inspection: Four stages.  1st - 10 days prior to flowering -Stem colour, inter-node length.  2nd - During flowering - No. of nodes upto primary raceme.  3rd- Before 1st picking-Spike and capsule character, reversion to monoecious in second order raceme.  4th- After 1st picking -Reversion to monoecious or flower initiation in third order raceme. 11. Roughing:  Remove all offtypes from male and female parents.  Identify the monoecious plants in female rows before flower initiation as well as the deviants for node number upto primary raceme uproot and destroy them.  Continue this process everyday till all plants in female rows commence flowering.  Rogue out male parent for variants depending on node number upto primary raceme.  Reversion in female rows to monoecism in 3rd or 4th order racemes should not be uprooted but nipped off.
  • 12. 12. Harvesting:  Castor produces 4 or 5 sequential order spikes, which can be harvested in 3-4 pickings starting from 90-120 days at 25-30 days interval.  Premature harvesting leads to reduced seed weight, oil content and germination.  If shattering is not a problem then harvesting can be delayed until all capsules are fully dried.  Harvest the male rows first and remove them from the field. Then harvest the female rows picking wise.  Care should be taken to avoid mechanical mixtures during harvesting, threshing and drying. 13. Grading: The seeds are size graded using round perforated metal sieve of 8/64".
  • 13. 14. Seed storage:  Seed treatment with Thiram @ 2 g / kg  Storability in Pervious container- 1 year  Storability in Moisture vapour proof container-2 year Field standards:  Off types: -Foundation seeds - Certified seeds 0.5% 1%
  • 14. Seed standards: Parameter Standards for each class Foundation Seed Certified Seed Physical purity (min.) % 98 98 Inert matter (max.) % 2 2 Other crop seed (max.) % None None Germination (min.) % 70 70 Other distinguishable variety seeds 5/kg 10/kg Moisture content: a) Open storage b) Moisture vapour proof storage 8 5 8 5
  • 15.  Introduction:  Maize is common millet of India with wider industrial and household utility.  It is used a feed, food and raw material in soft drink industry.  Botanical name : Zea mays  Chromosome number : 2n=20  Botanical Family : Poaceae  Pollination : Cross pollination  Special character : Protandry  Inflorescence : Panicle cob, crop monoceious in nature.  Type of flowers :  Female-Cob (axillary inflorescence )  Male-Tassel (terminal inflorescence)  Flowering pattern : Top to bottom (Tassel) Bottom to top (Cob)
  • 17. Types of hybrids: 1) Single cross hybrid: 2) Double cross hybrid:
  • 18. 3) Three way cross:  It is a cross between a single cross and an inbred.  It is first generation resulting from the crossing of on approved inbred line and a certified open pollinated variety.  A will be detasseled and allowed for crossing in the variety.  Example :  Ganga -5 : (CM 202 x CM 111) x CM 500.  COH (M) 4 : (UMI 90 x UMI 285) x UMI 112 4) Double top crosses :  The first generation resulting from the controlled crossing of a certified single cross and a certified open pollinated variety.  (A x B) x variety  (A x B) will be detasseled and crossed with a variety.
  • 19. 4) Top cross Hybrid:
  • 20. seed production technology: 1) Season: November- December & Mid July 2) Isolation distance: Seed type Foundation seed Certified seed Same kernal color & texture 400 200 Different kernal colour & texture 600 300 •In hybrid seed production (certified seed stage) alone the isolation distance (less than 200 meter) can be modified by increasing the border rows of male parent, if the kernal colour and texture of the contaminant are the same as that of the seed parent. •For every addition of one border row the isolation distance can be reduced 12.5 m ,only for hybrid certified seed production.
  • 22. •The number of border rows to be planted all around the seed field to modify isolation distance less than 200 m shell also be determined by the size of the field and its distance from the contaminant as shown below. Area in ha. Isolation distance (m) Border rows < 4 ha 200 1 < 4 ha 150 5 < 4 ha 100 9 < 4 ha 50 13 10-12 ha 180 1 10-12 ha 130 5 10-12 ha 80 9 10-12 ha 30 13 > 16 ha 165 1 > 16 ha 115 5 > 16 ha 65 9 > 16 ha 15 13
  • 23. 3) Spacing: •Seeds are sown in ridges and furrows. •Hybrids : 60x 25 cm •Female : 60 x 20 to 75 x 30 depending on the area. •Male :45 x 30 cm 4) Seed rate : •Female : 7 -10 kg/ ha •Male : 3-4 kg /ha 5) Planting ratio: Single cross : 4:2 Double cross : 6:2 3 way cross : 6:2
  • 24. 6) Border rows :  Inbreds & single cross - 4 rows  Others - 3 rows 7) Fertilizer dose: NPK (kg / ha) 200 : 100 : 100  Basal 100 : 100 : 50  1st Top 50 : 0 : 0 (20th days -vegetative phase)  2nd Top 50 : 0 : 50 (Boot leaf stage at 45 days) Foliar DAP 2% at 50% flowering In Zn deficient soil ZnSO4 @ 25 kg /ha ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha
  • 25. 8) Detasseling:  Detasseling is the removal of tassel from female parent.  Detasseling is done when the tassel emerged out of the boot leaf, but before anthesis have shed pollen.  Anthers take 2-4 days to dehisce after complete emergence.  Only in few cases, the anthers start dehisce before its complete emergence. In such case detasseling should be done earlier.  Detasseling is done every day from the emergence of tassel upto 14 days.  Time for detasseling :  The time taken for shedding of pollen from the tassel in 1-2 days after emergence.  Hence the tassel should be removed before the shedding of pollen.
  • 26.  Method:  Hold the stem below the boot leaf in left hand and the base of the basal in right hand and pull it out in a single pull.  Grasp entire tassel so that all the pollen parts are fully removed.  Do not break or remove leaves as removal will reduce yields and will result in lower quality of seed.
  • 28.  Precautions to be adopted during detasseling  No part should be left on the plant as it causes contamination.  Detassel only after the entire tassel has come out and immature detasseling may lead to reduced yield and contamination.  Improper detasseling: A portion of the tassel is remaining in the plant while detasseling.  Immature detasseling: Carrying out detasseling work when the tassel is within the leaves.  Incomplete detasseling: The tassel is remaining in lower or unseen or unaccounted in within the whole of leaves.
  • 29.  It should be uniform process done daily in the morning in a particular direction.  Do not break the top leaves as the field may be reduced due to the earning of source material to accumulate in sink [seed ] as removal of 1 leaf course 1.5% loss,2 leaves 5.9% loss and 3 leaves 14% loss in yield.  Mark the male rows with marker to avoid mistake in detasseling. Look out for shedders [shedding tassel] in female rows as the may cause contamination.  After pulling out the tassel drop it there itself and bury in soil. Otherwise late emerging pollen from detasseled tassel may cause contamination.  Do not carry the tassel through the field as any fall of pollen may lead to contamination.  Do not practice, improper, immature and incomplete detasseling.  There should not be any shedding tassel.  Shedding tassel: Either full or part of tassel remain in female line after detasseling and shedding pollen which may contaminate the genetic purity of the crop.
  • 30. 9) Rouging:  Should be done periodically based on position of cob, colour of silk, arrangements of seeds in cob, leaves etc.  Shedding tassels to be removed in rouging .  It refers to the tassels in female parents rows, shedding pollen or that has shed pollen in hybrid maize plots.  During field inspection a tassel whose main spike or any side branch or both have shed pollen or shedding pollen in more than 5 cm of branch length is counted as a shedding tassel which are taken into count for acceptance or rejection of production plot.
  • 31. 10) Field inspection :  Four stages 1st –vegetative stage 2nd&3rd-flowering stage 4th-maturity stage 11) Harvesting:  Harvest when the moisture content falls to 20-25%.  Harvest male first and remove from the field and then harvest female. 12) Threshing:  Dehusking - The husks are removed manually.  Cob sorting - Remove ill filled, diseased cobs and cobs having kernel colour variation.
  • 33. 14) Drying:  Seeds are dried to 12% moisture content. 15) Grading:  Grade the seeds using 18/64" (7.28 mm) sieve. 16) Seed treatment:  Slurry treat the seeds with 8% moisture content either with captan or thiram 75% W.P. @ 70 g/100 kg with 0.5 litre of water.  Treated seeds can be stored for 1 year in cloth bag. 17) Seed yield :  2.5 - 3.6 t/ha
  • 34. Schematic representation of the scale-up of maize hybrid seed from breeder’s seed through basic seed and certified seed production for commercial production in farmer’s fields
  • 35. Field standard (%) FS CS Off types : 0.5 0.2 Shedding tassel : 0.5 1.0 Inseparable other crop : Nil (both stage) Objectionable weed : Nil (both stage) Designated diseases : Nil (both stage) A: Seeds at the base of the cob indicate early male pollen or late female silks. B: Seed at the tip of the cob indicate late male pollen or early female silks. C: Scattered few seeds indicate inadequate pollen supply.
  • 36. Seed standard inbred, varieties and hybrids Parameters Inbreds FS CS 1. Physical purity (%) (min) 98 98 98 2. Inert matter (%) (max) 2 2 2 3. Other crop seed (max) 5 /kg 5 /kg 10/ kg 4. ODV seeds (max) 5/kg 5/ kg 10/ kg 5. Germination % (min) 80 80 90 6. Moisture content (%) (max) a. Moisture pervious 12 12 12 b. Moisture vapour proof 8 8 8