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THE BUREAUCRACY 
• The meaning of bureaucracy 
• Features of bureaucracy 
• Dysfunction of bureaucracy 
• Bureaucracy and ...
The meaning of bureaucracy 
The bureaucratic institution has their origin in 
ancient time and its developed to become mos...
2. All public officials 
The bureaucracy refers to the entire public officials of a 
government. They may constitute both ...
The structural features of bureaucracy 
Bureaucracy has been central to public administration. It 
is because the characte...
3. A career path 
4. A bureaucratic structure tend to be permanent and 
remain intact regardless flow of the member in and...
Procedurally, bureaucracy is: 
1. Impersonal and dehumanizing 
It is important to eliminate emotional element from the 
pe...
Rule-bound 
Bureaucracy operates according to formal rules and 
regulation that are in written forms and can be learned. 
...
Because of these structure and procedural 
characteristic of bureaucracy is: 
1. Highly efficient. Weber regarded bureaucr...
Why need Bureaucracy? 
1. Rationalization of modern life 
-age of science, (industries and technology) require 
bureaucrat...
 
 Max Weber (1864-1920) in his book, The theory of 
social and and economic organization gave the 
name ‘bureaucracy’ t...
 1. Traditional authority: where acceptance of 
those in authority arises from custom and tradition 
 2. Charismatic aut...
Dysfunction of bureaucracy 
Weber’s contribution is central to our understanding 
of formal organization structures. Howev...
Some of the dysfunctions of bureaucracy are as 
follows: 
1. Rules originally designed to serve organizational 
efficiency...
3. Decision making tend to be programmed and this 
discourage the search for further alternatives. 
4. The effect of rigid...
Bureaucracy and public policy 
It concerned with some of the important 
characteristics of the policy making process 
with...
2. How does policy making change? 
a) Hierarchy and decision making 
b) Strong influence of professional 
c) Policy is con...
Bureaucratic accountability 
One of the defining features of democracies is the 
institutionalization of bureaucratic acco...
It is no doubt that is bureaucratic 
accountability is called the hallmark of 
public bureaucracy. Without the 
realizatio...
There are several ways of how to improve 
bureaucratic accountability: 
1) Regular comprehensive reports by 
ministerial, ...
3) Publication and circulation of quarterly 
reports on ministerial and/or departmental 
fiscal programs and project opera...
6) A "public commitment" should therefore be 
made essential in public bureaucracies. It 
contains among other things the ...
1. Misconception of the public interest 
There are several factors that could lead the civil 
servant or the bureaucrat to...
2. Corruption 
As betray of public trust for reasons of private 
interest. Many examples of bureaucratic 
corruption appea...
3. Subversion 
The bureaucrats might also betray the public trust by 
engaging in subversions. Though, the evidence is har...
Reasons why it is difficult to check the 
accountability of bureaucrats: 
To find the means of establishing accountability...
2. The advantage of full-time status. 
The bureaucrats do their job on full time basis. The people 
who would hold them ac...
4. The fragmentation of agency structures 
and function 
The structure of public agencies is often 
fragmented and often t...
Conclusion 
There are lots of challenges to have so called bureaucratic 
accountability. It seems that the formal theory o...
Means of ensuring bureaucratic accountability: 
Different scholars have suggested different 
mechanisms to ensure accounta...
3. Informal (external) mechanisms: includes public 
hearing, interest group, opinion polls, media scrutiny 
4. Informal (i...
BUREAUCRATIC REFORM 
It involves efforts and manifestation to improve 
to improve government. It may in include 
redesigni...
Major areas of bureaucratic reform 
1. The size of the public sector –which is 
often too large, reform, can be expensive ...
2. Decentralization-should be actively 
encourage with proper and adequate check from 
time to time. Decentralization has ...
3. Corruption-is systemic and endemic 
requires strong enforcement of rules and 
regulation (law) ensuring power is balanc...
4. Accountability-remain a major constrain 
to achieve development objective, bodies such as 
NGOs, civil society organiza...
5. Provision of goods and services- is 
constrains by lack of resources, staffing and 
training of front line service prov...
6. Public participation remains low it is 
necessary to promote, sustainable human 
development and poverty reduction. The...
7. Globalization- has resulted in income 
inequalities among people, need to address social 
adjustment so that the issues...
In conclusion 
- 1. Government should take serious effort to 
streamline the provision of good and services 
2. Frequency ...
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Understanding Bureaucracy in Public Administration

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Basic noted for you to understand the concept and practice of bureaucracy in government administration. what is the factors that lead to failure of bureaucracy and how to enhance the better management in public policy.

Veröffentlicht in: News & Politik
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Understanding Bureaucracy in Public Administration

  1. 1. THE BUREAUCRACY • The meaning of bureaucracy • Features of bureaucracy • Dysfunction of bureaucracy • Bureaucracy and public policy • Bureaucratic accountability • Bureaucratic reform
  2. 2. The meaning of bureaucracy The bureaucratic institution has their origin in ancient time and its developed to become most large organization both public and private. There are many meaning of bureaucracy. Generally it refers to organizing principles that are intended to achieve coordination of work in large organization. How bureaucracy has different connotations: 1. It refers to all government offices It may refer to totality of government office or bureau that constitutes the permanent government of the state. It is those public functions that continue irrespective of changes of political leaders
  3. 3. 2. All public officials The bureaucracy refers to the entire public officials of a government. They may constitute both high, low, elected and appointed bureaucrats. 3. General invective (negative sense) It may refer to inefficient organization full by red tape and cumbersome procedures in government operation. However this does not mean that government operation is always inefficient. Many government agencies have long standing reputation of being efficient.
  4. 4. The structural features of bureaucracy Bureaucracy has been central to public administration. It is because the characteristic of bureaucracy make it behave in predictable way 1. Specialized jurisdiction, office, task and division of labor and authority regarding the achievement of organization goal 2. Hierarchy of authority to coordinate the activities of the specialized office and to integrate their jurisdictional authority. In the most rational bureaucratic design, the organization is handle by single individual.
  5. 5. 3. A career path 4. A bureaucratic structure tend to be permanent and remain intact regardless flow of the member in and out of it. Society become dependent on bureaucracy's functioning to the extend that chaos result if it is destroyed 5. By implication, bureaucracy is larger organization
  6. 6. Procedurally, bureaucracy is: 1. Impersonal and dehumanizing It is important to eliminate emotional element from the performance of the individual bureaucrats and the organization as a whole 2. Formalistic It is because it does not operate on person but office. Everything about its structure and operation is written down in a formal procedure. The written document are stored in files, access to which is limited
  7. 7. Rule-bound Bureaucracy operates according to formal rules and regulation that are in written forms and can be learned. The objective of rules is to specify proper office procedures and to assure regularities in dealing with the outsider. The rules also seek to ensure impersonality and enhance hierarchical authority. 4. Highly discipline, individual bureaucrats are bound by the bureaucracy,s rules and authority structures. They may be discipline for rules infraction or insubordination.
  8. 8. Because of these structure and procedural characteristic of bureaucracy is: 1. Highly efficient. Weber regarded bureaucracy as the most efficient form of organization. It acts with continuity, precision, rationality,expertise and discipline. It uses of discretion are predictable. Bureaucracy is reliable 2. Powerful. Its power derives from rationality, expertise and continuity. Weber claimed that well developed bureaucracy is uncontrollable by outsider and that society becomes dependent for its provision of goods and services 3. Ever-expending. Bureaucratic expansion is unavoidable because it is efficient, powerful that could serve the need of the complex society
  9. 9. Why need Bureaucracy? 1. Rationalization of modern life -age of science, (industries and technology) require bureaucratic principles like specialization/ authority, discipline and performance, system of rules and regulation 2. Contemporary society Enormous size of modern nation and modern organization. In the absence of bureaucratization, large organization is impossible to maintain.
  10. 10.   Max Weber (1864-1920) in his book, The theory of social and and economic organization gave the name ‘bureaucracy’ to describe a form of organization that applicable to both public and private sectors.  In his analysis he identifies three basic types of authority, which is useful in describing the legal rational authority/ legitimate authority in organization
  11. 11.  1. Traditional authority: where acceptance of those in authority arises from custom and tradition  2. Charismatic authority: where acceptance of authority arises from qualities of the ruler. 3. Rational legal authority: where acceptance arises out of the office, position of the person in authority bounded by the rules and procedures of the organization.
  12. 12. Dysfunction of bureaucracy Weber’s contribution is central to our understanding of formal organization structures. However, It is undeniable that some of the principle of bureaucracy is the most efficient means of organizing. On the contrary, the recent scholars have identified a number of weaknesses (dysfunction) of bureaucracy. Dysfunction may refer to social system which is detracting from adaptation and adjustment (cannot play function it intended to perform).
  13. 13. Some of the dysfunctions of bureaucracy are as follows: 1. Rules originally designed to serve organizational efficiency however they have a tendency to become all-important in their own right. 2. Relationships between office holder are based on the rights and duties of each roles, so they are depersonalized and this lead to rigid behavior
  14. 14. 3. Decision making tend to be programmed and this discourage the search for further alternatives. 4. The effect of rigid behavior often is very damaging for client and customer and also for management workers. Clients have to accept standardization. 5. Standardization and routine procedures make changes and adaptation difficult when circumstances change. 6. The exercise of control based on knowledge had led to the growth of expert, whose opinion may come in conflict with those of generalists (e.g. manager and supervisor).
  15. 15. Bureaucracy and public policy It concerned with some of the important characteristics of the policy making process within the bureaucracy. It involves two aspects: 1. Identify the principle group in administrative agencies that participate in the determination of policy. a) Political appointees b) Career administrator c) Outside expert .
  16. 16. 2. How does policy making change? a) Hierarchy and decision making b) Strong influence of professional c) Policy is considerably less public than it is in legislature
  17. 17. Bureaucratic accountability One of the defining features of democracies is the institutionalization of bureaucratic accountability and transparency (Matlosa, 2000). The concept of such a system is the ability of ordinary citizens to hold government officials accountable for their actions. Accountability also refers to the answerability. It means organization must be answerable to someone or something outside itself. When a thing goes wrong, some one must be held responsible.
  18. 18. It is no doubt that is bureaucratic accountability is called the hallmark of public bureaucracy. Without the realization of such accountability, public bureaucracy loses its identity. However, a frequently heard charge/ criticism is that government often is accountable to itself rather than being accountable to the public.
  19. 19. There are several ways of how to improve bureaucratic accountability: 1) Regular comprehensive reports by ministerial, political, and administrative heads to parliament or the National Assembly on the activities of their agencies. 2) Grass roots briefing on ministerial and departmental activities in administrative districts and local government areas with the general public in attendance.
  20. 20. 3) Publication and circulation of quarterly reports on ministerial and/or departmental fiscal programs and project operations. 4) Media briefings, where political and administrative heads interact with the press on the degree of accomplishment of set budgetary objectives or programs targets.
  21. 21. 6) A "public commitment" should therefore be made essential in public bureaucracies. It contains among other things the following set of values: i. Public office is a public trust; ii. Corruption is public enemy and should be exposed wherever it is discovered; iii. The public is supreme client and working for its good is the primary duty of public bureaucracies; iv. Searching for the most efficient and economical ways of getting tasks accomplished.
  22. 22. 1. Misconception of the public interest There are several factors that could lead the civil servant or the bureaucrat to misunderstand the concept of public trust. 1. They may be influenced by their social background and interest. 2. They may develop a narrow outlook concerning the public interest. They may tend to exaggerate the importance of what they do, and down grade the importance of what others do. They may also develop a way of thinking that difficult to understand. 3. A close relationship with particular clientele group is another factor that may influence the perception of civil servant.
  23. 23. 2. Corruption As betray of public trust for reasons of private interest. Many examples of bureaucratic corruption appear in press and publicly denounce by officials. Many countries throughout the word, corruption in the form of bribery, and the use of personal contact have become institutionalized. The main reason for this rampant corruption in public bureaucracy is that the bureaucrats have something to allocates that other people wants and sometimes it is a part of the political culture.
  24. 24. 3. Subversion The bureaucrats might also betray the public trust by engaging in subversions. Though, the evidence is hard to point out, it becomes the major concern in today’s global competition.
  25. 25. Reasons why it is difficult to check the accountability of bureaucrats: To find the means of establishing accountability is often difficult even in the most developed countries like in United States because of several reasons. 1. The accumulation of special expertise and information public administrators are often expert at what they do. The outsiders are unable to match the information available to them that others have difficulty to obtain it. It other situation it may be the information that the administrator themselves decide to generate.
  26. 26. 2. The advantage of full-time status. The bureaucrats do their job on full time basis. The people who would hold them accountable usually engaged in other activities and cannot devote sufficient time to watch them. 3. The protective nature of the personal system Bureaucrats often have job security. Discipline and dismissal are possible but difficult to be applied. As a result, petty infraction like using of public resources for private purposes often go unpunished.
  27. 27. 4. The fragmentation of agency structures and function The structure of public agencies is often fragmented and often the missions are overlapping. It makes it difficult to pin point responsibility for given administrative action. 5. The larger size and scope of public bureaucracy Government spends a lot of money to run the public bureaucracy and its personnel, while at the same time handling a lot of activities and functions. It is difficult even with the help of advance computer to track everything from people, money, regulations, form and others.
  28. 28. Conclusion There are lots of challenges to have so called bureaucratic accountability. It seems that the formal theory of accountability in public administration is not working in reality
  29. 29. Means of ensuring bureaucratic accountability: Different scholars have suggested different mechanisms to ensure accountability such as- 1. Formal (external) mechanism: legislative means, parliamentary question, budgetary means), executive means (control of political executive over matters and personnel investigation., judicial means ( regular and administrative court) other bodies advisory committees and ombudsmen. 2. Formal (internal) mechanism: performance evaluation, official rules and code of conduct
  30. 30. 3. Informal (external) mechanisms: includes public hearing, interest group, opinion polls, media scrutiny 4. Informal (internal) mechanisms: such as organizational culture, norms and peer pressure.
  31. 31. BUREAUCRATIC REFORM It involves efforts and manifestation to improve to improve government. It may in include redesigning the organizational process to achieve significant improvement in critical measures of government performance cost, quality and efficiency of service delivery. In the case of Malaysia, many reforms to public bureaucracy had been made. The critical major reform was conducted in 1990s with the aim to improve internal system and process in bureaucracy. It focuses on three broad areas, financial administration (out put based-computerized accounting), service delivery system and personnel management (new remuneration system)
  32. 32. Major areas of bureaucratic reform 1. The size of the public sector –which is often too large, reform, can be expensive and time consuming. Right sizing of government bureaucracy is often desirable. It becomes a major concerned since the wide bureaucracy can drain government resources. High salaries, expenditure and operating cost, inefficiency of civil service as a result of improper distribution of staff s among various ministries and department.
  33. 33. 2. Decentralization-should be actively encourage with proper and adequate check from time to time. Decentralization has greater potential for facilitating more efficient delivery of services through greater local involvement. It is also important in promoting development, sustainable development and poverty elevation; however, it requires appropriate check and balance so that the process of decentralization is not subjected to the manipulation of center. In addition, administrative decentralization should be combined with financial decentralization. Participation of local decision-making is also essential. Ensure, monitoring, training and capacity building.
  34. 34. 3. Corruption-is systemic and endemic requires strong enforcement of rules and regulation (law) ensuring power is balanced between executive, legislative and executive body and other public bodies. Corruption is critical factor in undermining the functions of government. It resulted in high cost, lack of transparency, ineffective or wrong policies. Inadequate or weak regulation, major mistakes can lead to high economic losses. It creates a gulf between people and government.
  35. 35. 4. Accountability-remain a major constrain to achieve development objective, bodies such as NGOs, civil society organization, parliamentary committees, mass media should be empowered. It is necessary to promote good governance. Adequate checked and balance is essential, so no one exceeds authority and dominates others. Parliament also shouldn’t be weak, besides strengthening various laws and regulation
  36. 36. 5. Provision of goods and services- is constrains by lack of resources, staffing and training of front line service provider, inadequate supervision, non existence of service delivery, poor investment in infrastructure. It is the most important responsibility of government. However, it is always being hampered by lack of financial, resources, ineffective decentralization and lack of training. E.g. health sectors. Government should explore the involvement of public sectors businesses
  37. 37. 6. Public participation remains low it is necessary to promote, sustainable human development and poverty reduction. The citizen should be encouraged to participate. Even though, there are legal provision and constitutional right, it doesn’t guarantee true participation Public isolation in policy making is evident particularly in the area of fiscal and economic policy, which directly affect the life of citizen
  38. 38. 7. Globalization- has resulted in income inequalities among people, need to address social adjustment so that the issues of poverty commensurate with the increase in wealth. It is concerning government capacity to deal with the issues of globalization on how and what to be done to restructure the public sector in order to compete. (Domestic industries and trade) WTO requires competitive market environment that need effective and efficient public sectors. Most of the governments that practice unfair and informal competition must be regulated. Globalization should be able to bring human development instead of political and business interest.
  39. 39. In conclusion - 1. Government should take serious effort to streamline the provision of good and services 2. Frequency and type of reform should be monitored and carefully observed 3. Government also should ensure adequate resources in term of finance and human resource for implementation

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